By E. Achmed. University of Tennessee Health Science Center.
According to Firth-Cozens (2008b) buy generic extra super avana canada, this disparity may reflect the type of care given by female doctors purchase 260mg extra super avana, in contrast to the care given by male doctors buy on line extra super avana. For example discount 260 mg extra super avana overnight delivery, female physicians may spend more time with each patient, encouraging the patient to speak more and be more active in the decision making process. The increased depth of care and collaboration would result in females completing fewer cases over the same period. Female doctors have indeed been shown to use a more patient-centered approach with their patients than male physicians, as evidenced by longer consultations and a more emotional, psychosocial focus in their discussions (Beach, 2000; Firth 46 Cozens, 2008b; Hall & Roter, 2002; Hall et al. The more patient-centered approach adopted by most female practitioners may have a significant positive impact for the professionals as well as for the patients. According to Firth-Cozens (2008b), this statistic is a direct result of the more sensitive approach taken by female physicians. Better doctor-patient relationships result from female physicians’ greater emotional and communication skills, resulting in a decreased likelihood that the doctors will be involved in disputes or complaints. In contrast to the traditional authoritarian and paternalistic relationship between doctors and patients, a more egalitarian approach to healthcare has been shown to benefit treatment outcomes. Doctors who respect patient autonomy allow patients to participate in decisions about their own health and take patients’ concerns, opinions, and preferences into consideration. They identified patient autonomy as essential to the doctor-patient relationship and indicated that they were motivated by the fundamental principle of beneficence, as well as their own personal 47 interest in avoiding legal liability. Similar results were found in Rogers’ (2002) study of physicians’ attitudes toward patient autonomy in treatment for back pain. The majority of physicians interviewed were in favor of patient autonomy regarding the use of complementary therapies (e. In the case of autoimmune disorders such as those that cause hyper- and hypothyroidism, respect for patient autonomy is particularly important (Chrisler & Parrett, 1995). Because patients can provide important insight into the experience of their own conditions, patients should be seen as experts on their conditions and respected as such. Considering that the majority of physicians wish to respect patient autonomy while avoiding legal liability (McGuire et al. As described by Chin (2002), in the deliberative model, the physician is both a teacher and a friend who assists the patient in evaluating the safety and effectiveness of potential treatment modalities. Chin (2002) posited that such a model is particularly relevant in the “Internet age,” in which patients are “flooded with information”—not all of which is reputable (p. The increased availability of medical information to the public makes patient autonomy a growing concern. Of those individuals who looked for information about a health concern from sources other than a doctor, over half later spoke with a doctor about that same health concern. This indicates that patients exercise their own autonomy and 48 hope to use the information they discover in conjunction with professional consultation. Additionally, those with chronic health concerns are more likely to seek health information from sources other than doctors. According to Fox (2007), among Internet users with disability or chronic illness such as thyroid disease, 86% have searched online for information. Among those without chronic illness, only 79% have searched for medical information online. Individuals with chronic health concerns also reported that their medical decisions are more frequently affected by information found online. Fox and Jones (2009) reported on a 2008 Pew Research Center study related to patient autonomy in seeking health information from various sources. The study found that 61% of adults use the Internet to search for health information, and over half of online health queries are made on behalf of someone other than the Internet user. Therefore, in order to establish effective doctor-patient relationships, physicians need to take patient autonomy and outside sources into consideration. In addition to consulting professionals, a majority of adults consult friends or family members, books, and other reference material for medical assistance. Significant percentages of those interviewed claimed that information found online affected health-related decisions they made for themselves or someone in their care (Fox & Jones, 2009). These results underscore the importance of online information for individuals with chronic illness, suggesting that doctors treating such patients should be particularly aware of and sensitive to patient autonomy and knowledge. As noted above, traditional doctor-patient relationships have tended to marginalize women by virtue of social perceptions of the female role. In addition to 49 being placed in a position of inferiority due to doctors’ medical expertise, female patients in the care of male physicians may conform to traditional, submissive feminine roles (Chrisler, 2001). This undermines female patients’ autonomy and makes doctor-patient collaboration unlikely. Thus, it is important for women to feel that their feminine status does not affect the quality of the care they receive. Despite theoretical and empirical evidence that a more collaborative, less doctor- centered model of healthcare promotes positive healthcare outcomes (Houle et al. Factors that contribute to the persistence of the traditional model include sexism in healthcare, the medical education system, economics, the culture of the medical profession, and women’s communication patterns. Sexism in Health Care Abundant research and theoretical literature indicates that sexism exists in the medical profession and results in a number of problems, including under-treatment and misdiagnosis of women’s medical issues. According to Secker (1999), male-dominated philosophical, theological, literary, and scientific traditions have characterized women (as opposed to men) as emotional, irrational, pathological, unintelligent, incompetent, dishonest, passive, and childlike (p. Applying these traditions in the medical profession has resulted in a diagnostic bias whereby women’s health complaints tend to be viewed as psychosomatic in origin (Hamberg et al. According to Cheney and Ashcraft (2007), in the medical profession, there is “a tendency to privilege the rational over the emotional” (p. Empirical research supports these theoretical arguments, indicating that physicians tend to interpret men’s symptoms as biological and women’s as psychosomatic (Hamberg et al. When women report pain, they are less likely than are men to be taken seriously and less likely to receive adequate treatment (Miaskowski, 1999). Additionally, research has shown that, for patients with diffuse symptoms, doctors give advice regarding lifestyle more often to women than they do to men, and that they prescribe sedatives more often to women than to men (Hamberg et al. The same study indicated that male physicians prescribe sedatives to women more often than female physicians do, indicating that traditional gender roles continue to play a part in doctor-patient relationships. Munch (2004) performed a meta-analysis of the literature on physicians’ diagnosing of women’s medical complaints. The analysis revealed that physicians tend to misdiagnose women’s complaints as psychosomatic or non-serious due to gender bias. This is particularly true in cases when the physiological cause of the condition is unknown. Munch’s analysis also revealed that doctors are less aggressive in treating 51 coronary disease in women than in men, and that hospitalized women receive fewer therapeutic and diagnostic procedures than men. In a study of patients with chest pain, Elderkin-Thompson and Waitzkin (1999) found that men were more likely than women to be admitted to the hospital. However, women who were not hospitalized were less likely to have received a stress test at follow-up. This could indicate that the nature of sexism in healthcare requires women to prove that their complaints are as valid as those of their male counterparts. The necessity for women to prove the validity of their complaints is particularly striking in light of evidence reported by Addis and Mahalik (2003) indicating that, compared to women, men are less likely to seek care for nearly all mental and physical health problems. The authors noted that traditional masculine gender socialization plays a role in discouraging men from seeking treatment. According to the social constructionist perspective, men are traditionally constructed as better able to cope physically and emotionally with health problems than women. In the past decade, significant progress has been made in the understanding of sex differences in health and illness (Verdonk, 2009). In 2004, the American Heart Association published evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of heart disease in women. Nevertheless, gender bias in the diagnosis and treatment of illness remains 52 ingrained in the medical field as a result of the biomedical focus in medical training (Celik, Lagro-Janssen, van der Weijden, & Widdershoven, 2009). The authors suggested that in order to successfully address the problem of gender bias in medicine, gender sensitive issues should become a fundamental part of medical education. Medical Education The biomedical focus in medical training contributes to the perpetuation of traditional doctor-patient relationships (Celik et al. In the Western medical profession, health-care practitioners are taught that diagnostic and treatment decisions should be based on objective evidence of disease, such as blood tests (Hoffmann & Tarzian, 2001).
A trial of immobilization with an elastic knee support order extra super avana with a mastercard, cast discount extra super avana 260 mg with mastercard, or splint may be tried for 6 to 8 weeks before considering surgery Complications of this condition include a persistence of a bump overlying the tibial tubercle order extra super avana 260mg online, reoccurrence in adulthood extra super avana 260 mg lowest price, tearing away (avulsion) of the growth plate from the tibia Page 2 Dr. Schlechter Pediatric Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine Surgical Fixation Page 3 Dr. Please remember: Flexible tissue is more tolerant of the stresses placed on it during activities. If you are too “tight” to do this, loop a belt or towel around your ankle and grasp that. Pull your heel toward your buttock until you feel a stretching sensation in the front of your thigh. Stand and prop the leg you are stretching on a chair, table, or other stable object. Your buttock should be as close to the wall as possible and the other leg should be kept flat on the floor. Schlechter Pediatric Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine Strengthening Exercises for Excessive Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome. These are some of the initial exercises you may start your rehabilitation program with until you see your physician, physical therapist, or athletic trainer again or until your symptoms are resolved. Progress slowly with each exercise, gradually increasing the number of repetitions and weight used under their guidance. If the exercises that involve bending your knees while bearing weight cause pain, stop them and consult your physician, physical therapist, or athletic trainer. Tighten the muscle in the front of your knee as much as you can, and lift your heel off the floor. If okayed by your physician, physical therapist, or athletic trainer, a 2-5 pound weight may be Quadriceps Leg Lift (fig. Tighten the muscle in front of your thigh as much as you can, pushing the back of your knee flat against the floor. Tighten the muscle in the front of your thigh (Quads) as much as you can, pushing the back of the knee flat against the floor. Schlechter Pediatric Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine Strengthening Exercises for Excessive Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome, Continued: Quadriceps Wall Slide (fig. Your feet should be shoulder-width apart and approximately 18 to 24 inches away from the wall. Slowly step down and touch the heel of your Figure 8 opposite leg on the stair below you. Slowly bend both knees, keeping equal weight on both legs, and return to a standing position. In the establishment, review and application of systems for the re- cording and notiﬁcation of occupational accidents and diseases, the competent author- ity should take account of the 1996 Code of practice on the recording and notiﬁcation of occupational accidents and diseases, and other codes of practice or guides relating to this subject that are approved in the future by the International Labour Organization. A national list of occupational diseases for the purposes of prevention, recording, notiﬁcation and, if applicable, compensation should be established by the com- petent authority, in consultation with the most representative organizations of employers and workers, by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, and by stages as necessary. This list should: a) for the purposes of prevention, recording, notiﬁcation and compensation comprise, at the least, the diseases enumerated in Schedule I of the Employment Injury Beneﬁts Convention, 1964, as amended in 1980; b) comprise, to the extent possible, other diseases contained in the list of occupational diseases as annexed to this Recommendation; and c) comprise, to the extent possible, a section entitled Suspected occupational diseases”. The list as annexed to this Recommendation should be regularly reviewed and up- dated through tripartite meetings of experts convened by the Governing Body of the Interna- tional Labour Ofﬁce. Any new list so established shall be submitted to the Governing Body for its approval, and upon approval shall replace the preceding list and shall be communi- cated to the Members of the International Labour Organization. The national list of occupational diseases should be reviewed and updated with due regard to the most up-to-date list established in accordance with Paragraph 3 above. Each Member should communicate its national list of occupational diseases to the International Labour Ofﬁce as soon as it is established or revised, with a view to facili- tating the regular review and updating of the list of occupational diseases annexed to this Recommendation. Each Member should furnish annually to the International Labour Ofﬁce comprehensive statistics on occupational accidents and diseases and, as appropriate, dangerous occurrences and commuting accidents with a view to facilitating the interna- tional exchange and comparison of these statistics. Occupational diseases caused by exposure to agents arising from work activities 1. Diseases caused by asphyxiants like carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulﬁde, hydrogen cyanide or its derivatives 1. Diseases caused by pesticides 1 In the application of this list the degree and type of exposure and the work or occupation involving a particular risk of exposure should be taken into account when appropriate. Diseases caused by other chemical agents at work not mentioned in the preceding items where a direct link is established scientiﬁcally, or determined by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, between the exposure to these chemical agents arising from work activities and the disease(s) contracted by the worker 1. Diseases caused by vibration (disorders of muscles, tendons, bones, joints, peripheral blood vessels or peripheral nerves) 1. Diseases caused by optical (ultraviolet, visible light, infrared) radiations including laser 1. Diseases caused by other physical agents at work not mentioned in the preceding items where a direct link is established scientiﬁcally, or determined by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, between the exposure to these physical agents arising from work activities and the disease(s) contracted by the worker 1. Toxic or inﬂammatory syndromes associated with bacterial or fungal contaminants 1. Diseases caused by other biological agents at work not mentioned in the preceding items where a direct link is established scientiﬁcally, or determined by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, between the exposure to these biological agents arising from work activities and the disease(s) contracted by the worker 2. Pneumoconioses caused by ﬁbrogenic mineral dust (silicosis, anthraco-silicosis, asbestosis) 2. Bronchopulmonary diseases caused by dust of cotton (byssinosis), ﬂax, hemp, sisal or sugar cane (bagassosis) 5 2. Asthma caused by recognized sensitizing agents or irritants inherent to the work process 2. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by the inhalation of organic dusts or microbially contaminated aerosols, arising from work activities 2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases caused by inhalation of coal dust, dust from stone quarries, wood dust, dust from cereals and agricultural work, dust in animal stables, dust from textiles, and paper dust, arising from work activities 2. Upper airways disorders caused by recognized sensitizing agents or irritants inherent to the work process 2. Other respiratory diseases not mentioned in the preceding items where a direct link is established scientiﬁcally, or determined by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, between the exposure to risk factors arising from work activities and the disease(s) contracted by the worker 2. Allergic contact dermatoses and contact urticaria caused by other recognized allergy- provoking agents arising from work activities not included in other items 2. Irritant contact dermatoses caused by other recognized irritant agents arising from work activities not included in other items 2. Vitiligo caused by other recognized agents arising from work activities not included in other items 2. Other skin diseases caused by physical, chemical or biological agents at work not included under other items where a direct link is established scientiﬁcally, or determined by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, between the exposure to risk factors arising from work activities and the skin disease(s) contracted by the worker 2. Radial styloid tenosynovitis due to repetitive movements, forceful exertions and extreme postures of the wrist 2. Chronic tenosynovitis of hand and wrist due to repetitive movements, forceful exertions and extreme postures of the wrist 2. Meniscus lesions following extended periods of work in a kneeling or squatting position 2. Carpal tunnel syndrome due to extended periods of repetitive forceful work, work involving vibration, extreme postures of the wrist, or a combination of the three 2. Other musculoskeletal disorders not mentioned in the preceding items where a direct link is established scientiﬁcally, or determined by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, between the exposure to risk factors arising from work activities and the musculoskeletal disorder(s) contracted by the worker 2. Other mental or behavioural disorders not mentioned in the preceding item where a direct link is established scientiﬁcally, or determined by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, between the exposure to risk factors arising from work activities and the mental and behavioural disorder(s) contracted by the worker 6 3. Tar, pitch, bitumen, mineral oil, anthracene, or the compounds, products or residues of these substances 3. Cancers caused by other agents at work not mentioned in the preceding items where a direct link is established scientiﬁcally, or determined by methods appropriate to national conditions and practice, between the exposure to these agents arising from work activities and the cancer(s) contracted by the worker 4. The new list includes a range of internationally recognized occupational diseases, from illnesses caused by chemical, physical and biological agents to respiratory and skin diseases, musculo- skeletal disorders and occupational cancer. This list also has open items in all the sections dealing with the afore-mentioned diseases. The open items allow the recognition of the occupa- tional origin of diseases not speciﬁed in the list if a link is established between exposure to risk factors arising from work activities and the disorders contracted by the worker. The criteria used by the tripartite experts for deciding what speciﬁc diseases be considered in the updated list include that: there is a causal relationship with a speciﬁc agent, exposure or work process; they occur in connection with a speciﬁc work environment and/or in speciﬁc occu- pations; they occur among the groups of workers concerned with a frequency which exceeds the average incidence within the rest of the population; and there is scientiﬁc evidence of a clearly deﬁned pattern of disease following exposure and plausibility of cause.
As previously discussed purchase cheapest extra super avana, patient-centered approaches engender trust in one’s doctor (Copeland et al quality 260 mg extra super avana. Trust discount extra super avana on line, in turn purchase online extra super avana, tends to result in patients’ willingness to share with their doctors and to consider their advice (Copeland et al. Thus, demonstrating respect to one’s patients is a vital component to establishing and maintaining effective doctor-patient relationships. Limitations of the Study Although the contributions of the participants add to the literature on the experience of thyroid disease and the doctor-patient relationship, findings should be considered with caution due to limitations of the study. Because this study was conducted via the Internet and I did not meet with the participants face-to-face, the participants’ age and gender could not be verified. The sample was self-selected from members of The Thyroid Support Group, which means that the sample may vary systematically and therefore may not be representative of most female thyroid patients. Because participants chose to participate in the study, they might have been enthusiastic about sharing their negative healthcare experiences, while patients who were satisfied with their treatment experiences had no interest in participating. In addition, the sample was mostly Caucasian, which reflects the findings of studies that indicate most Internet users tend to be Caucasian and have convenient access to a computer (e. As such, 230 the results of this study may not be generalizable to non-Caucasian individuals who do not have convenient computer access. The mean age of the participants was 55 years; and the majority of participants reported having an education beyond high school. Therefore, the results of this study may not reflect the experiences of younger thyroid patients who do not have a higher education. As such, the results of this study may not be generalizable to thyroid patients with non-Caucasian, female doctors. Furthermore, because this study focused on the experiences of female patients with thyroid disease, the findings may not reflect the experiences of male thyroid patients. Another limitation of this study is the potential for personal bias, as I have a thyroid disease diagnosis and have been a member of The Thyroid Support Group since 2004. In order to control for this limitation, I utilized reflexive journaling during data collection and analysis. More specifically, I maintained a journal about my personal feelings and opinions so they could be separated from the data. As I read and re-read participants’ experiences, I recalled having similar experiences and felt the emotions of sadness and anger. Through journaling about my feelings regarding the participants’ experiences, I realized that in some instances, I was transferring my own emotions to their statements. In other words, I ultimately made certain that the emotions of the participants discussed in this study were the emotions of the participants and not my own. A final limitation of this study is that none of the participants had electronic journals to share. I had planned to collect personal electronic journals in addition to the data gathered from the interview guide in order to triangulate the data. Nevertheless, 231 triangulation was achieved because more than one theoretical position (feminism and social constructionism) was utilized to interpret the data. In addition, I used the services (on a voluntary basis) of a colleague for data interpretation. Data Triangulation In addition to using two theoretical positions (feminism and social constructionism) to interpret the data, utilizing the services of a colleague for data interpretation (on a voluntary basis) helped to triangulate the data in order to ensure data trustworthiness and quality. During the process of data analysis, my colleague reviewed my work regarding the identification of themes and subthemes. After I recognized the theme of “Doctor-Patient Relationship” with the subthemes, “Traditional” and “Collaborative,” I created a section called “Dissatisfaction with Treatment” beneath the “Traditional” subtheme. I agreed with her analysis and carefully reviewed participants’ comments regarding instances in which they felt heard, validated, and taken seriously by their doctors. In conjunction with reflexive journaling, receiving my colleague’s feedback regarding this issue helped me to realize that I was focusing on the participants’ negative experiences and not giving credence to their positive experiences. Another issue recognized by colleague was the practice of self-advocacy behaviors among participants, specifically as the behaviors related to doctor-patient communication. I had identified the processes of health information-seeking, seeking new doctors, treatment refusal, and self-treatment as related to the participants’ autonomy and in response to doctors who did not listen to, validate, or take the participants seriously. In other words, even participants who felt heard, validated, and taken seriously by their doctors sought health information, refused treatment, and self-treated. Recommendations for Future Research A thorough review of the participants’ interviews and resulting themes revealed a number of issues in need of further research. These issues include: (a) the education levels of female patients who seek health information, (b) patients’ self-advocacy behaviors (i. Education Level of Female Patients The research reviewed for this study indicated that female patients—particularly those with a higher educational attainment—tend to conduct research about their illnesses (Ye, 2014), desire the most active involvement in the decision making process with their doctors (Flynn et al. The results of the current study reinforced these findings: of the 16 participants interviewed, 15 participants attained an education beyond high school (see Table 2 in Chapter 4), 12 conducted research about thyroid disease, 12 desired to actively participate in the decision making process, and seven self-treated. As discussed previously, the majority of patients refer to their doctors as their primary source for health information—even 233 patients who seek information from external sources (Cegala et al. Thus, it is recommended that future research examine the relationship between the education level of female patients and the doctor-patient relationship. Patient Self-Advocacy Behaviors In the current study, the process of switching doctors was considered a form of self-advocacy. Although the processes of “secret-keeping” and “self-treatment” were previously discussed in relation to trust and doctor-patient communication, I believe they are also self-advocacy behaviors. In my initial search of the literature for information about the process of switching doctors, I came across the term “doctor shopping. While research in the area of preventing abuse of pain killers is valuable, I had difficulty with finding information relevant to patients who switched doctors due to dissatisfaction with their current doctor. A search of the literature using the words “switching doctors” revealed a few studies (e. However, these studies focused on “patient loyalty” and “patient commitment” to the doctor-patient relationship—terms that place the sole responsibility for the doctor- patient relationship onto the patient. However, I only found two such studies (McGowan, Escott, Luker, Creed, & Chew-Graham, 2010; Stone, 2014). Thus, further research is needed on research regarding patients who “disengage” from their current doctor due to dissatisfaction. The finding of “secret-keeping” in the current study prompted a search of the literature for studies related to patients withholding information from their doctors. However, a gap was discovered regarding the practice of secret-keeping by patients as a form of self-advocacy in an attempt to regain control over their own health. As discussed previously, the purpose of secret-keeping by participants in the current study was “not the exercise of power but the expression of resistance to the power of [the doctor]” in which patients attempted to reclaim power and control over their own bodies (Fainzang, 2005; p. Because patients are the experts of their own medical conditions (Chrisler, 2001; Fernandes et al. As with the issues of seeking new doctors and secret-keeping, the majority of the literature on self-treatment places patients in a subservient position to the doctor. Searching the literature with the term “self-treatment” resulted in numerous studies related to “self-medication” with unauthorized drugs and alcohol (e. However, participants in the current study initiated self-treatment after a thoughtful process of “self- examination [and] self-diagnosis” (Fainzang, 2013, p. Because female patients in particular often need to prove the validity of their complaints (Hoffman & Tarzian, 2001; Munch, 2004) and patients who challenge their doctors tend to be thought of as “difficult” (Frosch et al. Further research needs to be conducted on the process of self-treating as a form of self-advocacy. Role of Gender In the beginning of the study, I anticipated that participants would describe greater satisfaction with female doctors than male doctors due to women’s shared history of social subordination to men (see Bohan, 2002; Cosgrove, 2003; Shields, 2007; Sherwin, 1999). However, the majority of participants’ responses to questions regarding the potential influence of gender on treatment experiences revealed that the doctors’ gender had little impact on their experiences. Although a number of studies indicate that patients 236 prefer doctors of the same gender (e. Studies that focused on doctors’ perceived competence and communication skills indicated that patients who perceived their doctors to be competent and easy to talk to had no specific gender preferences for their doctors (Bertakis & Azari, 2012; Bourke, 2002; Mavis et al. These finding are consistent with the results of the current study, with 13 out of 16 participants referring to the importance of their doctors’ competence and communication skills in lieu of their doctors’ gender.