By A. Ismael. Erskine College.
Mechanisms involved in the generation of hemolysis include high shear stress or turbulence across the prosthesis purchase fluticasone 500mcg free shipping, interaction with foreign surfaces such as cloth buy fluticasone without prescription, and rapid deceleration of erythrocytes following collision with adjoining structures (e order fluticasone 100mcg line. Diagnosis is made by elevated lactate dehydrogenase buy fluticasone 250 mcg visa, reticulocyte count, unconjugated bilirubin, urinary haptoglobin, and presence of schistocytes on blood smear. Echocardiographic findings consistent with mechanical hemolysis include abnormal rocking of the prosthesis or regurgitant jets of high shear stress (e. Mild hemolytic anemia can be managed with iron, folic acid supplement, and if needed, blood transfusion. Paradoxically, treatment of the anemia may reduce the degree of hemolysis by limiting the need for high flow through the defective valve. Repair of perivalvular leaks or valve replacement is indicated in patients with severe hemolysis requiring repeated transfusions or in those with congestive heart failure. Percutaneous approaches can also be considered, but are not feasible with extensive dehiscence or when there is active infection. The incidence is highest in the tricuspid position, followed by the mitral and then the aortic position. Thrombus is suspected in patients with an acute onset of symptoms, an embolic event, or inadequate anticoagulation. Echocardiographic features suggestive of thrombus include an irregular and mobile mass. Fibrinolytic therapy has an initial success rate of 82%, overall thromboembolism rate of 12%, and a 5% incidence of major bleeding episodes. For left-sided valves, there is a similarly high success rate (82%) with fibrinolytic therapy; however, the associated risks of death (10%) or systemic embolism (12. Thrombolysis should be considered for left-sided valves in patients with contraindications to surgery. Thrombolysis may be a reasonable alternative to surgery for mitral or aortic prosthetic valve thrombosis in patients with a small thrombus burden. A: Layering thrombi on the nonflow side of stented bioprosthesis; B: A ring of pannus on the flow side (subvalvular) of a stented bioprosthesis; C: Nodular cuspal calcifications of a stented bioprosthesis; D: Leaflet teat of a stented bioprosthesis; E: Thrombosed bileaflet mechanical valve; F: Subvalvular pannus ingrowth of a bileaflet mechanical valve. The risk profile of the individual patient must be balanced against the expertise and experience at each center. Detachment of the sewing ring from the annulus may occur in the early postoperative period because of poor surgical techniques, excessive annular calcification, chronic steroid use, fragility of the annular tissue (particularly following prior valve operations), or infection. Abnormal rocking of the prosthesis on echocardiography is an indication for urgent surgery. All prosthetic valves, with the exception of stentless aortic homografts, have effective orifices that are smaller than those of native valves. There is an inherent pressure gradient and relative stenosis with each prosthesis. Depending on the definition and surgical series used, this mismatch may occur between 20% and 70% of cases after aortic valve replacement. In a patient with a small annulus, a hemodynamically favorable prosthesis like a stentless bioprosthesis, aortic homograft, or a tilting disk valve is preferred. Alternatively, the aortic annulus may be enlarged surgically in order to accommodate a prosthesis of acceptable size. Aortic prostheses <21 mm in diameter are not recommended for a large or physically active patient. Valve thrombosis and pannus formation are responsible for the majority of mechanical prosthesis obstructions. Little is known about the causes of fibroblastic proliferation in pannus formation. Foreign body reactions to the prosthesis, inadequate anticoagulation, and endocarditis have been implicated as potential causes. Pannus formation begins around the annulus of the valve and is more common in aortic than at mitral valve prostheses. A subacute presentation of fatigue or dyspnea in a patient who is well anticoagulated can suggest pannus formation. Following an embolic stroke, the risk of recurrent stroke is approximately 1% per day for the first 2 weeks. Maintaining anticoagulation reduces the risk of recurrent stroke to one-third but carries an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation of 8% to 24%, particularly during the first 48 hours. In patients with larger infarcts, anticoagulation is generally withheld for 5 to 7 days. Anticoagulation is withheld for 1 to 2 weeks in the setting of hemorrhagic transformation based on recommendations from neurosurgical and neurology consultants. Reoperation with placement of a tissue valve may be needed for recurrent embolization. However, leaflet tears may produce a sudden clinical deterioration with the onset of severe regurgitation. Indications for reintervention are similar to those for native valve lesions, although repeat intervention is reasonable in asymptomatic patients with severe regurgitation given that further dysfunction could result in rapid clinical deterioration. Failure of the current generation of mechanical prostheses is rare but may precipitate sudden hemodynamic compromise. Catastrophic failure occurs when a strut holding the occluder breaks, allowing the occluder to embolize, resulting in overwhelming regurgitation. Strut failure has been reported most commonly with the Björk-Shiley valve and results from fatigue of a metal weld. In older ball-in-cage prostheses, ball variance, a structural deterioration of the occluder, can occur, giving rise to impaired occluder motion, sticking, and thromboembolism. Multicenter randomized comparison of low-dose versus standard-dose anticoagulation in patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves. Bioprosthetic versus mechanical prosthesis for aortic valve replacement in the elderly. Recommendations for the imaging assessment of prosthetic valves: a reports from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. Mechanisms of recurrent aortic regurgitation after aortic valve repair: predictive value of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Guidelines for management of left-sided prosthetic valve thrombosis: a role for thrombolytic therapy. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation for aortic stenosis in patients who cannot undergo surgery. Thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of prosthetic heart valve thrombosis in pregnancy with low-dose, slow infusion of tissue-type plasminogen activator. Fibrinolysis of mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis: a single-center study of 127 cases. Age thresholds for prophylactic replacement of Björk Shiley convexo-concave heart valves. Cineradiography for determination of normal and abnormal function in mechanical heart valves. Recommendations for evaluation of prosthetic valves with echocardiography and Doppler ultrasound: a report From the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Task Force on Prosthetic Valves, developed in conjunction with the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging Committee, Cardiac Imaging Committee of the American Heart Association, the European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, the Japanese Society of Echocardiography and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography, endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association, European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, the Japanese Society of Echocardiography, and Canadian Society of Echocardiography. There has also been an increase in the number of acute cases, prosthetic valve infections, and cases because of gram-negative, rickettsial, chlamydial, fungal, and fastidious organisms. The rate of progression depends upon the virulence of the causative organism, the age and underlying health of the patient, and the nature and extent of the underlying valvular disease. Murmurs may be absent with right-sided or mural infection or intracardiac device infections. The patient often has nonspecific symptoms of fatigue, weight loss, malaise, chills, night sweats, and/or musculoskeletal aches. Neurologic findings may include stroke due to emboli (20%), encephalopathy (10%), mycotic aneurysm leak (<5%), meningitis, or brain abscess (<5%). Additional physical findings reflecting embolic or immune complex phenomena include mucosal petechiae (20% to 40%), splinter hemorrhages (subungual dark linear streaks: 10% to 30%), Osler’s nodes (painful, tender erythematous nodules on the pads of fingers or toes: 10% to 25%), Janeway lesions (erythematous, macular, nontender lesions on the fingers, palms, or soles: <5%), clubbing (10% to 20%), arterial embolism (peripherally or centrally), splenomegaly (30% to 50%), and Roth’s spots (retinal hemorrhages: <5%). The valve most commonly affected in injection drug users is the tricuspid valve (60% to 70% of cases), followed by the mitral (30% to 40%) and the aortic valves (5% to 10%). The diagnosis must be considered in patients who have undergone recent genitourinary or obstetric procedures; these patients may not have underlying heart disease. This organism is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus; however, it differs from other coagulase- negative staphylococci in its aggressive nature and predilection for native valves.
The presence of air bronchograms confirms a non-obstructive cause discount fluticasone 100 mcg without a prescription, whereas the presence of fluid bronchograms and an occluded proximal airway suggest an obstructive etiology fluticasone 250mcg line. Cavity A gas containing space in the lung whose thickness is greater than 1 mm and usually irregular in contour purchase fluticasone paypal. Cavities may be of infective or neoplastic etiology and differentiation between the two is not always possible discount 500mcg fluticasone overnight delivery. On chest radiographs This is a term used for any ill-defined opacity in the it is possible to diagnose an abscess only if it has lung that usually does not follow a definite contour. An infiltrate is usually a mix of linear opacities and Evaluation of the Respiratory System 31 Fig. Typical case of tuberculosis showing fibro-nodular lesions and “infiltrates” (arrows) nodules and is best characterized by the fibro- nodular pattern seen in tuberculosis (Fig. It is best to use terms such as “fibro-nodular”, “fibro- calcific”, etc rather than infiltrate. Clustered nodules suggestive of miliary tuberculosis measuring 5-7 mm in diameter often representing acinar nodules suggesting acinar replacement by the and the nodule remains indeterminate. All hematogenous spread and occur with metastases or other criteria again do not help further differen- pyemic abscesses. The most important part of the Fibrosis approach in the elderly is to rule out a malignant Linear or stellate opacities that are associated with neoplasm. These are the end- lung and not external or pleural, the only criteria result of many processes, but are most commonly which assure benignity on plain radiographs are the seen in our country due to healed tuberculosis. All other criteria (margins, cavitation, etc) do architectural distortion is noted and often areas of not help differentiate benign from malignant disease traction bronchiectasis are seen. Pneumatocele is a term used for Emphysema is defined as permanently enlarged air similar looking lesions seen specifically after spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole accompanied staphylococcal pneumonias in children. It can be classified into centrilobular, panlobular and paraseptal patterns similar lesion less than 1. Plain radiographs are insensitive to the Interstitial Lung Diseases diagnosis of emphysema and may pick up only Interstitial lung diseases are those that affect the moderately advanced and advanced disease interstitium. The most important sign of axial or bronchovascular, the subpleural and the emphysema is the presence of overinflation, which acinar. Ancillary findings include increased the occupational lung diseases, hypersensitivity lucency, tubular heart, increased retrosternal space, pneumonitis, collagen vascular diseases such as widened intercostal spaces and increased supero- inferior diameter of the lung. Plain radiographs, (A) frontal and (B) lateral views show marked overinflation with flattening of the domes of the diaphragm and marked widening of the retrosternal airspace. Using the secondary questions related to prognosis and the best site for pulmonary lobule as the anatomic basis of biopsy. Lesions of these types in high-risk patients should always be assumed to be Bronchiectasis is defined as permanent dilatation malignant unless proved otherwise. Morphologically, it can be classified give an indication to the presence of malignancy into tubular, saccular and cystic, depending on the Evaluation of the Respiratory System 35 Figs 2. Plain radiograph (A) shows reticulo-nodular opacities (arrows) with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and an upper zone predominance. Etiologically, the chiectasis suggests the presence of allergic broncho- commonest cause is tuberculosis, followed by viral/ pulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchography used in the bacterial infection, though many disease processes past for the diagnosis and staging of bronchiectasis is now a dead modality. It is also diagnostic and show characteristic findings in cystic used for staging in patients who are being bronchiectasis with obvious cysts, fluid-levels and considered for surgery. Tubular bronchiec- diagnosis of the exact segmental location of the tasis is more difficult to appreciate and presents with bronchiectatic areas. It also allows evaluation of the findings such as “tram-track” sign, or bronchial/ presence or absence of concurrent constrictive bronchiolar impaction. Plain radiographs show (A) cystic bronchiectasis (arrows) and (B) tubular bronchiectasis in the form of peribronchial thickening and tram-track opacitis (arrows) Figs 2. The common causes are toxic-fume mation and fibrosis involving the respiratory inhalation and auto-immune diseases, though in bronchioles in the absence of diffuse parenchymal India, tuberculous bronchiolitis seems to be the most inflammation. Evaluation of the Respiratory System 37 Plain radiographs are often normal in the presence of even severe constrictive bronchiolitis. Tracheal Diseases The trachea is involved by many conditions that include infections, neoplasms and changes in calibre related to associated pathologies in adjacent structures. Tracheal compression and displacement comm- only occurs with adjacent neoplasms originating in the neck or mediastinum or both. Tracheal enlargement occurs in patients with emphysema and constrictive bronchiectasis. When the trachea is compressed in the coronal plane but elongated in the sagittal plane, a sabre-sheath trachea results. Plain radiographs may show opacities in the air-shadow of the trachea, especially in the lateral view. The use of reconstruction techniques, especially sagittal and coronal reconstructions and virtual endoscopy allow better appreciation of these pathologies. Foreign Bodies and Other Obstructions Foreign bodies are common in childhood, the commonest substance being a peanut. Depending on their location they may present with differing clinical signs and symptoms. In cases of complete obstruc- tion, the underlying lung or segment is usually collapsed and shows absence of air bronchograms, on chest radiographs. Often patients present with repeated paucity of vessels and air-trapping (C) episodes of parenchymal infection, especially in the 38 Textbook of Pulmonary Medicine Figs 2. More commonly, tracheo-bronchial involvement is in the form of extrinsic compression or encasement by the mediastinal component of the neoplasm. Effusion, Empyema Masses The commonest pathology involving the pleura is Tracheal neoplasms are uncommon. The least These are submucosal tumors and present just like fluid that can be picked up on a chest radiograph is foreign bodies, either with collapse or with air- 15 cc in the decubitus position. The chest radiograph (A) shows collapse of the right middle and lower lobes (arrow). If the pleura is more than 5 mm thick, usually conservative management is likely to fail and drainage or aspiration may be necessary. Plain radiograph (A) shows an ill-defined opacity (arrows) in the left lower pleural space Fibrothorax (Figs 2. Small amounts of pneumothorax may be difficult to diagnosis, since When air and fluid are both present, it is a differentiation of pleural air and pulmonary air may hydropneumothorax. Inspiratory-expiratory images are air within, it can either have come from outside, i. The hila are areas in the center of cavity ruptures into the pleura, this fistula results the thorax that connect the mediastinum to the lungs since there is now a direct communication between and consist of artery, vein, bronchus, fat and a bronchus and the pleura. A number of pathologies involve the heal by themselves, but sometimes, the communi- mediastinum and hilum. Pleural masses are less common than pulmonary Plain radiographs help in the early diagnosis of abnormalities. The commonest seen is a meso- mediastinal and hilar pathologies by showing thelioma (Fig. Recognizing hilar lesions can often be difficult and allows visualization of pleural nodules, masses, and both overdiagnosis due to prominent nodular thickening and spread. Metastases from abdominal, breast confirmation of the presence or absence of a and lung malignancies are also seen and the mediastinal/hilar pathology and then allows commonest presentation is of effusion with pleural characterization of the mass based on its location nodules. Definition This was especially useful when plain radiographs The mediastinum is defined as the space between were the sole modality available. For 42 Textbook of Pulmonary Medicine example, lesions in the anterior mediastinum hilar pathology. It also thyroid or parathyroid masses extending inferiorly facilitates guided biopsies. Hilar multi-plane capabilities is a good modality for masses are typically lymphadenopathy (Figs 2. Care must be taken to see that superimposed subcarinal region and for lesions in the apex of the medial parenchymal lesions are not mistaken for hemithorax.
However cheap fluticasone 250 mcg amex, concern about whether a discharge is coming from the sinuses arises when the discharge becomes purulent buy fluticasone overnight delivery, when there is associated pain over the sinus cheap 100 mcg fluticasone with amex, or when the discharge becomes chronic purchase fluticasone once a day. The nasopharynx is also involved by the same viral, bacterial, and fungal conditions as the rest of the nasal passages, but, in addition, diphtheria may begin here. If the adenoids become large enough, they may obstruct the nasal canals and produce a secondary bacterial rhinitis with discharge. Because the nasolacrimal ducts open into the inferior meatus, any eye condition that may cause excessive tearing may also produce rhinorrhea. The unilateral rhinorrhea of histamine headaches is partially related to this mechanism, as is trigeminal neuralgia. Approach to the Diagnosis The diagnosis of nonbloody rhinorrhea is not usually difficult in acute cases because it is frequently due to the common cold or allergic rhinitis 605 (in which case the history will be helpful). When rhinorrhea persists, a smear for eosinophils and appropriate skin testing are useful if the discharge is nonpurulent; Gram stain, culture for bacteria and fungi, and x-rays of the sinuses will be valuable if the discharge is purulent. This can now be confirmed by immunologic testing of the nasal discharge for β-2-transferrin. Idiopathic vasomotor rhinitis can be diagnosed by the response to Atrovent (topical anticholinergic agents). M—Malformation reminds one of the broad nose of cretinism, Down syndrome, gargoylism, myxedema, and acromegaly. I—Inflammation suggests carbuncles; cellulitis; syphilis; acne rosacea with rhinophyma; Wegener midline granuloma; and granulomas from tuberculosis, aspergillosis, rhinosporidiosis, mucormycosis, and other chronic infections. T—Trauma reminds one of fractures, dislocations, and contusions, although these diagnoses are usually obvious. Approach to the Diagnosis The diagnosis is not difficult except in the case of granulomas and carcinomas, when skillful biopsy and culture are necessary. In Wegener midline granuloma, a search for alveolitis and glomerulonephritis will help to determine the diagnosis. M—Malformation prompts the recall of deviated nasal septum and congenital atresia. I—Inflammation brings to mind nasal obstruction due to viral, bacterial, and allergic rhinitis and sinusitis. N—Neoplasm reminds one of nasal polyps, fibromas, osteomas, 607 teratomas, and advanced carcinomas. T—Trauma prompts the recall of hematomas of the septum, fracture, and displacement of the nasal bones. T should also suggest toxic swelling of the membranes due to rhinitis medicamentosus. Approach to the Diagnosis If there is fever, one must suspect an upper respiratory infection or acute sinusitis and rhinitis. It is extremely important to ask about chronic use of topical nasal decongestants to rule out rhinitis medicamentosa. If allergic rhinitis is suspected, a nasal smear for eosinophils and serum IgE antibodies can be done. A patient with acute nausea and vomiting and diarrhea almost always has viral or bacterial gastroenteritis although acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, and pancreatitis must be kept in mind. This symptom lends itself well to anatomic analysis, particularly by the target method illustrated on page 312. Starting from the top and working to the bottom, and at the same time cross-indexing this with etiologies (Table 46), one can review the most important causes of vomiting. In the esophagus, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, reflux esophagitis, and carcinoma are important, although they are more likely to produce dysphagia (see page 128). In the stomach, gastritis, gastric ulcers, and 608 gastric carcinoma are important causes of vomiting. A polyp, carcinoma, or ulcer at the pylorus is most likely to produce vomiting because of gastric outlet obstruction. In the large bowel, ulcerative colitis, amebiasis, and neoplasms should be considered. Mesenteric thrombosis can cause vomiting regardless of which portion of the intestine it involves. Acute viral or bacterial enteritis is associated with nausea and vomiting, but almost invariably there is diarrhea in botulism, salmonellosis, and shigellosis. In the next circle in the target one encounters cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, gastrinomas, pancreatic cysts, peritonitis, and myocardial infarction. The next circle contains the vestibular apparatus (Ménière disease), the brain (e. The target method has served us well, but a biochemical evaluation of vomiting should also be done because many foreign substances or natural body substances occurring in high or low concentrations in the blood may affect the vomiting centers or cause a paralytic ileus. Thus uremia, increased ammonia and nitrogen breakdown products in hepatic disease, and hypokalemia and hyperkalemia may cause vomiting. When intractable nausea and vomiting develops following the flu, consider Reye syndrome. Vitamin A intoxication may cause increased intracranial pressure and vomiting in children. Physiologically, the symptoms of vomiting should suggest obstruction, either functional or mechanical. Almost any drugs can cause nausea and vomiting, especially digoxin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, iron preparations, and narcotics. The association of other symptoms and signs is essential in pinpointing the diagnosis of vomiting. For example, vomiting with tinnitus 613 and vertigo suggests Ménière disease, whereas vomiting with hematemesis suggests gastritis, esophageal varices, and gastric ulcers. Vomiting with significant abdominal pain will most likely be due to appendicitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, or intestinal obstruction. Gastroscopy and esophagoscopy are often indicated in the acute case, but an exploratory laparotomy should not be delayed if the patient’s condition is deteriorating and pancreatitis has been excluded. In infants with duodenal atresia, a flat plate of the abdomen will show a “double bubble” sign. As with any mass, a neck mass may be due to the proliferation of tissues in any of the anatomic structures, a displacement or malposition of tissues or anatomic structures, or the presence of fluid, air, bleeding, or other substances foreign to the neck. Visualize the anatomy of the neck and think of the skin, thyroid, lymph nodes, trachea, esophagus, jugular veins, carotid arteries, brachial plexus, cervical spine, and muscles. Thus, taking thyroid enlargement, hypertrophy and cystic formation (endemic goiter), hyperplasia (Graves 614 disease), neoplasm (adenomas and carcinomas), thyroiditis (subacute or Hashimoto), cyst (colloid type), and hemorrhage come to mind. Lymph nodes may be enlarged by many inflammatory diseases, but when they present as an isolated mass they are usually infiltrated with Hodgkin lymphoma or a metastatic carcinoma from the thyroid, lungs, breast, or stomach. Tuberculosis, actinomycosis, and other chronic inflammatory diseases may present this way. Tracheal enlargement is rarely a problem in differential diagnosis, but bronchial cleft cysts may present as a mass. Pulsion diverticula are the main masses of esophageal origin, but carcinoma of the esophagus may involve the upper third on rare occasions. There is rarely a problem distinguishing jugular veins from a mass of other origin. Carotid or subclavian artery aneurysms are distinguished by their pulsatile nature; occasionally, an aortic aneurysm may be felt in the neck. When there is severe atherosclerotic disease of the carotids, one or both may be felt as a “lead pipe” in the neck. Any neoplasm that metastasizes to the cervical spine may spread into the neck; a plasmacytoma is likely to do this in multiple myeloma. Abnormal accumulations of fluid, air, or other substances in colloid cysts and bronchial cleft cysts have already been mentioned, but what about carbuncles, sebaceous cysts, and angioneurotic edema? Cystic hygromas present from birth contain a serous or mucoid material and may be huge. Approach to the Diagnosis The clinical picture will help to determine the diagnosis in many cases. For example, a neck mass with hemoptysis suggests carcinoma of the lung with metastasis to the lymph node. If the mass increases in size after swallowing food or liquid, an esophageal diverticulum is likely. If the mass is suspected to be an enlarged lymph node, exploration and biopsy may be appropriate. One can 616 now see that the diagnostic workup can be developed by visualizing the anatomy of the area.
Also excluded were those with “current use of or with- drawal from opiates buy fluticasone uk, benzodiazepines purchase fluticasone overnight delivery, barbiturates purchase fluticasone toronto, clonidine buy fluticasone now, or beta blockers. Patients with Alcohol Withdrawal Randomized Symptom-Triggered Fixed-Schedule Therapy Therapy Figure 50. Study Intervention: Patients in both groups were assessed for the severity of alcohol withdrawal on admission and every 8 hours thereafer. Scheduled doses were not given if the patient was somnolent or refused medication. Endpoints: Primary outcomes: Duration of time from admission to last dose of benzodiazepines required as well as the total dose of benzodiazepines administered. Secondary outcomes: Number of times benzodiazepines were administered in response to symptoms and median dose for these administra- tions; severity of alcohol withdrawal; proportion of patients leaving the hospital against medical advice; composite of development of hallucinations, seizures, or delirium tremens; and rates of rehabilitation, readmission, and compliance with follow-up. Criticisms and Limitations: e study excluded patients with current or past seizures, concurrent medical or psychiatric illnesses, and those concurrently using or withdrawing from other drugs and medications, which may limit the generalizability of the results. Patients with a history of or current seizures in particular may beneft from at least a single scheduled administration of benzo- diazepines to prevent recurrent seizures. Finally, the study had limited power to detect difer- ences in several of the secondary outcomes such as leaving the hospital against medical advice or compliance with follow-up. Symptom-triggered versus Fixed-Dose T erapy for Alcohol Withdrawal 321 Other Relevant Studies and Information: • Several other studies conducted in the emergency department,3 on medical wards,4 and in alcohol treatment units5 are consistent with the fndings of this trial. T ese results may only apply to patients who are able to report symptoms and are cared for on a unit equipped to serially assess signs and symptoms of withdrawal. On his initial exam he is breathing com- fortably on 2 liters nasal cannula with minimal wheezing. He reports his last drink as 24 hours prior to admission and he is concerned that he is starting to feel “shaky” and “anxious. Based on the results of the trial, what is the most appropriate strategy to treat his withdrawal? Suggested Answer: T is study found that symptom-triggered benzodiazepine therapy was as efective as fxed-schedule therapy and led to a shorter duration of therapy and a lower total dose of benzodiazepines. T us, it would be preferable to treat him with symptom-triggered therapy rather than fxed-dose therapy, ideally in a seting where staf are well trained in assessing alcohol withdrawal. Individualized treatment for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Symptom-triggered benzodiazepine therapy for alcohol with- drawal syndrome in the emergency department: a comparison with the standard fxed dose benzodiazepine regimen. Symptom-triggered therapy for alcohol with- drawal syndrome in medical inpatients. Symptom-triggered vs fxed-schedule doses of benzodiaz- epine for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized treatment trial. American Society of Addiction Medicine Working Group on Pharmacologic Management of Alcohol Withdrawal. See Cochrane Review of 306–307 Screening Mammography; early rheumatoid arthritis, intensive European Randomized Study of treatment, 105 Screening for Prostate Cancer; lung elderly patients, hypertension, cancer screening with low-dose 294–295 computed tomography vs. See also vena cava flters in 149–153 the prevention of pulmonary noninvasive ventilation for acute embolism, in proximal deep vein exacerbations, 243–247, 246t thrombosis Index 327 defbrillator therapy, 199–203. Searle & Company, 211 Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy General Clinical Research Center Study scale, 63 Program, 3 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Gleevec (imatinib). See also United Kingdom Surviving Sepsis Guidelines, 234, 252 Prospective Diabetes Study Servier Group, 291 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines shock, dopamine vs. For the most accurate representation of your current knowledge, you should aim to complete this test within 80 min. At the end of the book, there is a posttest to be used as a compari- son of the pretest results. For the purpose of this test, unless oth- erwise stated, please use 70 mL/kg (for adults) and 80 mL/kg (for neonates) when calculating the blood volume of a person. Which of the following replacement fuid has the highest risk of citrate toxicity during a plasma exchange procedure? Continue with plasma exchange except using cryo-depleted plasma instead of plasma D. Pretest 3 Please answer Questions 4 and 5 based on the following clinical scenario. A 69-year-old female admitted to the oncology unit for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. If the patient is medically stable, then what is the threshold for platelet transfusion? It allows each facility to develop its own labeling according to its preference B. It has a safety mechanism that no addition or deletion of information for autologous donor is allowed D. A 39-year-old female comes to the clinic for a preoperative assessment prior to her scheduled hysterectomy. Which of the following statements is true regarding correcting this patient’s anemia? Blood salvage should be set up intraoperatively to prevent intraoperative anemia C. No further management is necessary since the anemia is due to her underlying disease 12. In pediatric patients with beta thalassemia major, in order to suppress ineffective erythropoiesis, what should be the Hgb goal for transfusion? Pancytopenia End of Case Please answer Questions 16–18 based on the following clinical scenario. For a platelet count of 7,500/µL, she was transfused with 1 unit of apher- esis platelets. In order to provide the platelets that may help her to achieve a reasonable increment as soon as possible, what is the next step of management? For a platelet count of 9,700/µL, this patient is transfused with a unit of crossmatched compatible platelets. She was stable throughout the procedure without any signs or symptoms of transfusion reaction. However, about 2 h after the transfusion, she develops severe respiratory distress and was intubated. An echocardiogram was performed and did not show any left ventricular dysfunction. Which of the following antibodies has been implicated as part of the pathogenesis of the reaction described in Question 17? Anti-C5 End of Case Please answer Questions 19–21 based on the following clinical scenario. However, upon in- terviewing, she revealed that she has a history of “excessive bleeding. She also stated that her mother and sister also tend to have heavy menstruation with easy bruising. Based on her bleeding history and basic laboratory values, what is the most likely diagnosis? A ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation demonstrates aggregation with both high and low dose ristocetin. If the patient has bleeding during the operation, which of the following options is the best treatment modality? Which of the following storage temperature and length for the corresponding type of tissue used for transplant is correct? A 36-year-old male received multiple fuid and blood products during resuscitation. Which of the following conditions make him suitable for a cell and tissue donation assuming that there is no preinfusion sample for infectious testing? Which of the following choices represent correctly the type of infectious test and its associated window period and residual risk of transfusion? You are providing medical support for a blood drive at a large urban college campus. Which of the following blood donors would be acceptable for whole blood donation today?