By Z. Rozhov. Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
The the glenohumeral joint and the subacromial-subdeltoid secondary form of rotator cuff impingement may be fur- bursa order serophene in united states online, unless the tear is covered by granulation or scar tis- ther subdivided into two types: internal and external buy serophene pills in toronto. On rare occasions purchase genuine serophene, tears may involve the rotator cuff internal type refers to the articular surface side of the ro- interval best purchase serophene, with capsular disruption. Tears of the rotator cuff tator cuff and it is often termed posterosuperior impinge- interval may be associated with lesions of the structures ment syndrome. The external variety occurs as a result of present within this anatomical space, namely, the long external compression of the anterior aspect of the cuff in head of the biceps tendon, the coracoacromial ligament, the bursal side and includes the coracoid impingement the superior glenohumeral ligament and also the superior syndrome. This sit- uation produces impingement of the supraspinatus ten- Restraints to anterior translation of the humeral head are don at the level of its insertion in the greater tuberosity provided by the capsule and the glenohumeral ligaments 4 J. The classic Bankart lesion is the combination of ante- rior labral tear and capsuloperiosteal stripping. Compressive neuropathies bone and soft-tissue damage and persistent instability d. Inflammatory and other miscellaneous lesions may lead to multidirectional instability, resulting in episodes of posterior dislocation. The torn and the coracoacromial ligament during abduction and labrum is rotated medially, and a small cleft or separa- rotation of the arm. Attritional tendinosis is associated tion can be seen between the glenoid margin and the with a narrow bicipital groove and hence it affects the ex- labrum. In the first type, the insertional sions involve the superior part of the labrum with vary- fibers of the subscapularis tendon are intact. Shoulder 5 Compressive Neuropathies rial mixed with hyperintense cartilage may mimic pig- mented villonodular synovitis, especially if bone erosions The suprascapular nerve and its branches can become are present. Other differential diagnostic considerations compressed or entrapped by stretching due to repetitive include entities that can produce multiple intra-articular scapular motion, or they can be damaged by scapular bodies, such as osteocartilaginous loose bodies related to fractures, overhead activities, soft-tissue masses or direct osteoarthritis or osteochondral trauma, and “rice bodies”, trauma. T2-weighted images can show hyperintensity of such as those seen in rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculo- the involved muscle. An heterogeneous pattern is also The quadrilateral space syndrome is caused by com- frequently observed, due to the presence of areas of low pression of the axillary nerve at the quadrilateral space. The The teres minor and deltoid muscles and the posterolat- paramagnetic effect of hemosiderin is enhanced on gra- eral cutaneous region of the shoulder and upper arm are dient-echo pulse sequences. The differential lesions can result in damage or compression of the axil- diagnosis of hypointense intra-articular material includes lary nerve. Entrapment of this nerve can also be produced urate crystals of gout, synovial osteochondromatosis, and by extreme abduction of the arm during sleep, hypertro- amyloid deposition. Patients acromial-subdeltoid bursitis, rotator cuff tendinosis and may have shoulder pain and paresthesia. In advanced cas- tears secondary to the effect of the inflamed synovium on es, atrophy of the deltoid and teres minor muscles can oc- the undersurface of the tendons, and “rice bodies”. Similar is followed by weakness of at least one of the muscles findings can be seen in tuberculous arthritis and even about the shoulder. The acuity of the lesion and a post-traumatic etiolo- The lateral articulating surface of the humerus is formed gy are implied by the presence of marrow edema and by the capitellum, a smooth, rounded prominence that joint effusion. Close inspection of the location of the le- arises from its anterior and inferior surfaces. This tance in order to distinguish a true osteochondral lesion morphology of the capitellum (smooth surface), in con- from the pseudodefect of the capitellum. Correlation with junction with the knowledge that the adjacent lateral epi- presenting clinical history is also helpful in determining condyle (rough surface) is a posteriorly oriented osseous the etiology of imaging findings. At the waist of the to occur in immature athletes between 11 and 15 years of eight, or junction between anterior and posterior aspects age, rarely in adults . Osteochondritis dissecans of the of the ulna, the articular surface is traversed by a carti- elbow involves primarily the capitellum, but reports have lage-free bony ridge. This trochlear ridge is 2 to 3 mm described this process in the radius and trochlea . It should not be mistaken for a central os- the role of imaging is to provide information regarding the teophyte. The waist of the figure of eight is formed by the integrity of the overlying articular cartilage, the viability tapered central surfaces of the coronoid and olecranon of the separated fragment, and the presence of associated processes both medially and laterally, forming small cor- intra-articular bodies. The of a valgus force is usually described as one of the most presence of joint fluid or granulation tissue at this inter- common mechanisms of injury . Ligament Pathology Valgus Instability The principle function of the ulnar collateral ligament com- plex is to maintain medial joint stability to valgus stress. The anterior bundle is the most important component of the lig- amentous complex to this end, as it serves as the primary me- dial stabilizer of the elbow from 30 to 120 degrees of flex- ion. The most common mechanisms of ulnar collateral liga- ment insufficiency are chronic attenuation, as seen in over- b head or throwing athletes, and post-traumatic, usually after a fall on the outstretched arm. In the case of the latter, an acute tear of the ulnar collateral ligament may be encountered. With throwing sports, high valgus stresses are placed on the medial aspect of the elbow. The maximum stress on the ulnar collateral ligament occurs during the late cocking and acceleration phases of throwing . Repetitive insults to the ligament allow microscopic tears that progress to significant attenuation or frank tearing within its substance (Fig. A Conventional radiograph demonstrates a lytic osteochon- dral lesion in the capitellum (arrow). Varus Instability Lateral elbow instability related to isolated abnormalities of the lateral collateral ligament complex is not as well described as that on the medial side of the elbow. If it were to occur, the mechanism would be a stress or force applied to the medial side of the articulation, resulting in compression on that side, with opening of the lateral ar- ticulation and subsequent insufficiency of the radial col- lateral ligament. As the radial collateral ligament attach- es on and is intimately associated with the annular liga- ment, an abnormality discovered in one of the structures obligates careful inspection of the other. Varus stress applied to the elbow may occur as an acute injury, but rarely as a repetitive stress, as encountered on the medial side. While lateral collateral ligament injuries rarely occur as the result of an isolated varus stress, other Fig. Coronal-fat-suppressed T1-weighted image reveals full- causes can commonly lead to this injury, including dislo- thickness tears of the proximal aspects of the lateral ulnar collater- cation, subluxation and overly aggressive surgery (release al ligament and extensor tendon at the lateral epicondyle (arrow) of the common extensor tendon or radial head resection). Varus instability is also tested with the elbow in full extension and 30 degrees of flexion to unlock the olecra- non. A varus stress is applied to the elbow while palpat- bow in a semi-flexed position. Subluxation or dislocation of the elbow can be associ- The subject of elbow instability is complex and has been ated with fractures. Fracture-dislocations most common- a challenge due to the difficulty in establishing the mech- ly involve the coronoid and radial head, a constellation of anism of injury and reliable clinical tests for diagnosis. This type of instability elbow injuries to recognize is that the small flake fracture represents a spectrum of pathology consisting of three of the coronoid, commonly seen in elbow dislocations, is stages, according to the degree of soft-tissue disruption. Nothing attaches to the very tip In stage 1, there is posterolateral subluxation of the ulna of the coronoid; rather, the capsule attaches on the down- on the humerus that results in insufficiency of the lateral ward slope of the coronoid, the brachialis even more dis- ulnar collateral ligament (Fig. This fracture is a shear fracture and is likely pathog- the elbow dislocates incompletely so that the coronoid is nomonic of an episode of elbow subluxation or disloca- perched under the trochlea. A second consideration with respect to elbow dislo- lateral ligament, and anterior and posterior portions of the cation is that, as the ring of soft tissues is disrupted from capsule are disrupted, in addition to the lateral ulnar col- posterolateral to medial, the capsule is torn and insuffi- lateral ligament. In the absence of an intact capsule, joint fluid dis- fully so that the coronoid rests behind the humerus. Stage sects through the soft-tissue planes of the forearm, negat- 3 is subclassified into three further categories. In stage ing an indirect radiographic sign of trauma in the elbow, 3A, the anterior band of the medial collateral ligament is that of joint effusion. In stage 3B, the anterior band of the medial collat- eral ligament is disrupted so that the elbow is unstable Tendon Pathology with valgus stress. In stage 3C, the entire distal humerus is stripped of soft tissues, rendering the elbow grossly un- The many muscles about the elbow can be divided into stable even when a splint or cast is applied with the el- four groups: posterior, anterior, medial and lateral.
In the future purchase serophene with a visa, the patient will likely require additional aortic valve dilations or valve replacement surgery purchase serophene master card. McCarville Key Facts • Coarctation of the aorta is typically asymptomatic in older children and adults buy cheap serophene line, however cheap serophene 100mg otc, presents with cardiac shock in severe cases in the neonatal period. Recoarctation of the aorta is almost always managed through balloon dila- tion in the cardiac catheterization laboratory unless associated with hyp- oplasia of the aortic arch which would require repeat surgical intervention. Definition Coarctation of the aorta is narrowing of the aortic arch such that it causes obstruc- tion to blood flow. This may be the result of discrete narrowing or more diffuse hypoplasia of the aortic arch. Typical coarctation of the aorta is discrete narrowing of the distal aortic arch close to the origin of the ductus arteriosus, this may involve the origin of the left subclavian artery, just proximal or just distal to it. McCarville Incidence Congenital heart defects involving stenosis, or hypoplasia of the aortic arch, the descending aorta, or both, are defined as coarctation of the aorta. Coarctation of the aorta represents a relatively common defect, accounting for 5–8% of all congenital heart diseases. Pathology Aortic coarctation results from narrowing of the aortic arch of variable length and extension, usually at the insertion of the ductus arteriosus (Fig. Coarctation of the aorta may be isolated or associated with other cardiac defects, most commonly bicuspid aortic valve, followed by left-sided obstructive lesions such as aortic valve stenosis. Coarctation may be associated with ventricular septal defect and complex congenital heart disease such as truncus arteriosus and transposition of the great arteries. Cerebral aneurysm is found in around 10% of patients with coarctation of the aorta. Coarctation of the aorta is the most common cardiac defect in Turner syndrome, found in 30% of affected patients. In many instances, coarctation of the aorta is not uncovered till the ductus arteriosus closes at few days of life 12 Coarctation of the Aorta 161 Pathophysiology In severe coarctation of the aorta, closure of the ductus arteriosus exposes the left ventricle to an acute increase in afterload, leading to hypotension and shock. The area connecting the ductus arteriosus to the aortic arch serves as an area to widen the narrow aortic arch, therefore once the ductus arteriosus starts to close, this connecting area also constricts leading to worsening of obstruction. Furthermore, there are theories suggest- ing that ductal tissue surrounds the aortic arch in a lasso fashion, therefore causing narrowing of the aortic arch when ductal tissue constricts. In lesions associated with milder obstruction, collateral vessels develop between the aorta proximal to the coarcta- tion and distal to the coarctation. In cases of milder obstruction, the initial presentation may be delayed until childhood or even adulthood. Upper extremity blood pressure is higher than that in the lower extremities, opposed to normal situations where the lower extremities blood pressure is 10–15 mmHg higher than the upper extremities blood pressure in ambulating patients. Clinical Manifestations Newborn children with coarctation of the aorta are usually asymptomatic at birth. The onset of symptoms is related to closure of the ductus arteriosus within the first 7–10 days of life. The degree of severity of symptoms following ductal closure depends on the severity of the coarctation. With ductal closure, newborn children with severe coarctation may initially have periods of poor color, appearing ashen or dusky, or present with poor feeding and irritability. Children with severe coarctation present with circulatory collapse and shock, with poor or no palpable pulses and usually no audible murmurs. Other congenital heart lesions that may have a similar presentation include other left ventricular outflow tract obstructive lesions such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, critical aortic stenosis and interrupted aortic arch. Differential cyano- sis may be apparent on clinical exam or on pulse oximetry due to less oxygenated blood supplying the lower extremities through the patent ductus arteriosus. Patients with milder forms of constriction of the aorta may present in a variety of ways. Coarctation of the aorta may present in childhood or adulthood with sys- temic hypertension, usually resistant to medications. Alternatively, coarctation may be diagnosed after patients are noted to have one of several heart murmurs, including a continuous murmur of the blood flow across the well-developed collaterals, a systolic murmur in the infraclavicular area that corresponds to the segment of coarctation (Fig. Headaches, chest pain, fatigue, or intracranial hemorrhage may be a less common presentation of coarctation of the aorta. On examination, severe coarctation may be suggested by the differential cyanosis as mentioned above. In less severe cases, coarctation may be detected through the identification of a delay in the femoral pulse relative to the brachial pulse 162 S. S1 first heart sound, S2 second heart sound, A aortic valve closure, P pulmonary valve closure. Constriction of the aorta causes the pressure in the ascending aorta to be higher than the poststenotic region of the aorta causing the blood flow to be turbulent producing a murmur. The murmur is mostly systolic, however, may spill over into diastole (brachiofemoral delay). Upper and lower extremity blood pressure evaluation is critical in the evaluation of as suspected coarctation. In normal individuals, the systolic blood pressure in the thigh or calf should be higher than or at least equal to that in the arm; thus the finding of a systolic pressure that is lower in the leg than in the arm may suggest the presence of a coarctation. Chest X-Ray In severe cases, chest radiographs may demonstrate cardiomegaly, pulmonary edema, and signs of congestive heart failure. In cases diagnosed later in life, chest radiographs may show cardiomegaly, a prominent aortic knob and rib notching secondary to the development of collateral vessels (Fig. Severe coarctation in newborn and children and young infants may show evidence of right ventricular hypertrophy due to pressure overload of the right ventricle which pumps blood in utero to the descending aorta through the patent ductus arte- riosus (Fig. Increased left ventricular voltage may be seen in older children and adults with coarctation of the aorta secondary to left ventricular hypertrophy (Fig. Echocardiography Transthoracic echocardiography is the gold standard diagnostic tool for coarctation of the aorta. Detailed anatomy of the aortic arch, the coarctation segment, and the ductus arteriosus patency is identified by two-dimensional echocardiography 12 Coarctation of the Aorta 163 Fig. Color Doppler is used to assess the pressure gradient across the narrow segment, although usually no signifi- cant gradient is detected if the ductus arteriosus is patent, and the direction of blood flow across the ductus arteriosus. Prenatal diagnosis can be made by fetal echocar- diography, although it is technically difficult to evaluate the fetal aortic arch for 164 S. As a result, the diagnosis is usually suspected on the basis of secondary signs that point to abnormal fetal circulation, including right ventricular dilatation, reversal of flow across the aortic arch, and left-to-right shunt across the fetal patent foramen ovale. Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is an excellent tool for diagnosing coarctation of the aorta and identifying the extent of the narrowing. However, due to the availability of noninvasive echocardiography as a diagnostic tool, cardiac catheterization is more commonly used as an interventional tool in cases requiring balloon angioplasty of the coarctation segment, stent placement, or stent dilatation. It is also used in cases that require cardiac catheterization for further characterization of or intervention for other associated cardiac lesions. Treatment Treatment of coarctation of the aorta depends on the degree of narrowing and the severity of its presentation. Cases of coarctation that present in the newborn period typically require more invasive interventions than those that present later. Newborn children who present with shock, poor or absent pulses, or differential cyanosis should be started on prostaglandin E2 until ductal-dependent lesions are excluded. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis, prostaglandin should be continued 12 Coarctation of the Aorta 165 until the time for definitive intervention, along with continued medical management of metabolic acidosis and shock. The most common technique is resection of the coar- ctation segment and end-to-end anastomosis via a left lateral thoracotomy incision. An alternative technique is the subclavian flap, which involves using the left subclavian artery to augment the narrow aortic segment and replace resected tissue. Over time, the left upper extremity will be supplied by collateral arteries that develop in lieu of the resected subclavian artery. As a result, the left upper extremity may be smaller than the right upper extremity. Following repair of coarctation, patients may develop varying degrees of reco- arctation and will require life-long cardiology follow-up. If significant recoarcta- tion develops, patients are usually treated by balloon angioplasty with possible stent placement in the coarctation segment. Patients who present later in life with coarctation of the aorta are usually treated by balloon angioplasty with stent placement of the coarctation segment. Stent use is avoided in younger children since the stent may not be possible to dilate to adult aortic arch diameter dimensions.
Ignorance Concerning the Will of God in Healing We have already spoken much concerning the will of God in healing order 25 mg serophene. However order serophene discount, it is crucial that you understand that the odds are against you being healed by God if you’re not convinced that He wants you healed purchase serophene 100mg with mastercard. Read Matthew cheap serophene online mastercard, Mark, Luke, and John until you see clearly that Jesus Christ is your present day Healer. Lack of Understanding of Faith for Healing We have addressed our tendency to immediately assume that the sick person lacks faith if he isn’t healed. Since I have addressed this issue of premature and rash judgment, I can now address the legitimate issue of weak or misdirected faith. As the scripture states, “But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him. In the gospels, we see that some of Jesus’ greatest miracles of healing were done in direct response to the faith of those seeking miracles. Faith for Healing: The Desperate Blind Men Our first example is the two blind men who successfully appealed to God for healing: “And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed him, crying, and saying, Thou son of David, have mercy on us. And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? If you have faith to be healed, you will be healed; if you do not have faith to be healed, you will not be healed. How can a God of love let someone die with a terrible disease just because the person doesn’t have faith? Let me answer that question with a question: How could a God of love allow people to die and go to hell simply because they don’t have faith for salvation? If a person doesn’t have faith, it is because that person hasn’t done what it takes to get faith. If the person doesn’t have time to read the Bible and cry out to God, you have to wonder whether that person really desires to be healed (or saved). This is the reason why you can’t walk into a hospital and indiscriminately heal everyone. This is why He says, “Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? And we do so foolishly and dangerously if we don’t understand that God’s gifts are given to lead us to repentance. The desired effect is that once we see how good God has been to us, even though we don’t deserve His goodness, we would humble ourselves and accept His lordship and seek forgiveness. I’ve learned the hard way that it is almost always a waste of time to try to lead someone to Jesus the Healer, if they reject Him as Jesus the Lord. There were several things that the blind men did that contributed to them being healed by God. You may have to leave your place to get to where the healing gospel is preached with power and expectancy. What sense does it make to stay in a place that teaches that God no longer performs miracles for His children? Actually, it’s not a bad idea to go anywhere and everywhere a gospel healing meeting is taking place. If you do this, chances are God will sooner or later lead you to someone who will successfully lead you to healing. And don’t be discouraged by those who will criticize you for aggressively pursuing healing wherever it may be found. Badly informed Christians may tell you that it’s wrong to go all over the place looking for healing. However, when they need a doctor, lawyer, mechanic, or hairdresser, they’ll crisscross the globe in search of the right one. This realization caused them to dump their dignity, and desperately cry out to God. This type of person may find that healing is delayed until they get desperate enough to cry aloud to God. If you do not recognize Jesus Christ as Lord— meaning God—you have no basis to expect healing. If you must put that on the end of your prayer for healing, your first order of business is to go back to the starting line and find out what is God’s will in healing. They ask God to heal them, but they don’t really expect anything miraculous to happen. Many healings are stopped right at this point because the sufferers do nothing to show they expect their situations to get any better. Faith for Healing: The Desperate Mother This second example highlights the persistence of faith. Sooner, rather than later, you will run into a problem that doesn’t respond to prayer as quickly as you would like. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; for she crieth after us. But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children’s bread, and to cast it to dogs. And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their master’s table. Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt. But in many cases, this is merely an excuse to give up because our prayers have no staying power. The mother had heard that people with incurable diseases were being healed by Jesus. Indiscriminant Healings and Miracles Usually Don’t Serve God’s Purposes Well First, “He answered her not a word”. If you examine healings in the four gospels, you will notice that Jesus’ response to this woman appears as an oddity. At first glance, it seems that the norm was for Jesus to eagerly heal whomever came to Him. He could have spoken a single word and healed everyone in Jerusalem, or Israel, or even the entire world. Jesus did not and does not heal the sick in such a wholesale manner because it is counterproductive to do so. The purpose of the revealing of Jesus Christ into the world, and the purpose of His manifest mercy in our lives, is to secure our love and obedience. Would an unexplained miracle of healing bring a sinner any closer to loving or obeying Jesus Christ? Hindus would thank their gods; Muslims would praise Allah; Naturalists would thank their herbs and diet; Buddhists would honor their chants; New-Agers would thank their realities; Christian Science disciples would extol their nonexistence; and atheist would trumpet their evolution. And after having experienced such wonderful miracles of healing, at their appointed times, they would all die and go to hell. There really is not a great deal of difference in a well sinner and a sick sinner. Their primary problem is the spiritual sickness of sin— rebellion against God, and hatred of Jesus Christ. Therefore, He almost always demonstrates His healing power in such a way that sinners know that God is the reason for the healing. The hope is that healed sinners would be so overwhelmed by God’s love that they would turn from sin and follow Jesus. Surprisingly, it is extremely difficult to get Christians in America to truly love Jesus Christ in such a way that one can easily see from our lifestyles that we love Him. Our illegitimate love of the world and its sinful distractions does much to corrupt our faith. But, generally, a sudden and unexplained miracle of healing would not turn a lukewarm, backslidden, worldly Christian into an on-fire saint of God.
Identiﬁcation—Infection caused by enteropathogenic Yersinia typically manifested by acute febrile diarrhea with abdominal pain (espe- cially in young children) serophene 100 mg for sale. Other clinical manifestations (extraintestinal or otherwise) include acute mesenteric lymphadenitis mimicking appendici- tis (especially in older children and adults) and systemic infections serophene 25mg sale. The most common post-infectious complications are erythema nodosum (about 10% of adults cheap serophene 25mg with mastercard, particularly women) serophene 100 mg low cost, and reactive arthritis. Bloody diarrhea occurs in up to one-fourth of patients with Yersinia enteritis; diarrhea may be absent in up to a third of Y. The organisms may be recovered on usual enteric media if precautions are taken to prevent overgrowth of fecal ﬂora. Cold enrichment in buffered saline at 4°C (39°F) for 2–3 weeks can be used but this procedure usually enhances the isolation of non-pathogenic species. Strains pathogenic for humans are those of biotypes 1B, 2, 3 and 4; they are pyrazinamidase- negative. Biotype 1A strains are non-pathogenic whereas the very rare strains of biotype 5 have been isolated from hares. Human cases have been reported in association with disease in household pets, particularly puppies and kittens. The highest isolation rates have been reported during the cold season in temperate climates, including northern Europe (especially Scandinavia), North America and temperate regions of South America. Contamination through milk (including pasteurized milk, where postpasteurization contamination is more likely than resistance of the agent to the pasteurization process) is less common. Studies in Europe suggest that many cases are related to ingestion of raw or undercooked pork. Since 20% of infections in older children and adolescents can mimic acute appendicitis, outbreaks can sometimes be recognized by local increases in appendectomies. Asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage is common in swine, especially in winter, and bioserotype 2 (serotype O9) has been isolated from ovine, bovine and caprine origins. Mode of transmission—Fecal-oral transmission through consump- tion of contaminated food or water, or through contact with infected people or animals. There is fecal shedding at least as long as symptoms exist, usually for 2–3 weeks. Susceptibility—Gastroenterocolitis (diarrhea) is more severe in children, postinfectious arthritis more severe in adolescents and older adults. Septicaemia occurs most often among people with iron overload (hemochromatosis) or immunosuppression (through illness or treatment). Preventive measures: 1) Prepare meat and other foods in a sanitary manner, avoid eating raw pork and pasteurize milk; irradiation of meat is effective. Control of patient, contacts and the immediate environment: 1) Report to local health authority: Case reporting obligatory in many countries, Class 2 (see Reporting). Remove persons with diarrhea from food handling, pa- tient care and occupations involving care of young chil- dren. In communities with modern and adequate sewage disposal systems, feces can be discharged directly into sewers without preliminary disin- fection. Epidemic measures: 1) Any group of cases of acute gastroenteritis or cases sugges- tive of appendicitis must be reported at once to the local health authority, even in the absence of speciﬁc causal identiﬁcation. Infections due to Mucorales or to Entomophthorales present distinct epidemiological, clinical and pathological forms. The mainly histopatho- logical differences between them are the eosinophilic perihyphal material or Spendore-Hoeppli reaction seen in entomophthoromycosis. Identiﬁcation—Infections caused by fungi of the order Mucorales leading to opportunistic disease. These fungi have an afﬁnity for blood vessels, and cause thrombosis, infarction and tissue necrosis. The 4 main systemic forms of the disease are the rhinocerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and dissemi- nated types. Rhinocerebral disease represents one-third to one-half of all cases and usually presents as nasal or paranasal sinus infection, most often during episodes of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Necrosis of the turbinates, perforation of the hard palate, necrosis of the cheek or orbital cellulitis, proptosis and ophthalmoplegia may occur. Infection may pene- trate to the internal carotid artery or extend directly to the brain and cause infarction. Patients receiving immunosuppressive agents or deferoxamine are susceptible to either rhinocerebral or pulmonary zygomycosis. In the pulmonary form of disease, the fungus causes thrombosis of pulmonary blood vessels and infarcts of the lung. In the gastrointestinal form, mucosal ulcers or thrombosis and gangrene of stomach or bowel wall may occur. Diagnosis is through microscopic demonstration of distinctive broad nonseptate hyphae on tissue section and through culture of biopsy tissue. Cultures alone are not diagnostic because fungi of the order Mucorales are frequently found in the environment. To be considered as an agent of the mycosis the fungus must survive and multiply at a temperature of 37°C (98. In addition to Rhizopus, Mucor and Absidia, human diseases due to Rhizomucor, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Saksenaea and Syn- cephalastrum spp. Reservoir—Members of the order Mucorales are common sapro- phytes in the environment. Mode of transmission—Inhalation or ingestion of fungal spores by susceptible individuals. Period of communicability—No direct person-to-person or ani- mal-to-person transmission. Susceptibility—The rarity of infection in healthy individuals de- spite the abundance of Mucorales in the environment indicates natural resistance. Corticosteroid use, metabolic acidosis, deferoxamine and im- munosuppressive treatment predispose to infection. Preventive measures: Optimal clinical control of diabetes mellitus to avoid acidosis. Control of patient, contacts and the immediate environment: 1) Report to local health authority: Ofﬁcial report not ordinarily justiﬁable, Class 5 (see Reporting). These 2 infections have been recognized principally in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa and Latin America. They are not characterized by thromboses or infarc- tion, do not usually occur in association with serious pre-existing disease nor cause disseminated disease, and seldom cause death. The fungus is ubiquitous, occurring in decaying vegetation, soil and the gastrointestinal tract of amphibians and reptiles. The disease presents as a ﬁrm painless and sharply circumscribed subcutaneous mass, ﬁxed to the skin, mainly in children and adolescents, more commonly in males. This usually originates in the paranasal skin or nasal mucosa and presents as nasal obstruction or swelling of the nose or adjacent structures. The lesion may spread to involve contiguous areas, such as lip, cheek, palate or pharynx. For both forms of entomophthoramycosis, incubation periods and modes of transmission are unknown. Carrier—A person or animal that harbours a speciﬁc infectious agent without discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of infection. The carrier state may exist in an individual with an infection that is inapparent throughout its course (commonly known as healthy or asymptomatic carrier), or during the incubation period, convalescence and postconvalescence of a person with a clinically recognizable disease (commonly known as an incubatory or convalescent carrier). Under either circum- stance the carrier state may be of short or long duration (tempo- rary or transient carrier,orchronic carrier). Case-fatality rate—Usually expressed as the proportion of persons diagnosed as having a speciﬁed disease who die within a given period as a result of acquiring that disease. In communicable disease epidemiology, this term is most frequently applied to a speciﬁc outbreak of acute disease in which all patients have been followed for a period of time sufﬁcient to include all deaths attributable to the given disease. The case-fatality rate, where the numerator is “deaths from a given disease in a given period” and the denominator is “number of diagnosed cases of the disease during that period” must be differentiated from the disease-speciﬁc mortality rate, where the denominator is “total population” (Synonyms: fatality rate, fatality percentage, case-fatality ratio).