By A. Rocko. Lake Forest College.
Provide the following instructions: o Image the situation as if it were a photograph order pristiq 50 mg with visa. This exercise is a useful way to rehearse being assertive before actually putting it into practice order discount pristiq. Apply the following communication skills the situation discussed in the previous exercise cheap generic pristiq canada. Active listening When you are talking to someone discount pristiq 100mg with mastercard, listen to what they are saying instead of thinking about you are going to say back or respond. If youre thinking about what youre going to answer, you might miss part of what the person is telling 62 you. People often argue about what somebody said without knowing if that was what the person really wanted to say or express. To improve your active listening and communication skills: Repeat what the other person said in your own words so you can be sure you understood him/her correctly. Instead of saying You (are/always/never) Its better to say I feel /I think. The best times arent when the person is doing something, or there isnt enough time to talk or if youre in the middle of an argument. You can decide to change Before being with other people Thinking differently: To change your feelings towards others, you can decide beforehand the kind of thoughts you want to have when youre with them. After being with other people Learn from your experiences: think about the feelings you had while you were with them. If you use the strategies youve learned here, its less likely that you become depressed again or that you remain depressed for a long time. Contact with others is important for you mood because they can: Share pleasant experiences with you Help you reach your goals Provide you with company and a sense of security Provide you with valuable information about yourself, your strengths and areas to improve 2. When relationships dont work out, it doesnt necessarily mean that something is wrong with you or with the other person. Its helpful to consider the following questions: Do you both want the same thing from the relationship? Remember you always have the option to end a relationship that is not good for you. People can help you feel like a good person, as valuable and with good self-esteem. Closure When you finish the material for Session 12, discuss with the adolescent the following points: 1) Tell him/her that youre finished with the material in the manual. Tell the adolescent that he/she can be present during the meeting if he/she chooses to do so. Offer the adolescent information about his/her participation and progress throughout therapy. You can ask about what the adolescent liked most and least, what helped the most, etc. Offer recommendations in terms of referral to other types of therapy or services if needed. Say the following: As you know, your parents have a right to know how youve been doing in therapy so I am going to have a meeting with them. I am going to tell them about the main areas weve worked on in therapy and about your progress. I am going to tell them youve improved in; that you learned strategies such as. If necessary, Ill tell them there are still the following areas to work on and that I have the following recommendations. Establish an agenda with the adolescent for the meeting with the parents in which you discuss the following: a. The specific information the therapist will share with the parents and the purpose of the meeting. You can tell the adolescent that youre not going to go into specific details about what was said in therapy youre going to talk in general. Ask the adolescent if there is anything he/she doesnt want you to discuss with his/her parents. Ask the parents how they observed their adolescent during and now at the end of therapy. Offer general information about what was worked on in sessions: Explain that it consisted of 3 modules that worked on thoughts, activities and relationships to improve mood. Offer general information on the adolescents progress and participation in therapy. Recognize and reinforce the parents efforts and commitment in getting help for their adolescent. Offer general recommendations on: How to help and support the adolescent in continuing to get better Possible signs of relapse and steps to follow if they suspect the adolescent is relapsing 4. It can make you feel less depressed, anxious and have a positive impact on your health. Lets do deep breathing exercise and later, a visualization or muscle relaxation exercise (or both). Deep breathing exercise Get in a comfortable position with your feet flat on the floor, without crossing your arms or legs. If you put a hand on your lower stomach and it goes up when you inhale youre doing it right. When other thoughts come to mind, simply acknowledge them and come back to your breathinhale slowly. Focus your attention on your muscles slowly releasing the tension from each one of them. When other thoughts come to mind, simple acknowledge them and go back to your repetition. When you exhale imagine that the tension in your body is slowly beginning to disappear. Tense the muscles in your forehead by raising your eyebrows as much as you canHold. Tense the muscles around your eyes by squeezing them shutHold and relaxFeel a sense of deep relaxation spreading out all over that area 7. Tense your jaw by opening your mouth real wide until you stretch those musclesHoldand releaseLet your jaw drop. Tense the muscles in the back of you neck as if you were going to touch your back with your head. Tense the muscles in your shoulders raising them as if you were going to touch your ears with themHoldand release 10. Tense the muscles in your chest by inhaling deeplyHold itand exhale slowlyImagine all the tension in your chest is slowly disappearing as you exhale 11. Tense the muscles in your abdomen or stomach as if you were to touch your belly button to your backHoldand relax. Tense your muscles in your kneeHoldand releaseFeel as your muscles are stretched and completely relaxed. Tense the muscles in your legs slowly pointing your toes towards youHold and release. Now youre going to do the opposite, pointing your toes in front of youHoldand release 15. Imagine a wave of relaxation is slowly spreading throughout your bodystarting at your head and gradually penetrating each group of muscles until it reaches your feeteliminating any residual tension 73 Imagery or Visualization Exercise (the beach) *Start with a brief breathing and/or muscles relaxation exercise. We assess currently available biological markers to query their validity for aiding in the diagnosis of major depression. To date, however, none of these markers are sufficiently specific to contribute to the diagnosis of major depression. Introduction Biological markers may give an insight into the The aim of this article is to review recent evidence on underlying biological basis of depression, which biological markers of depression that could be can be used to develop more effective drug treat- detected in different ways by testing body fluids ments. De- The idea behind identifying biological markers is pressive disorders are heterogeneous and diagnosed that by using them, psychiatrists could reveal the on the basis of a patients symptoms, not on the basis specific depression profile of each patient and select of a laboratory test. The term biological marker markers for depression is partially due to the need of is used here to describe a biological change asso- finding diagnostic adjuncts.
The most important member of the diabetes health- on this evidence to include the following 6 components that work care team is the person living with diabetes discount pristiq 50mg with mastercard. Organizations that provide diabetes care in accor- pital visits than patients who are not (35 pristiq 100mg overnight delivery,36) purchase pristiq 100mg. Initially pristiq 100mg online, it appeared as if only profession, continue to be integral members of the team. A variety of individual and community health-care and based in primary care, reduced overall mortality as well as drug support systems, particularly psychological support, can also improve and hospital costs (27). These components facilitate planning and coordination among providers, while helping people play an informed role in managing their own care. This model has evolved from the Wagner original (1999) to the Expanded Care Model (85). Shared care Joint participation of primary care provider [rst contact and ongoing health care: family physician, general practitioner or nurse practitioner] and specialty care physician in the planned delivery of care, informed by an enhanced information exchange over and above routine discharge and referral notices. Shared care can also refer to the sharing of responsibility for care between the person with diabetes and provider or team. Team-based care Care by a multidisciplinary and interprofessional team with specic training in diabetes. Continuous quality improvement Techniques for examining and measuring clinical processes, designing interventions, testing their impacts and then assessing the need for further improvement. Self-management support Self-management education Self-management support is dened as activities that support the A systematic intervention that involves active participation by the person with diabetes in self-monitoring implementation and maintenance of behaviours for ongoing (physiologic processes) and/or decision making (managing). Decision support Audit and feedback Integration of evidence-based guidelines into the ow of clinical Summary of provider or group performance on clinical or process indicators delivered to clinicians to practice. Benchmarking Feedback on the performance of a person with diabetes or physician, which is ranked against that of a peer group. Clinician education May include didactic, academic detailing, online, customized cases with feedback. Evidencebased guidelines Adherence to guidelines may be facilitated by embedding into electronic medical records with reminders (see below) or with the use of clinical ow sheets. Clinical information systems Clinician reminders The part of an information system that helps organize patient and Paper-based or electronic system to prompt health-care professionals to recall patient-specic information population data to facilitate ecient and effective care. In general, the person with diabetes should be facilitating the relay but may come from other team members. Patient registry A list of people sharing a common characteristic, such as diabetes. May be paper-based, but increasingly is electronic, from a simple spreadsheet to one embedded in an electronic health record. Patient reminders Any effort to remind people about upcoming appointments or aspects of self-care (e. A meta-analysis involving people with both type 1 and type 2 care physician), monitoring, care coordination (where the manager diabetes showed a signicant 0. A systematic review of modify treatment with or without prior approval from the primary pharmacist-led disease management found resource use was gen- care physician had the greatest impact on A1C lowering. Flexibility in the opera- experience, the better the outcomes compared to primary care tion of the team is important. Furthermore, the outcomes when team member, active participation of professionals from more these nurse case managers were used was equivalent or better than than 1 discipline and role expansion, have been associated with primary care providers (40). The greatest body of evi- gies that have been associated with positive outcomes are the del- dence for improved clinical outcomes in diabetes is with promo- egation of prescribing authority and the monitoring of complications tion of self-management, team changes and case management using decision support tools (33,34,38). They are often the principal medical contact for the as process outcomes, medication use and screening for complica- person with diabetes and have a comprehensive overview of all tions: promotion of self-management, team changes, case man- health issues and social supports (51). Another laborative, shared care is the ideal approach to organizing care for recent systematic review showed that education of the person with individuals with diabetes. Generally, sonalized goal setting (17,48) (see Self-Management Education and it is the person with diabetes who is facilitating the relay. Community partner- ventions, particularly those that used interactive computer tech- ships should be considered as a means of obtaining better care for nology to provide recommendations and immediate feedback of people with diabetes. For example, in addition to the diabetes health- personally tailored information, were shown to be the most effec- care team, peer- or lay leader-led self-management groups have been tive in improving outcomes of people with diabetes (67). Incorporation of evidence-based treatment algo- health regions also have developed diabetes strategies, diabetes rithms has been shown in several studies to be an integral part of service frameworks and support diabetes collaboratives. Audits and nancially compensated for the use of evidence-based ow sheets feedback lead to improvements in professional practice (72). This as well as time spent collaborating with the person with diabetes is particularly effective when combined with benchmarking (73). Pay-for-performance programs, which encourage the achievement of goals through reimbursement, are Clinical information systems more commonly used outside of Canada. Incentives to physicians to enroll people with dia- tries give an overview of an entire practice, which may assist in the betes and provide care within a nationwide disease management delivery and monitoring of patient care. Two other systematic reviews and meta- this increased to 80% with 2 strategies and to 100% of those includ- analysis of randomized controlled trials involving both type 1 and ing 3 strategies or more (p<0. In general, clinical outcomes with 10% effective if 1 strategy, 20% if 2 and 50% A1C improvement is most likely to occur when telehealth systems if 3 or more. The Diabetes Shared Care Program was a ret- control when using telehealth was better when the starting A1C rospective cohort study of 120,000 people with diabetes ran- was higher (>8. A mixed sys- telehealth technologies may be used for conferencing or educa- tematic review that looked at quantitative as well as qualitative tion of team members and teleconsultation with specialists. Ben- studies in telehealth showed that telehealth technologies in ets are noted regardless of whether the teleconsultation is type 2 diabetes produce a variety of outcomes, including improved asynchronous or synchronous (106,107). This review dened the mul- tiple telehealth technologies from simple interventions (e. No single tech- nology appears to be superior, but tailoring of the technology for 1. Be organized around the person living with diabetes (and their sup- the patient and implementation, as well as user interface, appears ports). The person living with diabetes should be an active partici- to improve adoption and outcomes (96,97). Another systematic pant in their own care and shared-care decision making; and self- review of information technology found that telehealth in both manage to their full abilities; and type 1 and type 2 diabetes populations is a more effective M. Be facilitated by a proactive, interprofessional team with specic training in diabetes. The team should be able to provide ongoing self- Self-Management Education and Support, p. S130 type 2 diabetes; Grade C, Level 3 (27) for type 1 diabetes for both Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents, p. The following quality-improvement strategies should be used alone Type 2 Diabetes and Indigenous Peoples, p. Ascensia Diabetes Care, Astra, Lilly; and other support from Novo Nordisk Canada Inc. An interprofessional team with specic training in diabetes and sup- received investigator-initiated funding from AstraZeneca. No other ported by specialist input should be integrated within diabetes care deliv- ery models in the primary care [Grade A, Level 1A (17,25)] and specialist author has anything to disclose. Glycemic control and morbidity in the [Grade B, Level 2 (45,47)] or registered dietitian [Grade B, Level 2 (42)] Canadian primary care setting (results of the diabetes in Canada evaluation to improve coordination of care and facilitate timely changes to diabetes study). Treatment gaps in the management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Canada. The following individuals should work with an interprofessional team with Cardiol 2010;26:297302. Home telemonitoring of patients with diabetes: A system- (108)] atic assessment of observed effects. Women with pre-existing diabetes who require preconception coun- care teams operating on the interface between primary and specialty care are associated with improved outcomes of care: Findings from the Leuven Dia- selling and prenatal counselling [Grade C, Level 3 (5557,59,60) and betes Project. Referral to an interprofessional team with specialized training may be con- 2013;10:E26. Individuals with type 2 diabetes who are consistently not meeting the new millennium. Adults with depression and diabetes for collaborative care and, in public health preparedness. Interventions to improve the manage- ment of diabetes mellitus in primary care, outpatient and community Level 2 (98)] settings. The chronic care model for type 2 dia- care model [Grade A, Level 1A (106)] betes: A systematic review.
You might move between different mild purchase generic pristiq, moderate and severe depression during one episode of depression or across different episodes buy pristiq australia. See Minds booklet Understanding postnatal depression (and other perinatal problems) for more information purchase pristiq 50 mg amex. Sometimes it feels like a black hole but sometimes it feels like I need to cry and scream and kick and shout 50 mg pristiq mastercard. Sometimes I go quiet and lock myself in my room and sometimes I have to be doing something at all times of the day to distract myself. There are many signs and symptoms of depression, but everyones experience will vary. This section covers: common signs and symptoms of depression psychotic symptoms self-harm and suicide anxiety depression as a symptom of other mental health problems. I had constant low mood, hopelessness, frustration with myself, feeling like I could cry at any moment. About psychotic symptoms If you experience an episode of severe depression, you might also experience some psychotic symptoms. These can include: delusions, such as paranoia hallucinations, such as hearing voices. If you experience psychotic symptoms as part of depression, theyre likely to be linked to your depressed thoughts and feelings. For example, you might become convinced that youve committed an unspeakable crime. These kinds of experiences can feel very real to you at the time, which may make it hard to understand that these experiences are also symptoms of your depression. They can also be quite frightening or upsetting, so its important to seek help and support. You might feel worried that experiencing psychotic symptoms could mean you get a new diagnosis, but psychosis can be a symptom of depression. Discussing your symptoms with your doctor can help you get the right support and treatment. About self-harm and suicide If you are feeling low, you might use self-harming behaviours to cope with diffcult feelings. Although this might make you feel better in the short term, self-harm can be very dangerous and can make you feel a lot worse in the long term. When youre feeling really low and hopeless, you might fnd yourself thinking about suicide. Whether youre only thinking about the idea, or 6 7 Understanding depression actually considering a plan to end your life, these thoughts can feel diffcult to control and very frightening. If youre worried about acting on thoughts of suicide, you can call an ambulance, go straight to A&E or call the Samaritans for free on 116 123 to talk. See Minds online booklet How to cope with suicidal feelings for more information. Some symptoms of depression can also be symptoms of anxiety, for example: feeling restless being agitated struggling to sleep and eat. If you think youre experiencing other symptoms, you can talk to your doctor about this to make sure youre getting the right treatment to help you. See Minds booklet Seeking help for a mental health problem for information on how to make sure your voice is heard, and what you can do if youre not happy with your doctor. It can vary a lot between different people, and for some people a combination of different factors may cause their depression. In this section you can fnd information on the following possible causes of depression: childhood experiences life events other mental health problems physical health problems genetic inheritance medication, drugs and alcohol sleep, diet and exercise. As antidepressants work by changing brain chemistry, many people have assumed that depression must be caused by changes in brain chemistry which are then corrected by the drugs. Some doctors may tell you that you have a chemical imbalance and need medication to correct it. But the evidence for this is very weak, and if changes to brain chemistry occur, we dont know whether these are the result of the depression or its cause. This could be: physical, sexual or emotional abuse neglect loss of someone close to you traumatic events unstable family situation. Research shows that going through lots of smaller challenging experiences can have a bigger impact on your vulnerability to depression than experiencing one major traumatic event. Diffcult experiences during your childhood can have a big impact on your self-esteem and how you learned to cope with diffcult emotions and situations. This can make you feel less able to cope with lifes ups and downs, and lead to depression later in life. I frst experienced depression at 15, after psychological abuse and domestic violence (both myself and my mother) at the hands of my father, for many years. Life events In many cases, you might fnd your depression has been triggered by an unwelcome, stressful or traumatic event. This could be: losing your job or unemployment the end of a relationship bereavement 10 What causes depression? I started to feel that depression really took a hold after a torrid time in my job, where I was bullied I just crumbled. Its not just negative experiences that cause depression, but how we deal with them. If you dont have much support to help you cope with the diffcult emotions that come with these events, or if youre already dealing with other diffcult situations, you might fnd that a low mood develops into depression. My depression seems to fare up during times when I am stressed and isolated from other people. Grief, and the low mood that comes with it, is a natural response to losing someone or something we love. But if you feel that what youre experiencing might be something more than just grief, you can talk to your doctor about it. You might want to try bereavement counselling frst, as this may be more helpful for you than general treatment for depression. Cruse Bereavement Care offers support and counselling for anyone affected by bereavement (see Useful contacts on p. This might be because coping with the symptoms of your mental health problem can trigger depression. Physical health problems Poor health can contribute to your risk of developing depression. Many health problems can be quite diffcult to manage, and can have a big impact on your mood. These could be: chronic health problems life threatening illnesses health problems that signifcantly change your lifestyle. As part of your treatment for a physical health problem you might be offered support for your mental health at the same time. There are some physical health problems that can cause depression: conditions affecting the brain and nervous system hormonal problems, especially thyroid and parathyroid problems symptoms relating to the menstrual cycle or the menopause low blood sugar sleep problems. If you think any of the above conditions apply to you, make sure your doctor knows about them. Some can be diagnosed by simple blood tests your doctor may suggest these are done to help make the right diagnosis, or you can ask for blood tests if you think they may be relevant. Genetic inheritance Although no specifc genes for depression have been identifed, research has shown that if you have a close family member with depression, you are more likely to experience depression yourself. While this might be caused by our biology, this link could also be because we usually learn behaviour and ways of coping from the people around us as we grow up. Medication, drugs and alcohol Depression can be a side effect of a lot of different medicines. If you are feeling depressed after starting any kind of medication, check the patient information leafet to see whether depression is a side effect, or ask your doctor. If you think a drug is causing your depression, you can talk to your doctor about taking an alternative, especially if you are expecting your treatment to last some time. Although you might initially use them to make yourself feel better, or to distract yourself, they can make you feel worse overall. See Minds online booklet Understanding the mental health effects of street drugs for more information. Sleep, diet and exercise A poor diet and lack of sleep and exercise can affect your mood, and make it harder for you to cope with diffcult things going on in your life. Although a poor diet, or not getting enough sleep or exercise, cannot directly cause depression, they can make you more vulnerable to developing it. See Minds booklets Exploring food and mood, How to cope with sleep problems and How to improve your wellbeing through physical activity and sport for more information.