Invasive and noninvasive strategies for management of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia cheap 30 mg nimodipine visa. Noninvasive versus invasive microbial investigation in ventilator- associated pneumonia: evaluation of outcome order nimodipine amex. The clinical utility of invasive diagnostic techniques in the setting of ventilator-associated pneumonia purchase nimodipine line. Lack of usefulness of blood cultures to diagnose ventilator- associated pneumonia generic 30 mg nimodipine amex. Are routine blood cultures effective in the evaluation of patients clinically diagnosed to have nosocomial pneumonia? Blood cultures have limited value in predicting severity of illness and as a diagnostic tool in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Comparison of two methods of bacteriologic sampling of the lower respiratory tract: a study in ventilated patients with nosocomial bronchopneumonia. Tracheal aspirate correlates with protected specimen brush in long-term ventilated patients who have clinical pneumonia. Utility of Gram stain in the clinical management of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. Concordance of antibiotic prophylaxis, direct Gram staining and protected brush specimen culture results for postoperative patients with suspected pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in injured patients: do you trust your Gram’s stain? Value of gram stain examination of lower respiratory tract secretions for early diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia. The diagnostic value of gram stain of bronchoalveolar lavage samples in patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in a surgical intensive care unit: epidemiology, etiology and comparison of three bronchoscopic methods for microbiological specimen sampling. Quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirates in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with treatment failure. Quantitative tracheal lavage versus bronchoscopic protected specimen brush for the diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Effect of design-related bias in studies of diagnostic tests for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: increased bacterial counts in bronchoalveolar lavage by using urea as an endogenous marker of dilution. Diagnostic accuracy of protected specimen brush and bronchoalveolar lavage in nosocomial pneumonia: impact of previous antimicrobial treatments. Bloodstream infections: a trial of the impact of different methods of reporting positive blood culture results. Resolution of ventilator-associated pneumonia: prospective evaluation of the clinical pulmonary infection score as an early clinical predictor of outcome. Resolution of infectious parameters after antimicrobial therapy in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Correlates of clinical failure in ventilator-associated pneumonia: insights from a large, randomized trial. Previous endotracheal aspirate allows guiding the initial treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Systematic surveillance cultures as a tool to predict involvement of multidrug antibiotic resistant bacteria in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Outcome in bacteremia associated with nosocomial pneumonia and the impact of pathogen prediction by tracheal surveillance cultures. Antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial bloodstream infection associated with pneumonia and the value of systematic surveillance cultures in an adult intensive care unit. Diagnostic value of quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirate in ventilator-associated pneumonia: a multicenter study. Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a prospective comparison of the telescoping plugged catheter with the endotracheal aspirate. A prospective assessment of diagnostic efficacy of blind protective bronchial brushings compared to bronchoscope-assisted lavage, bronchoscope-directed brushings, and blind endotracheal aspirates in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Role of quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates in the diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia. Comparative efficacy of bronchoalveolar lavage and telescoping plugged catheter in the diagnosis of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Diagnostic tests for pneumonia in ventilated patients: prospective evaluation of diagnostic accuracy using histology as a diagnostic gold standard. Diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia in cancer patients undergoing mechanical ventilation: a prospective comparison of the plugged telescoping catheter with the protected specimen brush. Impact of appropriateness of initial antibiotic therapy on the outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients. Risk factors for infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Experience with a clinical guideline for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia: comparison of episodes due to piperacillin-resistant versus piperacillin-susceptible organisms. The safety of targeted antibiotic therapy for ventilator- associated pneumonia: a multicenter observational study. Pneumonia in the surgical intensive care unit: factors determining successful outcome. Area under the inhibitory curve and a pneumonia scoring system for predicting outcomes of vancomycin therapy for respiratory infections by Staphylococcus aureus. High-dose vancomycin therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: efficacy and toxicity. Slow response to vancomycin or vancomycin plus rifampin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. Analysis of vancomycin entry into pulmonary lining fluid by bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill patients. Linezolid vs vancomycin: analysis of two double-blind studies of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia. Clinical cure and survival in Gram-positive ventilator- associated pneumonia: retrospective analysis of two double-blind studies comparing linezolid with vancomycin. Recent advances in the treatment of infections due to resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Tigecycline outcomes for infections due to multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms. Tigecycline usage in cancer patients with serious infections: a report on 110 cases from a single institution. Recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in ventilated patients: relapse or reinfection? Antibiotic therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia: outcome correlations in a prospective study of 200 patients. Treatment of severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial comparing intravenous ciprofloxacin with imipenem-cilastatin. Prospective randomized comparison of imipenem monotherapy with imipenem plus netilmicin for treatment of severe infections in nonneutropenic patients. Beta lactam monotherapy versus beta lactam- aminoglycoside combination therapy for sepsis in immunocompetent patients: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Treatment of nosocomial pneumonia and tracheobronchitis caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with aerosolized colistin. Comparison of ampicillin-sulbactam and imipenem-cilastatin for the treatment of acinetobacter ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pneumonia caused by oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus treated with glycopeptides. Aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients: delivery and response. Does combination antimicrobial therapy reduce mortality in Gram-negative bacteraemia?
All equipment should be visually inspected purchase nimodipine 30 mg, and bacteriological cultures should be performed to monitor the effectiveness of decontamination order nimodipine in india. Movement of workers and crews among farms should be limited during each working day discount nimodipine amex. Complete decontamination of equipment buy 30 mg nimodipine visa, showering of personnel, and provision of clean, site-clothing should be followed. Ideally, supervisors or managers should visit only one production facility, such as a farm or hatchery each day. If a production unit has birds of more than one age, movement must proceed from the youngest to the oldest flocks to limit cross-transmission of pathogens. It is necessary to transport broilers intended for sale to a remote site for selection and purchase by dealers. This approach to live bird sales allows complete depopulation of farms with realistic interflock intervals of at least 10 days. The installation of bins (silos) for bulk-delivery of feed is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of introduction of disease associated with manual handling of feed bags. These are adapted from the general biosecurity recommendations and the management guidelines issued by breeders. The intensity of disease prevention measures depends on the risks and consequences of infection. The entire farm is surrounded by secure fencing and a high level of biosecurity is imposed to prevent introduction of disease which could be spread vertically to progeny. Maintaining multi-age farms or establishing units in close proximity creates problems relating to control and eradication of chronic diseases such as mycoplasmosis and coryza. Well-ventilated convection house using indigenous materials suitable for broiler growing. Delivery vehicles should be disinfected before entry to farms to avoid introduction of pathogens. Litter beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) serve as reservoirs of Marek’s disease virus, Salmonella spp. If this is not possible, pullets should be obtained from a source known to be free of vertically transmitted infections or diseases characterized by a permanent carrier state such as coryza, salmonellosis or laryngotracheitis. Exposure to disease will lower egg production and reduce quality following transfer to laying units. In view of the high investment in facilities and flocks, it is recommended that appropriate biosecurity procedures should be implemented. Movement of personnel should be controlled, and where possible, bulk-delivered feed is recommended to obviate manual handling and delivery in bags. Plastic flats should be used, which can be decontaminated at the point of entry to the farm. Culled hens should be transferred from the production unit to a remote site for sale to live-bird dealers. Procedures include post- mortem examination of dead birds when mortality exceeds standard levels and periodic serum antibody assays to determine the immune status of flocks. Change-room and shower facilities are required and protective clothing should be provided to prevent introduction of disease onto farms by workers. Laborers invariably have contact with backyard chickens which are reservoirs of disease. Simple single-tier layer cage installed in open-sided house incorporating manual feeding and a trough drinker. These inexpensive systems are extensively used in Asia, but labor input is high and the system is associated with problems of manure disposal and houseflies. The facility should have a secure fence, and all entrances to the building should be located inside the fenced area. Hatchery design should allow for future expansion and incorporate provision for drainage, disposal of waste, washing of chick boxes and trays. To prevent movement of air from “dirty” to “clean” areas, positive pressure should be maintained in egg setter bays, cold room for eggs, and chick dispatch area. Potentially contaminated areas are the chick takeoff, processing, and washing areas. To prevent mold growth, all egg flats, trays, and metal boxes should be thoroughly dried after disinfection. Since fiber trays and cardboard boxes cannot be cleaned and disinfected, these should not be reused. Where possible, plastic egg flats and packaging material should be color-coded to the farm of origin. A log book should be kept for entry of visitors or deliveries to the hatchery, recording date and time and the previous farm or site visited. Broken eggs should be removed from setters daily, with appropriate action to prevent cross-contamination. Setter rooms should be disinfected daily under supervision and inspected to ensure compliance with standard procedures. Vaccination equipment should receive special attention according to manufacturers’ recommendations. Procedures should specify disinfectants, concentration, and the method and frequency of application. Routine tests should include incoming eggs, the egg room, setters, hatchers after disinfection, hatcher rooms, setters rooms, chick-processing rooms, vehicles, exhaust ducts, and the water supply. Correlations between the microbiological test results, hatchability, and chick livability should guide the choice of disinfectants and dilution rates. Setter bay in small hatchery showing high standards of surface finishes consistent with acceptable hygiene and decontamination. Suppliers of stock provide printed management guides incorporating nutrient specifications appropriate to the various ages and types of poultry. Nutritionists satisfy dietary requirements by blending available ingredients into diets on a least- cost basis. Generally, linear programming is used to develop formulations containing the most critical nutrients. These include; • Energy • Crude protein • Essential amino acids with specific reference to, - methionine - cystine - lysine - tryptophan - threonine • Fats and essential fatty acids (linoleic acid) • Macro Minerals - sodium - calcium - magnesium - potassium - chlorine as chloride - phosphorus as phosphate - sulphur as sulfate • Micro Elements - copper - cobalt - manganese - zinc - selenium - iron - iodine as iodized salt • Vitamins 7. Under commercial conditions multiple deficiencies often occur and signs and lesions associated with suboptimal intake of a specific nutrient may not be clearly defined. Under conditions of feed restriction or extreme competition, mature birds will lose weight and hens will show a decline in both egg size and egg numbers. The effect of restricting energy intake will be exacerbated by low environmental temperature or improper management of brooding and ventilation systems during the early growth phase. A deficiency in lysine may occur in wheat and maize-based diets and will result in depressed growth rate and feed conversion efficiency in broilers. Methionine deficiency in diets containing maize and soybean meal will result in a low growth rate. It is emphasized that suboptimal levels of essential amino acids will not result in any specific clinical sign or lesion other than a failure to attain accepted production standards. Deficiencies in energy and essential amino acids will exacerbate the effects of viral malabsorption syndrome and intestinal damage caused by coccidiosis or endoparasites. Under conditions of elevated temperature, essential fatty acid deficiency will result in 57 degeneration of the liver and possibly rupture of the capsule, with hemorrhage into the body cavity. Ingredients containing high levels of saturated fatty acids are susceptible to this process which yields toxic peroxide free radicals which damage cell membranes and overwhelm the inherent biological antioxidant systems at the cellular level. The initiation of oxidative rancidity characterized by free radical formation is stimulated by high ambient temperature, prolonged storage of diets, and the presence of metal catalysts in storage tanks. Autoxidation is prevented by supplements which chelate metallic ions and scavenge and inactivate free radicals. Most commercial antioxidant additives for feed use contain ethoxyquin, and/or butylated hydroxy toluene. These compounds are combined with a chelator such as citric acid, sodium bicarbonate as a buffer in a hydrated aluminum silicate carrier. Antioxidant products are required for ingredients containing in excess of 10% fat. Antioxidants can also be added to specific ingredients such as fishmeal or animal byproduct meal in liquid form during manufacture. The significant deficiencies encountered in commercial poultry production include; • Avitaminosis A Chicks will show poor growth and feathering and in advanced cases, ataxia (inability to stand), xerophthalmia (“dry eye”) and chronic purulent conjunctivitis (accumulation of yellow caseous material beneath the eyelids). Laying hens subjected to avitaminosis A will show a deterioration in internal egg quality and a high prevalence of blood spots.
Social stigmatization order discount nimodipine line, decreased self-esteem purchase 30mg nimodipine overnight delivery, unmet reproductive potential of sexual relationship cheap nimodipine 30mg overnight delivery, physical and mental burden of treatment order nimodipine visa, and the lack of control on treatment outcome are some of the factors that can lead to psychological stress in any couple seeking infertility treatment. The use of acupuncture for reducing anxiety and stress possibly through its sympathoinhibitory property and impact on E-endorphin levels has been reviewed (Chen and Yu 1991; Dong 1993), and the efficacy of acupuncture in treating depression has also been studied (Luo et al. As the pharmacological side 402 14 Acupuncture Treatment for Female Infertility effects of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs on infertility treatment outcome are largely unknown, acupuncture may provide an excellent alternative for stress reduction in women undergoing infertility treatment. In this chapter, we summarized the data of clinical and experimental studies, and discussed the reproduction-neuroendocrine mechanism of acupuncture treatment for woman infertility. Irrespective of its use in the treatment of diseases or in acupuncture analgesia, certain modern scientific mechanism underlies all its applications. Acup Res 20: 55 58 (in Chinese with English abstract) Harada N, Ota H, Yoshimura N, Katsuyama T, Takagi Y (1998) Localized aberrant expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase in primary and metastatic malignant tumors of human liver. Endocrinology 113: 1679 1682 Luo H, Meng F, Jia Y, Zhao X (1998) Clinical research on the therapeutic effect of the electroacupuncture treatment in patients with depression. Hum Reprod 11: 1314 1317 Stener Victorin E, Matts W, Urban W, Thomas Lundeberg (2002) Alternative treatment in reproductive medicine: Much ado about nothing. Acupuncture a method of treatment in reproductive medicine: Lack of evidence of an effect does not equal evidence of the lack of an effect. Hum Reprod 17 (8): 1942 1946 Stener Victorin E, Peter H (2006) Use of acupuncture in female infertility and a summary of recent acupuncture studies related to embryo transfer. Acupuncture in Medicine 24: 157 163 Yang D, Yu J (2001) Treatment of perimenopausal syndrome with ear acupressing in ovariectomized women. Acup Res 29: 135 39 (in Chinese with English abstract) Yoshiji S, Yamamoto T, Okada H (1986) Aromatization of androstenedione and 19 nortestosterone in human placenta, liver and adipose tissues. Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi 62:18 25 (in Japanese) Yu J (2002) Induction of ovulation with acupuncture. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 3: 6 406 15 Acupuncture Therapy for Menopausal and Perimenopausal Syndrome Zhanzhuang Tian and Hong Zhao Department of Integrative Medicine and Neruobiology Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, P. China Summary This chapter summarizes the clinical practice and mechanistic exploration of acupuncture therapy for menopausal and perimenopausal syndrome. Accumulating clinic data suggest that acupuncture is an effective and economical therapy for menopausal and perimenopausal syndrome. The mechanistic research has developed the idea that acupuncture signals initiated at the acupoints are transferred to the brain through the nervous pathway, and thus, modulate multiple neurotransmitter systems. On the other hand, acupuncture is observed to activate the endocrine secretion, hormonal, dielectric, and other pathways. There is also evidence showing that the mechanisms of acupuncture are related to the regulation of gene expression and intracellular signal transduction. At present, with many women in the developing and developed countries living at least one-third of their lives after the menopause, it is not surprising to observe the increasing media attention on the health aspects during this crucial period. During perimenopausal period, women commonly report irregular menstrual Acupuncture Therapy of Neurological Diseases: A Neurobiological View periods, hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. A group of symptoms, including nervousness, anxiety, irritability, and depression, have also been observed to be associated with menopause. When women reach the menopausal stage, the decision to seek treatment is based on the severity of short-term symptoms, risk of diseases in the later years, and personal attitudes about menopause and medication. Many women go through natural menopause with minimal discomfort during the perimenopausal years. For most of them, the disturbances diminish or disappear over time, or are reduced with lifestyle changes, such as exercise and diet modification. Some perimenopausal women find adequate symptom relief from nonprescription remedies, while others may need prescription therapies during this transition. Sometimes, prescription therapies are needed to protect against osteoporosis and other diseases. Prior to beginning any treatment or a combination of treatments, either intended to alleviate the symptoms or prevent the diseases later in life, a woman needs to be assured that the treatment regimen selected is the best for her. Hormone treatment should always employ the lowest dose for the shortest time needed. The length of the therapy may vary from woman to woman, depending on her individual health profile and risks of developing serious diseases. Owing to these risks, estrogen with or without progestogen should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration, keeping in mind the treatment goals and risk for the individual woman. Acupuncture has been used to treat menopausal symptoms for thousands of years, and has shown excellent results in easing these symptoms without any side effects. With the onset of menopause, 408 15 Acupuncture Therapy for Menopausal and Perimenopausal Syndrome the body experiences a dramatic change. The principle of acupuncture is to strengthen the individual’s body and re-establish a harmonious state of the body. Acupuncture treatment regulates the unstable hormone levels during menopause, and the energy flow is regulated in the body by needling techniques. There is no single way to ensure the best possible quality of life during the period of perimenopause and beyond. It is beneficial for a woman to invest time working with her healthcare professionals to create an individual health plan and make therapeutic adjustments that are required over time, not only owing to the fact that new therapies and guidelines are available, but also because a woman’s body continues to change in its own individual way. According to Chinese Medicine, kidney is the organ which is the root of life and longevity. Therefore, the body, in its perception, is considered to reserve the flow of a channel in the center of the body, which sends the blood and energy down to the uterus. Instead, blood and essence from the kidneys are conserved and cycled through the body to nourish the woman’s spirit and extend her longevity. Thus, in the Chinese Medicine, menopause is presumed to be a true change in the life from a mother to an enlightened and wise being. Accordingly, menopause is classified into three areas: (1) lack of yin leading to hyperactivity of Yang; (2) blood stasis as a result of Qi (chee) stagnation; and (3) an increasing accumulation of phlegm and dampness in the body. Acupuncture has been used to treat menopausal symptoms for thousands of years, and has shown excellent results in easing these symptoms without any side effects. The principle of acupuncture is to strengthen the individual’s body and re-establish a harmonious state of the body. Acupuncture treatment is considered to regulate the unstable hormone levels during menopause, and the energy flow is regulated in the body by needling techniques. The acupoints used for menopause treatment are almost the same as those used for the infertility treatment, though the length, number, and frequency 409 Acupuncture Therapy of Neurological Diseases: A Neurobiological View of treatments may vary. A single treatment may typically last from 5 to 30 min with the patient being treated once or twice a week. Some symptoms are relieved after the first treatment, while more severe or chronic ailments often require multiple treatments. The style of acupuncture that the acupuncturist follows may influence the length of the treatment, number of points used, and frequency of visits. The kidney is the foundation of the native (born) constitution that stores the reproductive essence and takes charge of reproduction. A total of 10 out of 27 acupoints on the kidney channel are observed to be related to abnormal menstruation and reproduction. The spleen provides the material basis of the acquired constitution and has the function of maintaining the blood flow within the vessels. Among the 21 acupoints on the spleen channel, 5 acupoints are associated with the menstrual disorders and reproduction. Furthermore, the liver is a reservoir of blood and also installs as well as regulates blood, and 7 of the 14 acupoints on the liver channel are related to menstrual disorders. Thoroughfare Vessel is the reservoir of blood; while Conception Vessel is in charge of the uterus, and is also the reservoir of yin meridians. Thoroughfare, Governor, and Conception Vessels are considered to have originated from the uterus and subsequently developed into three different vessels. These three vessels can influence each other and play an important role in reproduction. About one- fourth of the acupoints on the Governor and Conception Vessels are considered to be associated with menstrual disorders. Hence, acupuncture for the treatment of menstrual disorder is closely related to kidney, spleen, and liver, Thoroughfare, Governor, and Conception Vessels. Using the needle, the acupoint is perpendicularly punctured to 2 3 cun and the needle is retained for 20 30 min.