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By A. Osko. Hannibal-LaGrange College.

Kohlberg: Moral development is influenced by Home healthcare services buy 160mg super avana visa, community services safe super avana 160mg, cultural effects on perceptions of justice in inter- support groups personal relationships buy generic super avana 160 mg line. Moral development begins in early childhood and could be affected by a traumatic illness generic 160 mg super avana with amex. A health problem of any family member can affect the Chart/Exhibit Questions remainder of the unit. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Age group—Physiologic characteristics and behaviors I—Is in oral stage (Freud); strives for immediate P—Motor abilities include skipping, throwing and gratification of needs; strong sucking need. A—In Freud’s genital stage, libido reemerges in I—Brain grows to about half the adult size mature form. N—Reflexes include sucking, swallowing, blinking, T—Is in anal stage (Freud); focus on pleasure of sneezing, and yawning sphincter control N—Temperature control responds quickly to A—Self-concept is being stabilized, with peer group environmental temperatures as greatest influence. T—Walks forward and backward, runs, kicks, climbs, I—Develops trust (Erikson) if caregiver is and rides tricycle dependable to meet needs T—Drinks from a cup and uses a spoon S—Achieves personal independence; develops con- A—Sebaceous and axillary sweat glands become active science, morality, and scale of values S—Height increases 2 to 3 inches, weight increases A—Tries out different roles, personal choices, and 3 to 6 lbs a year beliefs (identity versus role confusion) A—The feet, hands, and long bones grow rapidly; I—Meets developmental tasks (Havighurst) by muscle mass increases. A—More mature relationships with both males and P—Full set of 20 deciduous teeth; baby teeth fall females of same age out and are replaced. T—Enters Erikson’s stage of autonomy versus shame P—Body is less chubby and becomes leaner and and doubt more coordinated. P—Is in Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt A—Primary and secondary development occurs A—Inner turmoil/examination of propriety of with maturation of genitals. T—Developmental tasks of learning to control elim- I—Motor abilities develop, allowing feeding self, ination; begins to learn sex differences, concepts, crawling, and walking. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Preschooler: A preschooler may have fear of pain S—Is in Erikson’s industry versus inferiority stage and body mutilation as well as separation anxi- 3. Preembryonic stage: Lasts about 3 weeks; zygote ety that must be recognized by the nurse. The implants in the uterine wall and has three distinct child needs much reassurance and parental sup- cell layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Embryonic stage: fourth through eighth week; possible; allowing the child to practice on a doll rapid growth and differentiation of the germ cell may be helpful. School-aged child: Body image, self-concept, and and human features are recognizable. Fetal stage: 9 weeks to birth; continued growth has well-developed language skills and ability to and development of all body organs and systems store information in long-term memory. Personal and social interaction in the stage called identity versus role confusion. Infant sleeps, eats, and eliminates easily; smiles group acting as the influential body. The nurse spontaneously; cries in response to significant should be aware of the adolescent’s need to needs. Infant has volatile and labile responses, often is prevention of illness and promotion of wellness restless sleeper, is highly sensitive to noises and through teaching family members. The nurse should edu- motion, helping caregivers find the means of cate the parents about colic and teach them helping toddlers through encouraging independ- measures to help relieve the symptoms. Failure to thrive is a condition thought to be for parents of active toddlers should be taught. Preschooler: Promoting wellness continues for infant and the primary caregiver that results in the preschooler, with emphasis on teaching acci- severely inadequate physiologic development. Sudden infant death syndrome is the sudden, aged children are traffic, bicycle, and water safety. Parents should be aware that Nurses should work with parents and teachers to the highest incidence occurs in families who are recognize mental health disorders and to encour- poor or live in crowded housing in cold months age physical fitness and positive self-identity. Adolescent and young adult: Nurses should edu- health, smoking, and nutrition are being investi- cate adolescents and family members about sub- gated; infants should sleep on their side or back. Nurses and parents should be aware of physical, or sexual abuse of a child by a parent or the adolescent’s need to belong to a peer group, other caregiver. Prepubescence: Secondary sex characteristics vide interventions for high-risk families. Pubescence: Secondary sex characteristics permanence, following simple commands, and continue to develop, and ova and sperm begin anticipating events. Postpubescence: Reproductive functioning and nurse should be aware that the toddler may secondary sex characteristics reach adult maturity. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Leming states that she values Physiologic development: The early years are her health and the health of her fetus enough to marked by maximum physical development and stop smoking and drinking alcohol. What intellectual, technical, interpersonal, and/or social relationships, increased responsibility, and ethical/legal competencies are most likely to bring awareness of one’s own mortality about the desired outcome? Cognitive, moral, and spiritual development: Intellectual: knowledge of the developmental needs Intellectual abilities change from those of the of fetuses and the effects of maternal behaviors, young adult. There is increased motivation to such as smoking and alcohol consumption on the learn. Problem-solving abilities remain, although fetus response time may be slightly longer. Older adulthood: assistance necessary to assess and meet the needs Physiologic development: The process of aging of a pregnant woman and her fetus becomes more rapid. All organ systems undergo Interpersonal: ability to demonstrate nonjudgmen- some degree of decline, and the body becomes tal attitude when interacting in potentially less efficient. Cross-linkage theory: As one ages, cross-links Multiple Response Questions accumulate, leading to essential molecules in the 1. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Disengagement theory: Maintains that an older Interpersonal: ability to establish trusting adult withdraws from societal interactions professional relationships with adult patients of dif- because it is mutually desired and satisfying for ferent ages, respecting their developmental needs both the individual and society Ethical/Legal: ability to practice in an ethically and f. Activity theory: Successful aging involves the legally defensible manner, maintaining the rights of ability to maintain high levels of activity and the aging adult functioning. Touch: The nurse gently squeezes a patient’s in social and physical activities and drinking less. What intellectual, technical, interpersonal, and/or this touch may express fear, gratitude, ethical/legal competencies are most likely to bring acceptance, and so on. The Intellectual: knowledge of the theories of aging as patient may be expressing defenselessness or they relate to the changes faced by the aging adult avoidance of communication. Facial expressions: A patient grimaces when niques to address the changes associated with the looking at his surgical incision. The patient aging adult Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Posture: A patient stands erect with good body to determine whether patient objectives or alignment. The motes the continuity of care given by nurses patient may be accommodating an illness. The patient is most for an interaction guides the nurse toward likely happy with the results. Providing a comfortable environment: A com- may be experiencing a life-threatening fortable environment in which the patient and condition. Relationships are enhanced when been bedridden for a week asks to take a shower the atmosphere is relaxed and unhurried. Maintaining confidentiality: The patient should riencing difficulty with this relationship. Silence: A patient who has undergone a mastec- access to clinical or personal information. The patient may be overwhelmed with the nurse–patient relationship should focus on emotion and unable to express her feelings. Using nursing observations: Observation is Therefore, the nurse must explain the especially valuable in validating information procedure in simple terms so that the child will and helping the nurse become aware of the cooperate without being frightened.

He was one of the founding fathers of the American Society of Forensic Odontology and has held every ofce in that organization in the earlier years of the society 160mg super avana with mastercard. He has held every ofce in that organization and has served on various study groups and committees discount super avana 160 mg amex. He is a registered emeritus diplomate of the American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathol- ogy and an active diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Odontology purchase 160 mg super avana free shipping. Frost Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Chief Medical Examiner Pathology Bexar County Medical Examiner’s Ofce College of Dentistry San Antonio order super avana line, Texas University of Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee Harrell Gill-King Center for Human Identifcation Robert E. Golden New Orleans Forensic Center Deputy Coroner Orleans Parish Coroner Chief Forensic Odontologist New Orleans, Louisiana County of San Bernardino San Bernardino, California Paula C. Harris University of Texas Health Science Center at Professor San Antonio Department of Orthodontics and San Antonio, Texas Department of Pediatric Dentistry College of Dentistry Bryan Chrz University of Tennessee Consultant to the Ofce of the Chief Memphis, Tennessee Medical Examiner State of Oklahoma John D. David Biological Sciences Forensic Odontology Consultant Director Oral Medicine and Forensic Sciences Georgia Bureau of Investigation University of Colorado School of Division of Forensic Sciences Dental Medicine Atlanta, Georgia Aurora, Colorado xiii xiv the Contributors Harry H. Souviron County Medical Examiner Chief Forensic Odontologist Memphis, Tennessee Miami-Dade Medical Examiner Department D. Kimberley Molina Miami, Florida Deputy Chief Medical Examiner Bexar County Medical Examiner’s Ofce Paul G. Pitluck University of Texas Dental Branch Circuit Court Judge, Retired Houston, Texas 19th Judicial Circuit and State of Illinois Forensic Dental Consultant, Chief Crystal Lake, Illinois Odontologist Harris County Medical Examiner Christopher J. Plourd Houston, Texas Certifed Criminal Law Specialist Forensic Evidence Consultant David Sweet O. Schrader Professor Forensic Odontology Consultant Faculty of Dentistry Travis County Medical Examiner University of British Columbia Austin, Texas Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and Bexar County Medical Examiner’s Ofce Michael P. Tabor San Antonio, Texas Chief Forensic Odontologist and Davidson County Clinical Instructor-Fellowship in Forensic State of Tennessee Odontology Nashville, Tennessee University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Aaron J. Senn Latent Print Support Unit Director Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Center for Education and Research in Quantico, Virginia Forensics University of Texas Health Science Center at Richard A. Weems San Antonio University of Alabama School of Dentistry San Antonio, Texas Forensic Odontologist Consultant and Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences Chief Forensic Odontologist and Bexar County Medical Examiner’s Ofce Jeferson County Chief Medical Examiner San Antonio, Texas Birmingham, Alabama the Contributors xv Franklin D. Wright Forensic Odontology Consultant Hamilton County Coroner’s Ofce Cincinnati, Ohio Science, the Law, and Forensic 1 Identifcation Christopher J. However, it is also mis- understood due to Hollywood’s resolve to complete every case within the context of a one-hour, commercials included, pseudo-real-life crime drama. When the actual real-life judicial system needs science to resolve a question, the person who is called upon to bring science into the courtroom is ofen a forensic scientist. Science is an empirical method of learning, anchored to the principles of observation and discovery as to how the natural world works. Scientifc knowledge increases human understanding by developing experiments that provide the scientist with an objective answer to the question presented. Trough the scientifc method of study, a scientist systematically observes physical evidence and methodically records the data that support the scientifc process. Te law, on the other hand, starts out with at least two competing parties with markedly diferent views who use the courthouse as a battleground to resolve factual issues within the context of constitutional, statutory, and decisional law. Science meets the law only to the extent that the legal system must look to science to help resolve a legal dispute. Scientists in today’s world no longer maintain the fction that all science is equal. Te fundamental paradigm of the judicial system in America is that science is an open process, collegial in nature, unlike the legal system, which is adversarial in nature and legal strategies are developed in secret. With a scientist, the objective of the scientifc endeavor is to reach a correct result that will withstand scrutiny from fellow scientists who can review the methodology and examine the data. Science is premised upon observable phenomena, logical deductions, and inferences that are transparent and open to scrutiny. Te inherently conficting underpinnings between science and the law frequently make forensic science controversial and the courthouse an open arena in which forensic scientists are used as pawns in the resolution of legal disputes. To complicate the legal process, each of the nonscientist par- ties has an interest in the outcome, be it signifcant sums of money, personal freedom, or even life itself in cases involving the death penalty. At the center of legal cases there sits a person who wears a long black robe to whom we refer as a judge. Te judge’s job, usually with the help of a jury, is to keep the adversarial parties at bay long enough to accomplish the orderly resolution of the factual questions raised by the warring litigants using applicable law. Te logic of the legal system is further complicated for the forensic scientist because ofen conficting forensic scientifc evidence that is generated by the opposing parties is ultimately submitted to the review and decision of twelve citizens, known as a trial jury. Te most common question asked by the legal system of a forensic sci- entist is a request to provide proof of identity of an item or person, which is a component of criminalistics. Tis area of forensic science involves the asso- ciation of an evidentiary item that is typically related to a crime. A forensic identifcation has two essential steps: Te frst step is a comparison between an unknown evidentiary item and a known item and having the forensic scientist render a judgment as to whether there is a sufcient concordance to say there is a “match. Te second part to the identifcation analysis should give some meaning to the concordance (match) by provid- ing a scientifc statement that would allow the trier of fact, a judge or jury, to weigh the signifcance of the matching association and answer a simple ques- tion for the beneft of the trier of fact: What does “match” mean? A forensic investigation requires a skillful blend of science using both proven techniques and common sense. Te ultimate efectiveness of the scien- tifc investigation depends upon the ability of the forensic scientist to apply the scientifc method to reach a valid, reliable, and supportable conclusion about a question in controversy. Overall, science and the law must coexist within the framework of our judicial system, although each discipline may and ofen does have conficting and competing interests. Any expert who is interested in the practice of a forensic science specialty must have a clear understanding not only of the fundamental principles of science, and presumably his or her chosen feld, but also of the applicable legal standards relating to that area of forensic science; they must know quite a lot about that area of the law. Every forensic scientist who is called into court to give the results of his or her study must frst be qualifed as an expert witness. A witness qualifes as an expert by reason of “knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education. Before a judge can make that determination, the profered scientifc evidence must frst pass a simple test of relevancy. Relevant evidence is defned by the Federal Rules of Evidence and most state court jurisdictions as “evidence having any tendency to make the existence of any fact that is of consequence to the determination of the action more probable or less probable than it would be without the e v i d e n c e. United States7 held that, to be admissible, scientifc evidence must be “sufciently established to have gained general 4 Forensic dentistry acceptance in the particular feld in which it belongs. Courts ofen struggled with the Frye standard because the inquiry did not focus on the reliability of the particular scientifc evidence; instead, the Frye test focused upon the general reliability of the scientifc testing as a whole and its acceptance by others in the feld. Another problem was that it was dif- fcult to identify the appropriate expert community to answer the question of general acceptance. Some courts became concerned with the correctness of the Frye standard because the standard unfairly discredited new tests and accepted scientifc principles. In 1993, the Supreme Court developed a new standard for scientifc evidence in Daubert v. Tese factors included whether the technique has been or can be tested, whether the technique has been subjected to peer review or publication, the known or potential rate of error, whether the technique is generally accepted in the community, and whether the technique was created outside of the litigation process. Te Daubert test still allows courts to consider the issues addressed in the Frye standard because the “generally accepted” prong is one of many factors—instead of the sole factor in the analysis. Supreme Court made the trial judge a “gatekeeper” for the admissibility of any scientifc evidence11 (see Chapter 16). Forensic dentistry now has been an integral part of the American judicial system for well over three decades. Overall, forensic dentistry includes multiple areas of scientifc study, where the legal system and dentistry coincide. Tis specialized area of dentistry includes the gathering and interpretation of dental and related evidence within the overall feld of criminalistics. Forensic dental evidence ranges from the identifcation of persons using dental records (Chapter 9) to the identifcation and analysis of bitemarks on an object such as a food item, or a bitemark on a victim compared to a suspect, or on a suspect compared to a victim (Chapter 14), to the estimation of a person’s age based upon dental development or other characteristics (Chapter 13). Te forensic dentist is ofen an expert witness in civil disputes where dental injuries are at issue or there is a question of dental malpractice. Legal science, the law, and Forensic identifcation liability cases relating to injuries to the teeth, mouth, or jaw may involve the expertise of a forensic dentist (odontologist).

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