By N. Navaras. Cleveland State University.
To discuss the matter with various State Drugs Controllers in the zone in connection with enforcement of 5 the provisions of D&C Act & Rules there under from time to time order adalat online now. To monitor the statutory work of Drugs Inspector working under the zonal and sub-zonal offices adalat 30mg low cost. To co-ordinate for answering the Parliament Questions and for obtaining the data from various State Licensing Authorities under the zone discount 30 mg adalat with visa. To co-ordinate with various international regulatory agencies for inspections conducted by various international regulatory agencies as and when directed order genuine adalat line. To conduct the function of Drugs Controller General (I) as delegated by him under rule 22 (b) & 122L and other rules of the Drugs & Cosmetics Act. No objection certificates for grant of licence to manufacture drugs for the purpose of examination, test or analysis as provided under Rule 89 of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules. No objection certificates for grant of permissions for manufacture for export only of unapproved / approved new drugs and drugs banned under sanction 26-A of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act. Permit for import of small quantities of drugs for personal use under Form 12B of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules. No objection certificates for grant of permissions for import of dual use items, not for medicinal use. Matters related to confirmation and filling of posts wherein concerned zonal officer is the appointing authority. Promotion of staff, recruitment of staff, relieving of staff and maintenance of seniority of Non-Gazetted employees. Preparation and submission of all types of bills including arrears, loans and advances to Pay & Accounts Office and maintenance of its records. Preparation of Accounts reports-Monthly, Quarterly, Half Yearly and annual and maintenance of its records. Purchase of perishable and non perishable store items and maintenance of its records. Preparation of monthly, half yearly and annual return concerning to income tax through a qualified Chartered Accountant. All other administrative returns after receiving the queries from Directorate / Ministry from time to time. The targeted time lines and subsequent actions for disposal of the applications received in the office of zonal/sub-zonal offices is as follows: - Nature of Targeted time First response & application lines Action to be taken Grant or Targeted time line In case some renewal of should be 21 deficiencies are Blood Bank working days from observed in the license. Grant or Targeted time line In case some renewal of should be 30 deficiencies in the Vaccine working days from documents is manufacturing the date of observed, notice of licenses submission of the compliance should be application for forwarded to the scrutiny of the applicants within this documents. Grant or Targeted time line In case some renewal of should be 21 deficiencies in the Medical working days from documents is Devices the date of observed, notice of Manufacturing submission of the compliance should be licenses application for forwarded to the scrutiny of the applicants within this documents. Approval of Targeted time line In case some Institution for should be 21 deficiencies in the carrying out working days from documents is Test on the date of observed, notice of Drugs, submission of the compliance should be Cosmetics application for forwarded to the and Raw scrutiny of the applicants within this materials as documents. Grant or Targeted time line In case some renewal of should be 30 deficiencies in the Bio-Tech/Bio- working days from documents is similar the date of observed, notice of products submission of the compliance should be manufacturing application for forwarded to the licenses scrutiny of the applicants within this documents. If after scrutiny, the documents are found in order, the zonal officer should instruct the concerned technical staff to propose for a joint inspection to the State Licensing Authority. After the inspection date is proposed and the inspection was allotted to a particular inspector, the concerned file along with all the documents including observations checklist should be handed over to the concerned Drugs Inspector for joint inspection. The concerned file along with the copy of joint inspection report should be 14 submitted by the Drugs Inspector to the zonal / sub-zonal officer as the earliest. The zonal / sub-zonal officer should go through the report and record his observations on the report in writing and further necessary action as deemed fit shall be initiated by him. Therefore, all zonal & sub-zonal office should frame a plan to draw samples of Drugs & Cosmetics under the Act at regular interval from various distribution points. Each Drugs inspector shall collect at least 5 samples per month under the Drug and Cosmetics Act for testing. The sample shall be preferably collected from Government dispensaries, hospitals, rural outlets and from manufacturing premises during inspection. It is pertinent to mention here that the Drugs Inspector shall collect the samples as per the provisions of Drugs & Cosmetics Act only and survey samples may be collected when it is warranted for a specific purpose as directed. In case the samples collected under survey is declared as Not of Standard Quality, no further action can be initiated without drawing the samples under section 23 of the said 15 Act. Since, the Drugs Inspectors always collect the samples after disclosing his / her identity, hence the drugs samples should be collected only as specified under the Act. Survey samples should be drawn through Drugs Samplers who purchase the samples concealing his identity, which can further be sampled by an inspector under the Act, if requirements. As a policy matter each drugs sampler may be given a target of purchasing at least 20 samples per month from the fast moving and generic products. Zonal & sub-zonal office receive complaints from some agencies and stake holders regarding movement of spurious/sub-standard drugs. If a spurious or sub-standard is detected by zonal or sub- zonal office, utmost care should be taken to connect the manufacturer through all distribution channel from the source of collection of the impugned drug. The moment manufacturer involvement is established, the documented evidence collected in this regard should immediately be sent to the 16 concerned zonal officer under whose jurisdiction the manufacturing unit is located for further investigation through the Drugs Inspector of the said zone. It is advisable not to send the Drugs Inspector directly to the manufacturing unit or to the concerned State Licensing Authority for investigation without connecting the manufacturer with proper documented evidence. Procedures to be adapted by the zonal officers to discharge the following functions that has been delegated recently by the Drugs Controller General of India under Rule 22 of the Drugs & Cosmetic Rules 1. Objection certificate for the grant of licence to manufacture drugs for the purpose of examination, test or analysis and provided under Rule 89 of the Drugs & Cosmetic Rules. Objection certificate for the grant of permission for manufacture for export only of unapproved/ approved new drugs and drugs banned under section 26-A of the Drugs & Cosmetic Act. Issue of Permit for import of small quantities of drugs for personal use under Form-12B of the Drugs & Cosmetic Rules. Objection certificate for the grant of permission for import of dual use items, not for medicinal use. Other activities (workshop, seminar, meetings, trainings organized / attended) 20 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Other Activities No. Compliance verification inspection to authenticate the results of corrective actions. A review should be made relating to the firm to be visited from the documents available in the office file. Communication with the Local Authority for access to the site of inspection and regarding the Schedule of inspection. Inspector shall act according to the procedures for handling of confidential information. All information observed or passed to the inspector is confidential and shall not be disclosed to anybody other than his controlling authority. Inspector shall neither carry with him any written or printed materials relating to other units nor disclose any information relating to another company. The inspector’s task is not only to point out deficiencies but also to provide guidance based on scientific evidence. At the opening session:- The inspection usually begins with a meeting between the inspector(s), representatives of the firm or plant management and those responsible for the product or areas to be inspected. The inspection team shall give a written day wise plan for the inspection schedule as per Annexure- A 5. The inspector(s) shall inform to the firm management to ensure presence of concerned in-charge of the respective areas as per inspection plan. The inspectors shall state which documents they need to examine once they have completed their preliminary tour of the site. There will be a preliminary tour of the site to allow the inspectors to get a general orientation of the site. It is recommended that the inspecting team start the plant tour as soon as possible after arrival. Over the course of the inspection the inspectors shall review all procedures, production and laboratory records, validations and any other record or documentation relating to production and control of the production process. The inspection shall also include detailed tours of all production facilities, laboratories, stores, utilities, the plant’s record and documentation centre. The documents such as master formulae, test specifications, Standard Operating Procedures, batch records (including protocols of analysis and documents relating to the control of printed material and labelling operations) requires close verification. The inspection team may adopt the additional and other plan for areas of inspection based on the need of particular inspection for the required purpose.
Glucagon Adverse Glucagon discount adalat 30 mg with mastercard, a hyperglycemic drug that raises blood glucose levels 20 mg adalat for sale, reactions is a hormone normally produced by the alpha cells of the islets of to oral Langerhans in the pancreas purchase adalat 30mg with amex. Here Metabolism and excretion are some common ad- Glucagon is degraded extensively by the liver purchase adalat 30 mg without prescription, kidneys, and plas- verse reactions to indi- ma, and at its tissue receptor sites in plasma membranes. It’s re- vidual oral antidiabetic moved from the body by the liver and the kidneys. Sulfonylureas Pharmacodynamics • Nausea Glucagon regulates the rate of glucose production through: • Epigastric fullness • glycogenolysis, the conversion of glycogen back into glucose by • Blood abnormalities the liver • Water retention • gluconeogenesis, the formation of glucose from free fatty acids • Rash and proteins • Hyponatremia • lipolysis, the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue for con- • Photosensitivity version to glucose. Metformin • Metallic taste Pharmacotherapeutics • Nausea and vomiting Glucagon is used for emergency treatment of severe hypoglyce- • Abdominal discomfort mia. Acarbose • Abdominal pain • Diarrhea Drug interactions • Flatulence Glucagon interacts adversely only with oral anticoagulants, in- creasing the tendency to bleed. How glucagon raises glucose levels When adequate stores of glycogen are present, glucagon can • This product initiates a series of reactions that result in an raise glucose levels in patients with severe hypoglycemia. What happens is easy to follow: • In this phosphorylated form, the large glucose molecule can’t • Initially, glucagon stimulates the formation of adenylate cy- pass through the cell membrane. To serve and protect Estrogens are used to correct estrogen-deficient states and, along with hormonal contraceptives, prevent pregnancy. Natural and synthetic estrogen Estrogens that treat endocrine system disorders include: • natural products, such as conjugated estrogenic sub- I take …and I’m stances, estradiol, and estropipate care of in charge of • synthetic estrogens, such as esterified estrogens, excretion… metabolism. Metabolism occurs in the liver, and the metabolites are excreted primarily by the kidneys. Pharmacodynamics The exact mechanism of action of estrogen isn’t clearly under- stood, but it’s believed to increase synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein in estrogen-responsive tissues in the female breast, urinary tract, and genital organs. Pharmacotherapeutics Estrogens are prescribed: • primarily for hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women to relieve symptoms caused by loss of ovarian function (see Hormone replacement therapy and heart disease, page 348) • less commonly for hormonal replacement therapy in women with primary ovarian failure or female hypogonadism (reduced hormonal secretion by the ovaries), for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and in patients who have undergone surgical castration • palliatively to treat advanced, inoperable breast cancer in post- menopausal women and prostate cancer in men. Hormone replacement therapy and heart disease Adverse reactions to Following a 5-year study, the Women’s Health Initiative reported increased risks of myocardial in- farction, stroke, breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis in women being estrogens treated with conjugated equine estrogens and progesterone as compared to those taking a Adverse reactions to es- placebo. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against the use of estrogen and pro- • hypertension gestin to prevent coronary heart disease in healthy women. Drug interactions Estrogens Relatively few drugs interact with estrogens: can be used to treat prostate • Estrogens may decrease the effects of anticoagulants, increas- cancer in men. The pituitary drugs consist of two groups: • Anterior pituitary drugs may be used diagnostically or therapeu- tically to control the function of other endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland, adrenals, ovaries, and testes. Anterior pituitary drugs include: Anterior • adrenocorticotropics, which include corticotropin, corticotro- pituitary drugs act pin repository, corticotropin zinc hydroxide, and cosyntropin on endocrine • somatrem and somatropin, growth hormones glands to control their functions. Some of these hormones can be adminis- tered topically, but most require injection. Absorption, distribution, and metabolism Usually, natural hormones are absorbed, distributed, and metab- olized rapidly. Anterior pituitary hormone drugs are metabolized at the receptor site and in the liver and kidneys. Pharmacodynamics Anterior pituitary drugs exert a profound effect on the body’s growth and development. In turn, the pituitary gland secretes hor- mones that regulate secretions or functions of other glands. Concentrate on this formula The concentration of hormones in the blood helps determine hor- mone production rate. Increased hormone levels inhibit hormone production; decreased levels raise production and secretion. Pharmacotherapeutics Anterior pituitary hormone drugs are used for diagnostic and ther- apeutic purposes: • Corticotropin and cosyntropin are used diagnostically to differ- entiate between primary and secondary failure of the adrenal cortex. The major adverse reac- Estrogen effects tions to pituitary drugs are hypersensitivity re- • Estrogen increases the effect of corticotropin. Over the long haul • Concurrent use of amphetamines and androgens with somatrem Long-term use of corti- may promote epiphyseal closure (closure of the cartilaginous cotropin can cause bone growth plate). Absorption, distribution, and metabolism Like other natural hormones, oxytocic drugs are usually absorbed, distributed, and metabolized rapidly. Parenterally administered oxytocin is absorbed rapidly; however, when it’s administered in- tranasally, absorption is erratic. Baby talk In pregnant women, oxytocin may stimulate uterine contractions by increasing the permeability of uterine cell membranes to sodi- um ions. Used for short-term therapy, vasopressin elevates blood pressure in patients with hypotension caused by lack of vascular tone. They help with deliveries (before, during, and after) Oxytocics are used to: • induce labor and complete incomplete abortions • treat preeclampsia, eclampsia, and premature rupture of mem- branes • control bleeding and uterine relaxation after delivery • hasten uterine shrinking after delivery • stimulate lactation. Adverse reactions to posterior pituitary drugs Hypersensitivity reactions are the most com- • hyponatremia (low serum sodium levels) mon adverse reactions to posterior pituitary • proteins in urine drugs. Thyroid drugs Thyroid drugs can be natural or synthetic hormones and may contain triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), or both. Man-made Synthetic thyroid drugs are actually the sodium salts of the L-isomers of the hormones. These synthetic hormones include: • levothyroxine sodium, which contains T4 • liothyronine sodium, which contains T3 • liotrix, which contains both T3 and T4. Metabolism and excretion Thyroid drugs are metabolized through deiodination, primarily in the liver, and excreted unchanged in stool. Pharmacodynamics The principal pharmacologic effect is an increased metabolic rate in body tissues. Thyroid hormones affect protein and carbohy- drate metabolism and stimulate protein synthesis. They promote gluconeogenesis (the formation of glucose from free fatty acids and proteins) and increase the use of glycogen stores. I can pump more and more They get the heart pumping… with thyroid Thyroid hormones increase heart rate and cardiac output (the hormones. They may even increase the heart’s sensitivity to catecholamines and in- crease the number of beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart (stimulation of beta receptors in the heart increases heart rate and contractility). Adverse reactions to thyroid drugs Most adverse reactions to Heart of the matter Toxic topics thyroid drugs result from Adverse reactions in the car- General manifestations of tox- toxicity. The drug of choice Levothyroxine is the drug of choice for thyroid hormone replace- ment and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy. Used for patients with hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis), these drugs include: • thioamides, which include propylthiouracil and methimazole • iodides, which include stable iodine and radioactive iodine. In the Wolff- The antithesis to synthesis Chaikoff effect, excess iodine Thioamides block iodine’s ability to combine with tyrosine, there- decreases the by preventing thyroid hormone synthesis. Stable iodine inhibits hormone synthesis through the Wolff- Chaikoff effect, in which excess iodine decreases the formation and release of thyroid hormone. Warning: Radioactive material Radioactive iodine reduces hormone secre- tion by destroying thyroid tissue through in- duction of acute radiation thyroiditis (inflam- mation of the thyroid gland) and chronic gradual thyroid atrophy. Acute radiation thy- roiditis usually occurs 3 to 10 days after ad- ministering radioactive iodine. Pharmacotherapeutics Antithyroid drugs are commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism, especially in the form of Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism caused by autoimmunity), which accounts for 85% of all cases. In case of removal To treat hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland may be removed by surgery or destroyed by radiation. Stable iodine is also used after radioactive iodine therapy to control symptoms of hyperthyroidism while the radiation takes effect. Adverse If it gets too severe reactions to Propylthiouracil, which lowers serum T3 levels faster than methi- antithyroid mazole, is usually used for rapid improvement of severe hyperthy- drugs roidism. The most serious ad- When taking them for two verse reaction to Propylthiouracil is preferred over methimazole in pregnant thioamide therapy is women because its rapid action reduces transfer across the pla- granulocytopenia. Hy- cental barrier and it doesn’t cause aplasia cutis (a severe skin dis- persensitivity reactions order) in the fetus. Propylthiouracil and methimazole appear in breast milk, so it’s recommended that mothers taking these drugs shouldn’t breast- In bad taste feed. If a breast-feeding woman must take one of these drugs, The iodides can cause propylthiouracil is the preferred drug. Which signs indicate that a patient taking levothyroxine is ex- periencing thyroid toxicity? Diarrhea and weight loss are signs of thyroid toxicity in a patient taking levothyroxine.
In the 2 year study the most common infection-related adverse events were bronchitis (event rate per patient-year 0 buy generic adalat 20mg online. The most common observed adverse eﬀects are a mildly increased rate of infec- tions purchase adalat 30 mg visa, which is compatible with its mode of action order adalat uk. Although these infections are mostly upper respiratory tract or urinary infections cheap adalat 30mg without a prescription, some cases of severe bacterial infections have been observed in the overall development pro- gramme for canakinumab. Mild, transient and asymptomatic cases of elevations of serum transaminases, bilirubin or triglycerides have been re- ported in clinical trials. Transient episodes of neutropenia have been observed under treatment with canakinumab. Deciency in this enzyme leads to accumulation of mevalonate, and further downstream in the pathway to a shortage of iso- prenoids, like farnesyl- and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. The aetiology of Schnitzler’s syndrome, another extremely rare auto-inammatory disorder, is unknown, but excellent clinical responses to treatment with canakinumab or anakinra have been reported. The eld of rare monogenic diseases constitutes a unique opportunity to develop drugs on genetically validated targets. Positive target engagement with the appropriate safety prole should guarantee a successful clinical development and translate into patients with the desired disease-modifying therapeutic eﬀect. Nevertheless, the eld of rare genetic diseases is still largely an uncharted territory for drug development. Most of the genetically validated targets are non-druggable targets or pathways, not always easily amenable to high- throughput discovery technologies and without a track record for lead generation. Natural history studies for these diseases are scarce and vali- dated clinical end points are lacking for most of them. Among the rare genetic diseases, the eld of protein misfolding diseases witnessed several successful drug development stories in the past two decades (Table 9. Since 1994 and the approval of Ceredase and Cerezyme for the treatment of Gaucher disease, treatments have been identied in several rare genetic diseases caused by protein misfolding. Initially, enzyme replacement therapy was successfully used in several lysosomal storage diseases. The folding and maintenance of proteins in a correctly folded active form is essential to normal cellular function. Protein misfolding, due to mutations or to defects in cellular quality control mechanisms, leads to the accumulation of proteins with insuﬃcient activity to perform their function (loss of function) or results in the formation of toxic misfolded intermediates that themselves lead to pathology (toxic gain of function). In several disorders, such as cystic brosis and several lysosomal storage diseases (Gaucher, Fabry and Pompe diseases), misfolded proteins are not traﬃcked to their intended cellular location, in others such as Huntington’s disease and familial amyloidosis, misfolded proteins aggregate with accumulation of toxic misfolded intermediates. For example, the average age at disease onset in endemic regions of Portugal20 and Japan21,22 is approximately 32 years. However, in Sweden disease onset generally occurs in the h decade,12 as in non-endemic cases in Japan,23 France24,25 and Italy,26 in which symptom onset usually occurs later in life (Table 9. Clinical manifestations of the disease are similar regardless of age of onset and nature of mutation. The classic presentation is sensory neuropathy starting in the lower extremities and evidence of motor neuropathy follows within a few years. Autonomic dysfunction is observed with dizziness, gastrointestinal disorders leading to severe malnutrition, sexual dysfunction and urinary incontinence. More than 2000 patients have been transplanted since the 1990s, with a 5 year post- transplant survival rate of 77% and a 10 year survival rate of 71%. However, this invasive procedure is associated with signicant short- and long-term morbidity, the rst year mortality post-transplant averaging approximately 10%. Nine compound heterozygous carriers of V30M/T119M belonging to ve diﬀerent kindreds have been described in the Portuguese population. The other carriers of the two mutations were asymptomatic well aer the mean age of onset of their aﬀected siblings (who were heterozygous for the V30M mutation). Similar to T119M, R104H seems to be non-pathogenic and confers protective clinical eﬀects in the compound heterozygous carrier. The best analogues remaining from three pharmacophores (benzoxazole carboxylic acids, biphenyl carboxylic acids and dibenzofuran dicarboxylic acids) were tested for plasma exposure aer a single oral dose in rats. A better in vitro prole and superior plasma View Online 212 Chapter 9 exposure were observed with the benzoxazole carboxylic acids. The benzoxazole-6-carboxylic acid analogue with the 3,5-dichlorophenyl moiety, tafamidis (Scheme 9. Connolly analytical surface representation (grey, hydrophobic; purple, polar) depicts the hydrophobicity of the binding site. In this orientation, the meta-carbox-0 ylate substituent on the benzoxazole ring extends out into the periphery of the thyroxine binding site, where it engages in bridging hydrogen bonds through ordered water molecules with Lys15/150 (Figure 9. A pharmacological assay to assess biological activity in plasma and provide a measure of target engagement in the clinic. So far, all subsequent ndings using amyloidogenic variants have conrmed this hypothesis. Tafamidis was found to be a potent inhibitor of tetramer dissociation under both denaturating and physiological conditions, mimicking the overall tetramer stabilisation eﬀect observed with the intragenic trans- suppressors, T119M and R104H. Predicted statistical distribution (1 : 4 : 6 : 4 : 1) of the ve tetramers was achieved. Using this methodology, dose-dependent stabilisation of patient plasma samples was observed with tafamidis, similar to that observed with Western blotting. Similar eﬃcacy has been observed in an extended panel of 30 amyloidogenic variants. Tafamidis was considered to be well tolerated at exposure ratios of at least 24-fold and 9–11-fold above ex- pected therapeutic human exposure, in rat and dog respectively. Genotype–phenotype relationships are not well known and disease progression is not well understood. It is very common to be faced with a lack of clinical evaluation tools that could be used as clinical end points in a controlled study to support drug approval. No previous clinical studies or extensive literature on the natural disease history were available to guide trial design, to select suitable outcome measures, study duration and appropriate statistical analyses to demonstrate drug eﬃcacy. It was important to select instru- ments assessing the progression of peripheral neuropathies and potentially useful in understanding the multifaceted nature of this disease. Therefore, a dose of 20 mg of tafa- midis was selected to conduct the pivotal eﬃcacy study. Plasma samples from the single- and multiple-dose ascending Phase I study in healthy volunteers were incubated in 4. Tafamidis range of exposure predicted at steady state at a chronic daily dose of 20 mg is delineated by the pink box. Ninety-one patients completed the 18 month study, 47 in the tafamidis group and 44 in the placebo group. Thirteen patients in each group (21%) discontinued treatment to undergo liver transplantation. The signicant reduction of neurophysiological deterioration noticed with tafamidis was conrmed by the preservation of nerve function observed in the tafamidis-treated patients: 54. It is worth noting that tafamidis is the rst example of a disease-modifying therapy for any amyloid disease. It validates the amyloid hypothesis, demonstrating that the amyloid cascade actually causes the neurodegener- ative process and that its inhibition halts the course of the disease, paving the way for other success stories in the eld of amyloidosis. Benson, Amyloidosis, in The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Diseases, ed. Wojtczak, in Recent Advances in Transthyretin Evolution, Structure and Biological Functions, ed. European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2011) Tafamidis Meglumine (Vyndaqel) assessment report, 22 September 2011. Diabetic polyneuropathy in controlled clinical trials: Consensus Report of the Peripheral Nerve Society, Ann. Supportive therapies include physical airway clearance tech- niques, inhaled medications (mucolytics, antibiotics and hypertonic saline) and oral anti-inammatory drugs, as well as pancreatic enzyme replacements and nutritional supplements. It is an ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate ions as well as other anions. While the count of distinct mutations is now nearing 2000, only a handful of mutations aﬀect a signicant proportion of patients. Cumulatively at least one copy of F508del is present in about 90% of patients, making it by far the most common mutation: only four other mutations occur in more than 1% of sequences and none of these exceeds about 5%.
It has been observed that by performing repeated measurement of the same variable generic adalat 30mg with mastercard, the subsequent statistical treatment of the results would have a positive impact of ‘reducing their importance’ to a considerable extent order adalat toronto. Here safe adalat 20mg, each vertical line labelled (x1 – xt) designates the absolute deviation of the mean of the set from the true value purchase genuine adalat. Hence, larger indeterminate errors seem to be linked with the performance of ‘analyst-2’ than with that of ‘analyst-1’. Salient Features of Indeterminate Errors The various salient features of indeterminate errors are enumerated below : (1) Repeated mesurement of the same variable several times and subsequent refinement to the extent where it is simply a coincidence if the corresponding replicates eventually agree to the last digit, (2) Both unpredictable and imperceptible factors are unavoidably incorporated in the results what generally appear to be ‘random fluctuations’ in the measured quantity, (3) Recognition of specific definite variables which are beyond anyone’s control lying very close to the performance limit of an instrument, such as : temperature variations, noise as well as drift from an electronic circuit, and vibrations caused to a building by heavy vehicular-traffic, (4) A variation that may be regarded as random by a slipshod analyst may at the same time prove to be quite evident and manageable by a careful observer, and (5) The average of a number of fine observations having random scatter is definitely more accurate, precise and, hence, more cogent than coarse data that appear to agree perfectly. The comparison is normally done with regard to the ‘error’; and the accuracy is inversely propor- tional to it i. Precision designates ‘reproducibility’ of a measurement, whereas accuracy the correctness of a measurement. Precision invariably forms an integral part of accuracy, but ironically a high degree of precision may not necessarily suggest accuracy. The results accomplished by Analyst-2 are indeed extremely precise but fail in accuracy, (ii) The results of Analyst-1 lie on either sides of the average value as shown by two ‘cross-signs’ on each side which might have been caused due to ‘random errors’ discussed earlier. It is quite evi- dent that there exists a constant (determinate) error in the results obtained by the Analyst-2, and (iii) In case, Analyst-3 had performed the estimations on the very same day in quick succession i. If the estimations had been carried out on two separate days altogether, thereby facing different laboratory conditions then the results so obtained would be known as ‘reproducible analysis’. In short, there exists a marked and pronounced distinction between a within-run precision (i. In the same manner all apparatus, namely : pipettes, burettes, volu- metric flasks, thermometers, weights etc. Thus, the weight of the component present in the unknown sample may be calculated with the help of the following expression : Wt. It may be accomplished by performing a separate parallel estimation, without using the sample at all, and under identical experimental parmeters as employed in the actual analysis of the given sample. Note : Always avoid using an appreciably large blank correction which gives rise to a vague and uncertain ‘exact value’ thereby minimising the precision of the analysis. In short, the results thus obtained by the two fundamen- tally different techniques must be concordant thereby justifying and ascertaining the fact that the values obtained are fairly small limits of error. The actual differ- ence in the quantity of components present in samples with or without the added component ultimately gives the recovery of the quantum added component. A good satisfactory recovery builds up the confidence in the accuracy of the method of analysis. Note : The method of ‘standard addition’ is particularly useful to physicochemical techniques of analysis, for instance : spectrophotometry, turbidimetry. A graph is plotted between the concentration values and the ratios obtained from the physical value (i. Any unknown concentration may be determined effec- tively by adding the same amount of ‘internal standard’ and locating exactly where the ratio obtained falls on the concentration scale. The powerful and effective technique of statistics may render such results, which scatter in a random manner, into a better form that may be employed intelligently. Besides, the specific statistical treatment of the calibration data, aided by pre- programmable calculators and micro-computers, very often yields a fairly accurate and more presentable determination of the graphs between absorbance and concentration than those produced manually. It may be calculated by taking the average of individual results as shown below : i= n ∑ x1 x1 x2 x3 x4...... Therefore, there exists a diminishing return from accumulating more and more replicate meaurements. In other words, the mean of 9 results is 3 times as reliable as 1 result in measuring central tendency (i. Median The median of an even number of results is nothing but the average of the ‘two middle values’ pro- vided the results are listed in order ; whereas for an odd number of results the median is the ‘middle value’ itself. However, the ‘mean’ and the ‘median’ are exactly identical in the case of a truly symmetrical distribu- tion. In short, median is an useful measure specifically when dealing with very small samples. Average Deviation (or Mean Deviation) It is the average of the differences between the individual results and the mean. In the case of a small number of observations the average deviation is found to be not quite significant statistically. The average or mean distribution may be calculated by adopting the following steps, namely : (i) To find the differences between individual results and the mean, without considering the +ve or –ve sign, (ii) To add these individual deviations, and (iii) To divide by the number of results (i. Hence, an ‘average deviation’ may be expressed as : i= n ∑[x1 − x] i =1 Average Deviation = d = n 3B. Standard Deviation It is the distance from the mean to the point of inflexion of the normal distribution curve. In compari- son to the average deviation the ‘standard deviation’ is usually considered to be much more useful and meaningful statistically. For a finite number of values it is normally symbolised as ‘S’, and may be expressed as follows : i= n 2 ∑[i− x] i =1 S = n − 1 In a situation, where ‘n’ is fairly large, say to the extent of 50 or more, it hardly matters whether the denominator in the above expression is either n – 1 or n; however, the former (i. Coefficient of Variation (ν) The coefficient of variation (ν) is simply the standard deviation(s) expressed as a percentage of the mean ( x ) as stated below : s ν = × 100 x 3B. However, the former is fundamentally more important in statistics than the latter, whereas the latter is employed more frequently in the treatment of chemical data. Calculate the mean, median, average deviation, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. In a situation whereby a large number of replicate readings, not less than 50, are observed of a titrimetric equivalence point (continuous variable), the results thus generated shall normally be distributed around the mean in a more or less symmetrical fashion. Thus, the mathematical model which not only fits into but also satisfies such a distribution of random errors is termed as the Normal or Gaussian distribution curve. It is a bell-shaped curve which is noted to be symmetrical about the mean as depicted in Figure 3. The equation of the normal curve may be expressed as given below : 1 (x )2 /2 2 y = e σ 2 where, y = Relative frequency with which random sampling of the infinite population shall bring forth a specific value x, σ = Standard deviation, and µ = Mean. Examples : (a) Burette Reading : Burettes are mostly graduated with the smallest graduation as 0. However, the second place of the decimal is normally estimated by arbitrarily sub-dividing the smallest division into 10 equal parts. Thus, in the latter instance the zeros only serve to locate the decimal point and, therefore, may be eliminated completely by proper choice of units, e. Computation Rules The following computation rules are advocated to make sure that a calculated result, arrived at either by addition and subtraction or multiplication and division essentially contains only the number of ‘digits’ duly justified by the experimental data. Following three steps are to be carried out sequentially : (i) All numbers are required to be rounded up preliminarily to two decimal places, (ii) Add the rounded numbers, and * ‘Digit’—denotes any one of the ten numerals, including the zero. However, the percentage precision of product cannot be greater than the percentage precision of the least precise term entering the calculation. In case, the digit to be dropped is 5, always round up the preceding digit to the nearest even number i. Evidently, this method avoids a tendency to round up numbers in one direction only. In rounding off quantities to the nearest correct number of significant figures, add one to the last figure retained provided the following figure is either 5 or over. In fact there are two frequently employed methods that may be used to compare the results, namely : (a) Student’s t-Test, and (b) Variance-Ratio Test (or F-Test). In order to perform these two tests one should have a clear understanding of the statistical term ‘the number of degrees of freedom’. Thus, a sample having n values have n degrees of freedom, whereas the sum Σ(x – x )2 is considered to have n – 1 degrees of freedom, because for any defined value of the mean, x , only n – 1 value can be assigned freely, as the nth is being defined from the other values automatically. It serves two main objectives, namely : (i) It is employed to test the difference between the means of two sets of data x1 and x2, and (ii) It is used to compare the mean obtained from a sample having certain standard value and to express certain degree of confidence in the significance of the comparison. Besides, the t-table also gives the information that the probability of obtaining the difference of 0. Variance-Ratio Test (or F-Test) A test that makes use of the ratio of the variances of two sets of results to determine if the standard deviations (s) are significantly different. Its application may also be extended to compare precisely the results obtained either from two different laboratories or from two different analytical procedures. In both these instances, the physical characteristics are directly proportional to the concentration of the analyte under examination.
Preterm labour confirmed by regular uterine contractions with progressive cervical changes order adalat 30mg without a prescription. If gestation <30 weeks and where nifedipine contra-indicated: • Indomethacin buy adalat 30mg cheap, oral adalat 20 mg line, 50 mg immediately then 25 mg 4 hourly for up to 48 hours buy adalat 30 mg fast delivery. Note: Indomethacin may cause oligohydramnios, and its use is associated with a risk of premature closure of the ductus arteriosis. Note: Corticosteroids are maximally effective if the complete course is administered at least 24 hours before delivery. Antibiotic therapy Indicated routinely for ruptured membranes and selectively for preterm labour with intact membranes at high risk of infection. Cervix unfavourable Extra-amniotic saline infusion: recommended if attempts at ripening the cervix with prostaglandins fail. Most women will experience adequate contractions at a dose of 12 milliunits/minute. If uterine hyperstimulation syndrome develops (>5 contractions in 10 minutes with fetal heart rate abnormalities), stop the oxytocin infusion and administer salbutamol as above. Note: Perform a non-stress test (cardiotocography) within an hour of each dinoprostone insertion, to evaluate the fetal condition during labour induction. Oral misoprostol may be given as freshly made-up solution of one 200 mcg tablet in 200 mL water, i. Misoprostol and other prostaglandins are contraindicated in women with previous Caesarean sections and in grand multiparous women. Misoprostol in larger doses than indicated here for labour induction at term, may cause uterine rupture. The need for analgesics may be reduced by keeping the woman informed about the progress of labour, providing reassurance and carefully explaining the procedures performed. Perineal analgesia: • Lidocaine, 1 or 2%, infiltration, locally or by a pudendal block. Postpartum and post-episiotomy pain • Paracetamol, oral, 1 g 4–6 hourly when required to a maximum of 4 doses per 24 hours. Compress the abdominal aorta in situations where bleeding is not responsive to above measures when transferring or waiting for definitive treatment. During pregnancy, give prophylactic anti-D immunoglobulin to the mother within 72 hours of a potentially sensitising event. Rh positive, Coomb’s positive: In these cases the mother will also have antibodies. Chronic kidney disease can be entirely asymptomatic until over 75% of kidney function is lost. Staging of kidney disease Stage/ Description Action glomerular Includes actions from filtration preceding stages rate 2 (mL/minute/1. Proteinuria reduction Determine the amount of proteinuria with a spot urine specimen. Achievement of these targets must be balanced against side-effects such as hypotension and hypoglycaemia. Diabetes mellitus In diabetics with kidney disease there is an increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia The aim is to lower phosphate levels and maintain normal calcium levels to ensure calcium phosphate product (i. Where facilities are available, investigation and management is usually done with guidance or referral to a specialist. Management should be carried out or guided by a nephrologist according to the biopsy result. Postural blood pressure for monitoring fluid loss and to prevent excessive diuresis. Common complications of acute renal failure include: » fluid overload and pulmonary oedema, » hyperkalaemia, » bleeding, » acidosis, and » encephalopathy. Both haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are acceptable modalities of therapy in the acute setting. For long-term or chronic, non-urgent need for potassium removal: • Sodium polystyrene sulfonate, oral, 15 g with 15 mL lactulose, 6 hourly. Hyperphosphataemia To decrease absorption of phosphate in acute renal failure: • Aluminium hydroxide 300 mg/5 mL, oral, 10 mL 8 hourly. Do not administer aluminium hydroxide and sodium polystyrene sulfonate simultaneously as this may potentiate aluminium toxicity. Alkalinising agents are not advised as many antibiotics require a lower urinary pH. For pregnant women: • Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, oral, 875/125 mg 12 hourly for 7 days. If there is a poor response, perform an ultrasound on all hospitalised patients urgently as in-patients or electively as out-patients. Duration of antibiotic therapy: » fluoroquinolones 7 days » other antibiotics 14 days. Longer courses of therapy, 2–3 weeks, should be given for complicated pyelonephritis. Switch to oral therapy as soon as the patient is able to take oral fluids: • Ciprofloxacin, oral, 500 mg 12 hourly for 7 days. Switch to oral therapy as soon as the patient is able to take oral fluids: • Ciprofloxacin, oral, 500 mg 12 hourly for 7 days. Two types occur: » Relapse or recurrence of bacteriuria with the same organism within 3 weeks of completing treatment. Send urine for microscopy, culture and sensitivity as treatment is determined by the results. Patients with impaired bladder emptying require careful urological examination to establish whether surgical treatment is required. In this setting, treatment with a short, intensive course of antibiotic is appropriate. Clinical features include: » pyrexia, » acute pain in the pelvis and perineum, » urinary retention or difficulty, and » acutely tender prostate on rectal examination. Note: The presence of blood on urine test strips does not indicate infection and should be investigated as above. The cause is unknown and believed to be due to changes in hormone levels associated with ageing. For patients presenting with urinary retention, insert a urethral catheter as a temporary measure while the patient is transferred for referral. Organic causes include neurogenic, vasculogenic or endocrinological causes as well as many systemic diseases and certain drugs. Investigations 08h00 serum cortisol level (or at time of presentation in acute crisis): > 550 nmol/L: virtually excludes the diagnosis < 100 nmol/L: highly suggestive of hypoadrenalism 8. To maintain adequate intravascular volume guided by blood pressure: • Sodium chloride 0. For patients who remain symptomatically hypotensive: • Fludrocortisone, oral, 50–100 mcg daily. With minor stress maintenance therapy should be doubled for the duration of illness and gradually tapered to usual dose. Low dose betamethasone (equivalent to dexamethasone) suppression test: • Betamethasone, oral, 1 mg. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, appropriate weight loss if weight exceeds ideal weight. Measure HbA1c: » annually in patients who meet treatment goals, and » 3–6 monthly in patients whose therapy has changed until stable. In patients with severe target organ damage, therapy should be tailored on an individual patient basis and should focus on avoiding hypoglycaemia. Combination therapy with metformin plus a sulphonylurea is indicated if therapy with metformin alone (together with dietary modifications and physical activity/exercise) has not achieved the HbA1c target. For persisting HbA1c above acceptable levels and despite adequate adherence to oral hypoglycaemic agents, add insulin and withdraw sulphonylurea.
Celebrity Available evidence suggests celebrities can have both a role in reducing drug use buy cheap adalat 20mg line, and also a conflicting role in increasing drug use 20 mg adalat amex. As with film cheap adalat 30mg on line, any video game glamorising drug use is likely to receive a more restrictive classification generic adalat 20mg with mastercard, in comparison to a game emphasing the danger, or presenting drug use in a more neutral manner. Research has demonstrated that parents are less likely to supervise video games, compared to other forms of media, suggesting there is potential for young people to ignore classifications. Internet Content-control software is a form of software designed for controlling what content is permitted to a user on the internet. The restrictions on which web pages can be accessed can be applied at various levels. While research has not investigated the impact of these forms of software on reducing illicit drug use, they may represent useful tools in restricting exposure of drug influences to young people. British Medical Association (2006) Legalising illicit drugs: a signposting resource. Ministry of Health (1926) Report of the Departmental Committee on Morphine and Heroin Addiction (The Rolleston Report). World Health Organization (2007) International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (2e). American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4e). Goldman D, Oroszi G & Ducci F (2005) The genetics of addictions: uncovering the genes. House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee Drug classification: making a hash of it: fifth report of session 2005-2006. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2011) Annual report on the state of the drugs problem in Europe. Hoare J & Moon D (eds) (2010) Drug misuse declared: findings from the 2009/10 British Crime Survey. Home Office (2012) Drug misuse declared: findings from the 2011/2012 British Crime Survey. The Scottish Government (2012) 2010-11 Scottish crime and justice survey: drug use. Department of Justice (2010) Experience of drug misuse: findings from the 2008/09 Northern Ireland Crime Survey. Hay G, Gannon M, Casey J et al (2011) Estimates of the prevalence of opiate use and/or crack cocaine use, 2009/10: Sweep 6 report. Fuller E (2012) Smoking, drinking and drug use amongst young people in England 2011. Measham F, Moore K, Newcombe R et al (2010) Tweaking, bombing, dabbing and stockpiling: the emergence of mephedrone and the perversity of prohibition. Newcombe R (2004) Attitudes to drug policy and drug laws: a review of the international evidence. Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (2007) Drugs – facing facts. Bailey R, Fuller E & Ormston R (2010) Smoking, drinking and drugs: reaction to reform. Scottish Government (2010) Scottisocial attitudes survey 2009: public attitudes to drugs and drug use in Scotland. Roques B (1999) La dangerosité de drogues: rapport au Secrétariat d’Etat à la Santé. Best D, Gross S, Vingoe L et al (2003) Dangerousness of drugs: a guide to the risks and harms associated witubstance use. Rolles S & Measham F (2011) Questioning the method and utility of ranking drug harms in drug policy. Nutt D (2011) Let not the best be the enemy of the good: a reply to Caulkins et al. Room R (2011) Scales and blinkers, motes and beams: whose view is obstructed on drug scheduling? Darke S & Hall W (2003) Heroin overdose: research and evidence-based intervention. Darke S, Degenhardt L & Mattik R (2007) Mortality amongst illicit drug users: epidemiology, causes and intervention. O’Driscoll P, McGough J, Hogan H et al (2001) Predictors of accidental fatal drug overdose among a cohort of injection drug users. Warner-Smith M, Darke S, Lynskey M et al (2001) Heroin overdose: causes and consequences. Favrod-Coune T & Broers B (2010) The health effect of psychostimulants: a literature review. Singleton J, Degenhardt L, Hall W et al (2009) Mortality among amphetamine users: a systematic review of cohort studies. Srisurapanont M, Ali R, Marsden J et al (2003) Psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine psychotic in- patients. Aldington S, Harwood M, Cox B et al (2008) Cannabis use and risk of lung cancer: a case-control study. Hall W (2009) The adverse health effects of cannabis use: what are they, and what are their implications for policy? Kuepper R, Van Os J, Lieb R et al (2011) Continued cannabis use and risk of incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10 year follow-up cohort study. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (2008) Cannabis: classification and public health. Arseneault L, Cannon M, Witton J et al (2004) Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. Rubino T, Zamberletti E & Parolaro D (2012) Adolescent exposure to cannabis as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. Macleod J, Oakes R, Copello A et al (2004) Psychological and social sequelae of cannabis and other illicit drug use by young people: a systematic review of longitudinal, general population studies. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Acute Cardiac Care Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Darke S, Kaye S & Duflou J (2006) Comparative cardiac pathology among deaths due to cocaine toxicity, opioid toxicity and non-drug-related causes. Kaye S & Darke S (2004) Non-fatal cocaine overdose among injecting and non-injecting cocaine users in Sydney, Australia. Alaraj A, Wallace A, Mander N et al (2010) Effect of acute cocaine use on vasospasm and outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Kaye S & Darke S (2004) Injecting and non-injecting cocaine use in Sydney, Australia: physical and psychological morbidity. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2007) Cocaine and crack cocaine: a growing public health issue. Darke S, Kaye S & Duflou J (2005) Cocaine related fatalities in New South Wales, Australia 1993-2002. Rogers G, Elston J, Garside R et al (2009) The harmful health effects of recreational ecstasy: a systematic review of observational evidence. Miotto K, Darakjian J, Basch J et al (2001) Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: patterns of use, effects and withdrawal. Hickman M, Carnwath Z, Madden P et al (2003) Drug-related mortality and fatal overdose risk: pilot cohort study of heroin users recruited from specialist drug treatment sites in London. Smyth B, Hoffman V, Fan J et al (2007) Years of potential life lost among heroin addicts 33 years after treatment. Shahani R, Streutker C, Dickson B et al (2007) Ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis: a new clinical entity. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2009) Polydrug use: patterns and responses. Cruts G, Buster M, Vicente J et al (2008) Estimating the total mortality among problem drug users. British Medical Association (2007) Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders – a guide for healthcare professionals. British Medical Association (2004) Smoking and reproductive life – the impact of smoking on sexual, reproductive and child health. Cole C, Jones L, McVeigh J et al (2011) Adulterants in illicit drugs: a review of empirical evidence. Department of Health (2002) Getting ahead of the curve: a strategy for combating infectious diseases (including other aspects of health protection).
Halothane generic 30mg adalat with mastercard, Isoflurane order 30mg adalat, Sevoflurane discount adalat 20mg overnight delivery, and Desflurane Indications Halothane purchase adalat no prescription, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane are inhalation anesthetics agents used for general anesthesia. Mechanism of Action Halogenated general inhalational anesthetics include halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane. It is thought that multiple sites of activity may be involved, resulting in anesthesia. The ablation of movement in response to pain is mediated primarily by the spinal cord. Never- theless, the reticular-activating system, thalamus, pons, amygdala, and hip- pocampus are all thought to be involved in general anesthesia because of their importance in cognition, memory, learning, sleep, and attentiveness. The inhalation anesthetics both depress excitatory synapses and augment inhibitory synapses. Inhaled anesthetics not only potentiate the action of neuromuscular blocking drugs, but also possess intrinsic muscle- relaxant properties. This is defined as the expired concentration of the inhaled anesthetic that prevents movement in 50% of patients in response to a surgical stimulus. Thus, infants require a higher concentration of anesthetic than older children and adults. Davis Pharmacokinetics Uptake and Distribution The uptake and distribution of inhalation agents is more rapid in infants and children than in adults. For any given anesthetic agent, the onset time and recovery time are related to the solubility of the anesthetic as well as the patient’s minute venti- lation and cardiac output. Frequently, nitrous oxide is used to reduce the dose of halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane, or isoflurane, which are more potent but cause more cardiovascular depression. Furthermore, the rate of induction and awakening may be related, in part, to the type of anesthetic circuit used: a nonre- breathing system produces a more rapid rise in alveolar anesthetic concentration compared with a rebreathing system. Elimination and Metabolism Elimination of inhalation anesthetics is by exhalation. The duration of emer- gence after discontinuation of the inhaled anesthetic is dependent on the blood concentration of the anesthetic. Table 12-5 shows the onset of action and degree of hepatic metabolism of the inhalation anesthetics. Systemic and Adverse Effects Cardiovascular All of the halogenated inhalation anesthetics decrease arterial pressure in a dose-related manner. Generally, this occurs secondary to vasodilation, decreased cardiac output, and decreased sympathetic tone. Respiratory All inhalation anesthetics depress ventilation in a dose-related manner. Onset of action and metabolism of inhalation anesthetics Inhalation anesthetic Halothane Sevoflurane Isoflurane Desflurane Onset of action (min) 1. Inhalation anesthetics depress the ventilatory response to hypoxemia at peripheral and central chemoreceptors. In the absence of bronchoconstriction, these agents have a minimal effect on airway resistance. Other Additional adverse effects include myocardial depression, apnea, nausea, vom- iting, and shivering. With sevoflurane, there is a potential for renal injury from a sevoflurane degradation product, Compound A. Davis Poisoning Information Overdose with potent inhalation anesthetics can lead to respiratory arrest and car- diovascular collapse. Treatment for overdose is discontinuation of these agents and supportive care with ventilatory support, I. Propofol: an overview of its pharmacology and a review of its clinical efficacy in intensive care sedation. Hemodynamic effects of the infusion of the emulsions formulation of propofol during nitrous oxide anesthesia in humans. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sedatives and analgesics in the treatment of agitated critically ill patients. Changes in heart rate variability under propofol anesthesia: a possible explanation for propofol-induced bradycardia. Naloxone reversal of depressed ventila- tory response to hypoxia during continuous infusion of remifentanil [Abstract] 1993; 79:A1203. Haemodynamic effects of remifentanil in children with and without intravenous atropine. Activities and sites of antinociceptive action of morphine- like analgesics and kinetics of distribution following intravenous intracerebral and intraventricular application. Anesthetic requirements and cardiovascular effects of fentanyl-oxygen and fentanyl-diazepam-oxygen anesthesia in man. Modification of the antinociceptive effects of morphine by centrally administered diazepam and midazolam. Midazolam maleate induction in patients with ischaemic heart disease: haemodynamic observations. Differential sensitivities of mammalian neu- ronal and muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to general anesthetics. Comparative interaction of epinephrine with enflurane, isoflurane, and halothane in man. Stereoselective effects of etomidate optical isomers on gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors and animals. Intravenous propofol vs thiamylal-isoflurane for caesarean section, comparative maternal and neonatal effects. The plasma protein binding and distribution of eto- midate in dog, rat and human blood. Cardiovascular and pulmonary responses following etomidate induction of anesthesia in patients with demonstrated cardiac disease. Sympathetic responses to induction of anesthesia in humans with propofol or etomidate. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ketamine enantiomers in surgical patients using a stereoselective analytical method. Differential effects of ketamine isomers on neuronal and extraneuronal catecholamine uptake mechanisms. Ketamine decrease plasma catecholamines and improves outcome from complete cerebral ischemia in rats. Khan Z, Ferguson C, Jones R: Alpha-2 and imidazoline receptor agonists: their pharmacology and therapeutic role. Pharmacological treatment of lipid disorders is used according to guidelines published in 1992 (Table 13-2). New pediatric lipid guidelines are being developed and will likely reflect this type of thinking. Although atherosclerosis is known to begin in childhood, extensive outcome data are lacking in pediat- rics, and parental and/or patient preferences are usually included in the decision- making process. Nonpharmacological Lipid Lowering Diet and Activity Dietary counseling for abnormal lipid levels should be tailored to address the lipid profile of the child and the circumstances of the family. The Step 2 diet, which severely restricts saturated fat (≤7%) and dietary cholesterol (≤200mg/day), is probably too difficult for a child to follow and is not recommended. Low-fat diets are not recommended for children younger than age 2 years because of concerns regarding adequate neuronal myeli- nation. Pharmacotherapy Lipid-lowering medications are usually initiated if diet and exercise changes fail to improve values sufficiently (Table 13-2). Mechanism of Action Positively charged sequestrants bind to negatively charged bile acids in the intestines and prevent the reabsorption of cholesterol-con- taining bile. Pharmacokinetics Absorption: the sequestrants remain in the gut and are not systemically absorbed, thus, the side effect profile is minimal. Adverse Effects Gastrointestinal: bloating, constipation can be reduced by allowing the preparation to sit for several hours before taking (it should be refrigerated), and by increasing fiber (dietary or psyllium supplements) and liquid intake Decreased compliance: because of gritty powder or large pills. One study showed approximately 40% noncompliance in children with familial hypercholesterolemia over 18 weeks of treatment7 322 S. Both male and female subjects are included, and the subjects are primarily those with familial hypercholesterolemia. The trials are relatively small, with the larg- est including 214 participants, and the agents evaluated include simvastatin,11,12 lovastatin,13,14 pravastatin,15,16 and atorvastatin.