Ellen Pikitch et al., The global contribution of forage fish to marine fisheries and ecosystems, Fish and Fisheries, 5 Sept. 2012. DOI: 10.1111/faf.12004
Forage fish play a crucial role in food webs and marine ecosystems. These small and medium sized pelagic fish form the staple diet of many birds, mammals and big fish.
An important study, published on September 5, 2012 in Fish & Fisheries  evaluated the value of the global fish catch forage (5.6 billion U.S. $) and compared it with the value of fisheries dependent on fish forage (11.3 billion U.S. dollars) which questions the choices made in the world’s fisheries basing on encrypted data.