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When we simply allowed ourselves to experience what was in front of us without evaluation cheap warfarin 1 mg with amex, we felt relaxed buy warfarin overnight delivery. We pulled back from self-disparagement and soon found ourselves absorbed by our writing purchase warfarin 1mg fast delivery. Chapter 8: Managing Mindfulness and Achieving Acceptance 119 Worksheet 8-1 Your Critical State of Mind Critical thoughts: 1 order 5mg warfarin with mastercard. Describe what you experience as objectively as you can, and write these experiences as they come to you in Worksheet 8-2. Reﬂect on this exercise, and write your conclusions under My Reﬂections in Worksheet 8-3. And usually the chatter predicts, judges, and evaluates in harsh or frightening ways. Think of part of your mind as a chatter machine that produces a stream of toxic verbiage, including: I’m not good enough. In the left-hand column of Worksheet 8-4, write down the comments that you hear over and over. Change your mind chatter to a statement about your friend, and write that statement in the right-hand column. For example, change “Pretty soon, people will know I’m a phony” to “Pretty soon, people will know you’re a phony, Richard. Imagine what it would feel like to express this mind chatter to your friend, and record your reﬂections in Worksheet 8-5. Chapter 8: Managing Mindfulness and Achieving Acceptance 121 Worksheet 8-4 Mind Chatter Turned on Its Head Mind Chatter Mind Chatter Said to a Friend Worksheet 8-5 My Reﬂections Consider treating yourself as well as your friend better, and stop being so mean to yourself. When your mind chatters, remind yourself that you want to be a friend to yourself. Playing with your mind chatter In Chapters 5, 6, and 7, we show you how thoughts and beliefs that run through your mind contribute to emotional distress. These thoughts are almost always distorted and built on a foundation of sand (that is, they are based on ﬂimsy evidence or outright distortions). Flip back to those chapters for a review of how you can wage war against unhelpful thoughts and beliefs. You can certainly wage war on your unhelpful thoughts, but sometimes a warrior needs a break or a change in tactics. Tell your mind how creative it’s being (yes, this involves more than a hint of sarcasm). He hates his job and hopes that getting a counseling degree will allow him to change careers. After reading about thanking his mind, he comes up with the responses shown in Worksheet 8-6. Worksheet 8-6 Joseph’s Thank You Mind Exercise Mind Chatter Playful Response I’ll never be able to ﬁnish Thanks, mind. Follow these instructions to complete the exercise in Worksheet 8-7, and then record your overall reﬂections in Worksheet 8-8. Worksheet 8-7 My Thank You Mind Exercise Mind Chatter Playful Response Chapter 8: Managing Mindfulness and Achieving Acceptance 123 Just for fun, consider trying out some other ways of playing with your mind’s chatter. Try singing the negative thoughts to the tune of “Happy Birthday to You” or “Row, Row, Row Your Boat. When you sing or say your self- downing thoughts in a humorous manner, it’s much harder to take them seriously. Worksheet 8-8 My Reﬂections Arriving at Acceptance Once or twice each winter, we take a drive up to the crest of New Mexico’s Sandia Mountains, elevation 10,000 feet. The parking lot at the crest is usually plowed, but the last time we went, we managed to get stuck in a snowbank. As the wheels began spinning uselessly, I (Charles) uttered a few choice words of frustration. Laura reminded me that we had written about this very subject (getting stuck in the snow) in our last book, Depression For Dummies. She said, “Remember, you have to accept where you’re at to get where you want to go. I gently applied the gas again until the tires started to spin, and once again, I took my foot off the accelerator. Rather, the message here is that in order to move forward, it’s important to ease up and accept where you’re at for a moment. Recognizing and accepting those feelings is important because if you absolutely can’t stand to be worried or down, then you’ll inevitably feel more upset when you experience these normal feelings. But as far as we know, the only humans who don’t feel some anxiety or sadness are, well. To accurately express the expe- rience, you need to acquire a dispassionate understanding of the essence of your emotions. Whether you’re depressed or anxious, accepting the emo- tional angst dispassionately will help you handle your bad feelings without becoming more upset. Read through the following example, and try out the exercise when you’re feeling troubled. Kelsey needs to renew her driver’s license, so she runs over to the Motor Vehicles Depart- ment on her lunch hour. Although there’s only one clerk on duty, she’s pleased to see only four people ahead of her. As the discussion at the front of the line drags on, Kelsey looks at her watch and starts to worry about getting back to work on time. She recalls the Accepting Angst Dispassionately exercise (see Worksheet 8-9) and runs through it in her mind. Now that I’m paying attention, I can see that these feelings go up and down every few minutes; they aren’t constant. I’m thinking things like, “I’m going to be late and that’s horrible,” and “That stupid man; who does he think he is anyway? The next time you notice unpleasant feelings, work through the exercise in Worksheet 8-10. If you happen to have this book in front of you at the time, write your reactions down imme- diately. If you don’t have your workbook on hand, recall as many of these questions as you can and answer them in your mind. The main goal is simply to adopt an objective perspec- tive that describes your feeling without judging it. Chapter 8: Managing Mindfulness and Achieving Acceptance 125 Worksheet 8-10 Accepting Angst Dispassionately 1. Think of yourself as a scientist interested in objective observation and description. This exercise is particularly useful when you ﬁnd yourself in frustrating, unavoidable predicaments, such as Being stuck in a trafﬁc jam. Connecting with Now People have the rather curious habit of allowing their thoughts to dwell on the past or the future. If you really think about it, most of what you get unhappy or worried about has to do with events that happened in the past or are yet to occur. When you spend too much time in the past or future, you’re bound to ruin your present. What’s odd is that most of the time she’s in the car, we’re taking her to the groomer. Nevertheless, every time we open the car door, she eagerly bounds in and enthusi- astically sticks her head out the window to enjoy the wind. When we arrive at the groomer’s shop, she gleefully jumps out of the car, hoping to go for a walk. About 20 feet from the door, however, she sees where she’s going and promptly plops down on the parking lot pavement. If Murphy were a person, she’d mark her calendar with her grooming dates and then worry and obsess about the appointment for days, if not weeks, ahead of time.
The hydroxyl oxygen displaces a halide generic warfarin 5mg fast delivery, a good leaving group purchase warfarin 1mg on-line, from the phosphorus cheap warfarin 1 mg with visa. The halide attacks the backside of the alkyl group and displaces the positively charged oxygen warfarin 2 mg amex, which is a good leaving group. Tosylate esters (alkyl tosylates) are formed from alcohols from the reaction with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride (TsCl). Although an epoxide and an ether have the same leaving group, epoxides are more reactive than ethers due to ring strain in the three membered ring. Thus, epoxides are synthetically useful reagents, and they react with a wide variety of nucleophiles. Cleavage of ethers and epoxides by haloacids Preparation of alkyl halides Ethers can be cleaved at the ether linkage only at high temperatures using haloacids, e. Protonation of the oxygen in ether creates a good leaving group, a neutral alcohol molecule. The oxygen is protonated to form a protonated ethylene oxide, which, being attacked by the halide, gives bromoethanol. For example, hydrolysis of ethylene oxide in the presence of acid-catalyst produces 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol). For example, propylene oxide reacts with alcohol in the presence of acid to give 2-methoxy-1-propanol. For example, propylene oxide is an unsymmetrical epoxide, which reacts with methyl magnesium bromide to produce 2-butanol, after the acidic work-up. Nucleophilic acyl substitution can interconvert all carboxylic acid derivatives, and the reaction mechanism varies depending on acidic or basic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the carbonyl group becomes protonated, and thus is activated towards nucleophilic acyl substitution. A simultaneous deproto- nation and loss of the leaving group reforms the carbonyl CÀÀÀÀO double bond. The equilibrium can be driven to completion by using an excess of the alcohol, or by removing the water as it forms. The carbonyl group of a carboxylic acid is not sufﬁciently electrophilic to be attacked by the alcohol. The acid catalyst protonates the carbonyl oxygen, and activates it towards nucleophilic attack. The alcohol attacks the protonated carbonyl carbon, and forms a tetrahedral intermedi- ate. Intramolecular proton transfer converts the hydroxyl to a good leaving group as H2O. This is where the alcohol part of the ester can be replaced with a new alcohol component. For example, acetic anhydride is prepared industrially by heating acetic acid to 800 C. Other anhydrides are difﬁcult to prepare directly from the corresponding carboxylic acids. Usually they are prepared from acid chloride and sodium carboxylate salt (see below). The reaction of ammonia and a carboxylic acid initially forms a carboxylate anion and an ammonium cation. However, by heating the reaction to over 100 C, the water can be driven off as steam, and amide products are formed. The reaction is carried out in base, most commonly in pyridine or triethylamine (Et3N). The nucleophilic alcohol attacks the carbonyl carbon of the acid chloride and displaces the chloride ion. The protonated ester loses a proton to the solvent (pyridine or Et3N) to give the ester. In the case of acid anhydride, two molar equivalents of ammonia or amines are required. A ketone is formed by the ﬁrst molar equivalent of Grignard reagent, and this immediately reacts with a second equivalent to produce the alcohol. The ﬁnal product contains two identical alkyl groups at the alcohol carbon that are both derived from the Grignard reagent. This is a good route for the preparation of 3 alcohols with two identical alkyl substituents. Gilman reagent (R2CuLi, organocuprate), the reaction of acid chlorides can be stopped at the ketonic stage. Thus, in the presence of other carbonyl functionalities acid chloride reacts readily with Gilman reagents. The reaction is carried out at À78 C in ether, and ketone is obtained after the hydrolytic work-up. H2O Ketone Claisen condensation When two molecules of ester undergo a condensation reaction, the reaction is called a Claisen condensation. As in the aldol condensation, one molecule of carbonyl compound is converted to an enolate anion when an a-proton is removed by a strong base, e. H Resonance stabilized enolate anion EtO:− The enolate anion attacks the carbonyl carbon of a second molecule of ester and gives a b-ketoester. For example, two molecules of ethyl acetate condense together to form the enolate of ethyl acetoacetate, which upon addition of an acid produces ethyl acetoacetate (b-ketoester). This ethoxide anion deprotonates the a-hydrogen, and produces a new enolate anion of the resulting condensed product, which is protonated in the next step upon acidiﬁcation during work-up and yields the ethyl acetoacetate. Some of the important electrophilic substitution reactions are Friedel–Crafts alkyla- tion and acylation, nitration, halogenation and sulphonation of benzene. Electrophilic substitution of benzene + Benzene reacts with an electrophile (E ) (usually in the presence of Lewis acid catalyst) to form the corresponding substituted product. The electrophile takes two electrons of the six-electron p system to form a s bond to one of the carbon atoms of the benzene ring. The arenium ion loses a proton from the carbon atom that bears the electrophile to produce the substituted benzene. For example, benzene reacts with isopropylchloride in the presence of Lewis acid to produce isopropylben- zene. AlCl3 forms a complex with 1 alkyl halide, and this complex acts as an electrophile. While this complex is not a simple carbocation, it acts as if it were, and transfers a positive alkyl group to the aromatic ring. FeCl3 or FeBr3), benzene reacts readily with halogens (bromine or chlorine) to produce halobenzenes (bromobenzene or chlorobenzene). Fluorine (Fl )2 reacts so rapidly with benzene that it requires special conditions and apparatus to carry out ﬂuorination. The bromine molecule reacts with FeBr3 by donating a pair of its electrons to it, which creates a more polar BrÀÀBr bond. A hydrolysis reaction is one in which a s bond is cleaved by the addition of the elements of water to the fragments formed in the cleavage. For example, the analgesic drug aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) is easily hydrolysed in the presence of acid, moisture and heat to form salicylic acid. For example, salicin, found in willow barks, can be hydrolysed to salicyl alcohol by enzyme. This can be a potential problem for the storage if these compounds since these compounds can be air (moisture) sensitive. Hydro- lysis of these compounds can be avoided by using dry nitrogen atmospheres and anhydrous solvents and reagents. Addition of excess water drives the equilibrium towards the acid and alcohol formation. The base-catalysed hydrolysis of esters is also known as saponiﬁcation, and this does not involve the equilibrium process observed for the Fischer esteriﬁcation. The carbonyl group of an ester is not sufﬁ- ciently electrophilic to be attacked by water.
It was thought ment and an associate of Bowlby’s order warfarin 2 mg, devised a test to mea- that attachment to the mother occurred because she sup- sure the type and degree of attachment a child feels for plied food and became the object of the infant’s attach- his mother discount warfarin 2 mg overnight delivery. The test discount warfarin 5mg without prescription, called the Ainsworth Strange Situa- ment through association with feeding and the reduction tion test buy cheap warfarin on line, involves a mother leading her child into a of other primary needs. Prior to Bowlby’s theory, behav- strange room, which the child is free to explore with the iorist psychologists theorized that the need for attach- mother present. A stranger then enters the room and the ment arose from an infant’s physical needs for food and mother leaves. If the infant becomes distressed, the warmth, both of which were provided by the mother. The mother then returns They believed that a baby’s preference for the mother and the stranger leaves. Finally, the mother overly attached if crying and clingy behavior occurred returns for good and the stranger leaves. One of the most famous research studies in Psychologists believe that attachment serves to help this area was performed by Harry Harlow. As the above studies infant monkeys in a cage with two surrogate mother show, if presented with a strange situation, an infant will dolls: one made of wire holding a bottle of milk and the either avoid or engage in exploration, chiefly dependent other made of soft cloth. Addition- view, the monkey should have developed an attachment ally, it has been shown that lack of attachment in early to the wire mother because she was the source of food. In 1971, researchers separated a group of cloth mothers, suggesting that the need for comfort and monkeys from their mothers for six days and then ana- warmth are more important, or more psychologically in- lyzed their behaviors two years later in comparison to a grained, than the need for food. The group that had been separated was observed to be far Later experiments with monkeys also revealed the more reticent in exploratory behaviors than the control effects secure attachments had on infants. Still other studies indicate that cognitive function- ment, strange foreign objects were introduced to a cage ing in children is enhanced among “securely attached” with an infant monkey. Becoming Attached: Unfolding the Mysteries of Attention deficit/ the Infant-Mother Bond and Its Impact on Later Life. It affects their perfor- Attention describes the focusing of perceptive mance in school or at work, depending on their age, and awareness on a particular stimulus or set of stimuli that it affects them socially. A state of attention may be produced initially in ings or while socializing with friends after work. Particu- many ways, including as a conscious, intentional deci- larly stressful situations, or those requiring the sufferer sion, as a normal function of social interaction, or as a to concentrate for prolonged periods of time, often will reaction to an unexpected event. They may fidget in their demonstrate the effects of their attention in the form of chairs, sharpen their pencils multiple times, flip the cor- apparent misperceptions. For example, the relative size ners of the pages back and forth, or talk to a neighbor. As situations become increasingly hyperactivity-impulsivity components, and so they may familiar or similar to situations previously experienced experience difficulties regulating both attention and ac- by an individual, the actions of that individual become tivity. Moreover, and correlates of attention, and the capacity to achieve or these difficulties interfere with age-appropriate behav- to maintain a state of attention may be limited by a num- ioral expectations across settings such as home, play- ber of mental or physical dysfunctions. In the 1950s rate stimulus elements, or the amount of stimulus materi- and 60s, children exhibiting these symptoms were either al, that can be perceived and remembered after a brief diagnosed as minimally brain damaged or labeled as be- presentation. This man is performing memory-improving exercises to overcome his attention deficit difficulties. Symptoms must be (e) appearing to be “constantly on the go,” or (f) exces- present in at least two settings, and there must be clear sive talking. Impulsivity may be related to hyperactive evidence of interference with academic, social, or occu- behavior and may be manifest as (a) impatience or blurt- pational functioning. Finally, the symptoms must not be ing out answers before the question has been finished, due to other neuropsychiatric disorders such as perva- (b) difficulty in waiting for one’s turn, and (c) frequent sive developmental disorder, schizophrenia or other interruptions or intrusions. The ficient care, (h) being distracted by background noises or most prevalent type is the Combined Type, in which in- events, or (i) being forgetful in daily activities. Hyperactivity may be seen as (a) fidgety behavior or difficulty sitting still, (b) excessive running or climbing It is important that a careful diagnosis be made be- when not appropriate, (c) not remaining seated when fore proceeding with treatment, especially with medica- asked to, (d) having difficulty enjoying quiet activities, tion. Paul Dworkin, a physician with special interests ings on younger patients are less clear. Pharmaco- studies have found prevalence ranging from four to nine logical treatment can be effective in many cases. Children clude enhancement of attention span, decrease in impul- who have a history of abuse or neglect, multiple foster sivity and irrelevant behavior, and decreased activity. If the causes of a child’s disruptive turbance, headache, and gastro-intestinal distress. Tics or inattentive behavior are not understood, the child may may also appear and should be monitored carefully. Psy- be punished, ridiculed, or rejected, leading to potential re- chotic reactions are among the more severe side effects. A child who medication may interfere with physical growth and feels that he or she is unable to perform to expectations no weight gain. These effects are thought to be ameliorated matter what type of effort is put forth may begin to feel by “medication breaks” over school vacations and week- helpless or depressed. Brain chemistry is giving instructions, making sure that they are well paced implicated by the actions of the medications that reduce with cues to remind the child of each one. Attitude and behavior Special assistance may not be limited to educational Attitude is a feeling, belief, or opinion of approval settings. Inatten- action or reaction that occurs in response to an tion, shifting activities every five minutes, difficulty event or internal stimuli (i. Under other circumstances, that same man ly offer courses in discipline and behavior management. There are also a number of popular Ideally, positive attitudes manifest well-adjusted be- books that are informative and helpful. For example, someone may re- main in an abusive and potentially deadly domestic situa- Doreen Arcus, Ph. Behavior can be influenced by a number of factors Further Reading beyond attitude, including preconceptions about self and Barkley, R. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A others, monetary factors, social influences (what peers Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Guil- and community members are saying and doing), and dord Press, 1990. Driven to Distraction: Recog- about improving the public school system in their town, nizing and Coping with Attention Deficit Disorder from but if it means a hefty increase to their property taxes, Childhood through Adulthood. New York: Simon and they may vote against any improvements due to the po- Schuster, 1994. The Hyperactive Child, Adolescent, and Adult: At- supporter, showing that their actions (i. New York: attending parent-teacher organization meetings) are Oxford University Press, 1987. Cognitive therapy attempts to change irrational Further Information ways of thinking. One research study found that antismoking cam- Advertising, political campaigns, and other persuasive paigns targeted at teenagers can have a higher success media messages are all built on the premise that behavior rate when adolescent peers are used as instructors. Paula Ford-Martin The fields of social and behavioral psychology have researched the relationship between attitude and behav- ior extensively. The more psychologists can understand Further Reading the relationship between attitude and behavior and the Byrne, Donn and Robert A. The important social problems such as racism, gender bias, psychology of attitudes. It is also a key part of public health edu- cation initiatives, particularly in the case of preventive Attitudes and attitude change medicine. Campaigns promoting positive attitudes to- An attitude is a predisposition to respond cogni- wards prenatal care, abstinence from drug use, smoking tively, emotionally, or behaviorally to a particular cessation, sunscreen use, organ donations, safe sex, can- object, person, or situation in a particular way. In effect, social Attitudes have three main components: cognitive, af- marketing is “selling” attitudes and beliefs and ideally fective, and behavioral. The cognitive as- Changing behavior to influence attitudes pects of attitude are generally measured by surveys, inter- In 1955, clinical psychologist and educator George views, and other reporting methods, while the affective Kelly introduced his psychology of personal constructs. Behavior, on the other vidual looks at the world through his or her own unique hand, may be assessed by direct observation.
The student who is interested in unraveling the secrets of the human brain to see the mind With the advent of the Second World War generic 1 mg warfarin overnight delivery, psycholo- at work buy warfarin american express, who is fascinated about how children grow up gists joined the military effort and were surprised them- and become competent adults buy discount warfarin on-line, who is dedicated to bring- selves by how much they had to offer buy 5 mg warfarin with mastercard. Human factors psy- ing people together to resolve conflict, who is committed chologists designed airplane cockpits and the lighting on to helping people with physical, emotional, or behavioral runways that we still use today. Gestalt psychologists difficulties, or who is challenged by the desire to develop taught American citizens how to identify enemy planes social policy in the public interest is welcomed in psy- should they fly overhead. We hope this encyclopedia will provide useful guide missiles toward enemy targets. Psychologists information that will help students and others understand worked for the Office of Strategic Services (which eventu- this fascinating field and its opportunities. Division of Clinical Psychology and the American Asso- She has been on the faculties of Emory University and the ciation for Applied and Preventive Psychology; she was a University of Massachusetts in Amherst as a teacher, re- Founder and on the first Board of Directors of the Ameri- searcher, administrator, clinician, and consultant. An advocate for minority con- Diplomate in Clinical Psychology, she has also been in cerns, she has published more than a hundred scholarly practice for over 35 years. Abnormal behavior is defined as behavior that is The capacity to learn, commonly known as aptitude, considered to be maladaptive or deviant by the social and the demonstration of skills and knowledge already culture in which it occurs. Though disagreement exists learned, called achievement, are among the factors used regarding which particular behaviors can be classified as to evaluate intelligence. When evaluating or comparing abnormal, psychologists have defined several criteria for subjects, two kinds of abilities are considered: verbal purposes of classification. One is that the behavior oc- ability, including reading comprehension, ability to con- curs infrequently and thus deviates from statistical verse, vocabulary, and the use of language; and problem- norms. Another is that the behavior deviates from social solving ability, which includes a person’s capacity to norms of acceptable behavior. Lastly, abnormal- Relatively straightforward tests of ability are often ity may be defined based on the subjective feelings of used by employers to determine an applicant’s skills. For misery, depression, or anxiety of an individual rather example, a person applying for a job as a word processor than any behavior he exhibits. See also Achievement tests; Scholastic Assessment Test; Stanford-Binet intelligence scales; Vocational Apti- While psychologists use similar criteria to diagnose tude Test abnormal behavior, their perspectives in understanding and treating related disorders vary greatly. For instance, Further Reading a psychologist with a psychoanalytic approach would ex- Atkinson, Rita L. And a psychologist While abortion is practiced throughout society, in all with a biological perspective would consider a chemical socioeconomic strata, poor women are three times more imbalance in the nervous system of a depressed individ- likely to have an abortion than their well-off counterparts. Many studies have White women have 63% of all abortions, but the shown that a number of these factors may come into play non-white abortion rate is more than twice the white in the life of an individual suffering from a mental disor- rate—54 per 1,000 versus 20 per 1,000. Social reasons include fear of motherhood, fear of los- Personality Disorders and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Abortion is a complex issue that raises a plethora of medical, ethical, political, legal, and psychological ques- Abortion tions, and is viewed by proponents and opponents as one of society’s fundamental problems. Invasive procedure resulting in pregnancy termina- Simmons has written (Butler and Walbert, 1992), “is re- tion and death of the fetus. More than half (53%) of the unplanned the two camps has been difficult, seemingly impossible, pregnancies happen among the 10% of women who prac- because opinions are often based on strong feelings and tice no contraception. An additional obstacle to dialogue is the fact that young: 55% are under 25, including 21% teenagers. Pro-life discourse often draws its strength from the Christian axiom about the sanctity of life, while pro- choice thinking proceeds from the belief that an individ- ual woman has the freedom to act in her best interest. Vulsellum Vagina While vulnerable to moral condemnation, and even ha- rassment, adult women have the protection of liberal legisla- Uterus tion in seeking an abortion (in Roe v. Teenagers, however, are subject to state laws; in 25 states, a minor cannot seek an abortion without parental consent. Tra- ditionally, any medical treatment of a minor requires Embryonic parental consent, and as the Planned Parenthood Fact Sheet tissue “Teenagers, Abortion, and Government Intrusion Laws” points out, a physician treating a minor without parental con- sent is committing the common law equivalent of battery. Speculum However, “in the area of abortion, there have never been Extraction tube criminal penalties for treating a minor on her own consent. In addition, Planning Attitudes and Experiences of Low-Income scientists cannot determine with absolute certainty how Women. Scientists have discovered that cognitive “Teenagers, Abortion, and Government Intrusion Laws. The method of testing for the absolute threshold is similar for different sensory systems. Thus, the tester can Acculturation briefly present a light or a sound (or any other kind of The process of adapting to or adopting the prac- stimulus) at different, low intensities until the observer is tices of a culture different from one’s own. In such a task, the person may undergo thousands of trials before Acculturation is the process of learning about and the researcher can determine the threshold. A new culture may require ad- While the absolute threshold is a useful concept, it justments in all or some of the aspects of daily living, in- does not exist in reality. That is, on one occasion, an in- cluding language, work, shopping, housing, children’s dividual might be unable to detect a certain faint light schooling, health care, recreation, and social life. If a person in front of you held up a candle and began backing up at the rate of one foot (30 cm) per second, that person would have to back up for 44 hours before the flame became invisible. Taste One drop on quinine sulfate (a bitter substance) in 250 gal (946 l) of water. Touch The force exerted by dropping the wing of a bee onto your cheek from a distance of one centimeter (0. Acculturation is different in subtle ways from as- similation: assimilation involves being absorbed into the new culture. A popular metaphor for this process was in- troduced in 1908 by the playwright Israel Zangwill with Achievement motivation his work, The Melting Pot. Acculturation, on the other hand, is the process of learning the practices and cus- See Motivation toms of a new culture. The distinctively dressed Hasidim of Brooklyn or the Mormons of Utah are not completely ac- culturated to contemporary American society, but they are assimilated. Understanding the distinction between Achievement tests acculturation and assimilation is important for public Standardized tests, administered to groups of stu- policy and for society’s ability to grow and function dents, intended to measure how well they have smoothly. Each mea- same movies, watch the same television programs, eat sures how well students can demonstrate their knowledge the same pizzas and burgers from fast food franchises, of a particular academic subject or skill. Achievement and many of the world’s families have made at least one tests on a small scale like these are administered frequent- visit to a Disney theme park. Less frequently, students are given more in- try may already be very familiar with the customs and clusive achievement tests that cover a broader spectrum of lifestyle of their new home. For instance, many states now re- quire acceptable scores on “proficiency” tests at various grade levels before advancement is allowed. Some- of achievement tests given to many elementary school stu- times referred to as multiculturalism, this approach sug- dents around the United States. That percentage of the total population, and the right to speak is, a student taking a similar test, or the same test at a dif- and work in their native language. For example, a test intended to mea- Asian, and other ethnic influences are certainly apparent. The students who score well on such a test may be Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York: those who have good vocabularies or above-average read- Oxford University Press, 1964. In order for reliable macist David Ackerman and Bertha (Greenberg) Acker- comparisons to be made, all standardized tests, including man. They came to the United States in 1912, and were achievement tests, must be given under similar conditions naturalized in 1920. He was married to Gwendolyn Hill and with similar time limitations and scoring procedures. They had two daughters, Jeanne The difficulty of maintaining consistency in these admin- and Deborah. After a short spell (1933–34) as an intern at test form the difference between aptitude—innate abili- the Montefiore Hospital in New York, he interned at the ty—and achievement—learned knowledge or skills—the Menninger Clinic and Sanitorium in Topeka, Kansas. He results of tests that purport to measure achievement joined their psychiatric staff in 1935. Also, some He assumed the post of chief psychiatrist at the children attain knowledge through their experiences, Menninger Child Guidance Clinic in 1937. During frequent topic of discussion among educators, psycholo- this period, he had numerous positions at a variety of in- gists, and the public at large. After the war, Ackerman comes from critics who contend that teachers frequently assumed the post of clinical professor of psychiatry at plan their lessons and teaching techniques to foster suc- Columbia University, and later lectured at the New York cess on such tests. This “teaching to the test” technique School of Social Work, a part of Columbia University.