By B. Hogar. Wells College.
It should of- fer similar protection against drug-resistant The incubation period purchase cheap nitroglycerin line, as defined by reaction strains generic 2.5 mg nitroglycerin mastercard. Thelatentperiodmay tuberculin test negative and has no other con- be many decades discount nitroglycerin 2.5 mg visa. Districtco-ordinatorscol- Screening of immigrants and refugees from lect a standardised dataset on all new cases cheap nitroglycerin 2.5 mg without a prescription, high prevalence countries for active disease, which is forwarded to regional and national latent infection and lack of immunity maybe databases. Consider appropriate measures to mended for young children who are contacts maximise compliance. Other pulmonary disease or those who have been potential sources are pathologists (histol- on appropriate treatment for 2 weeks do not ogy and autopsy), surgeons and pharmacists. Contacts of non-pulmonary (ii) typeofdisease,sputumstatus,antibiotic cases need only be screened if the case is sensitivities. Contact tracing: examination of close contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Contacts of patients with non-pulmonary tuberculosis need not usually be examined. From the Joint Tuberculosis Committee of the British Thoracic Society, Thorax, 2000; 55: 887901, with permission. Consider: inpatients, outpatients, referrals from other consultants; other members of staff. Screen all children in relevant teaching groups (including games) and close staff con- tacts. Also consider potential staff source if no further cases found in screening household of child. Type B strains occur across northern Europe and Russia, the more severe type A is generally restricted to North Tularaemia (rabbit fever, deer-fly fever, Ohara America. Tularaemia is a zoonosis; reservoirs include wildrabbits,haresandmuskratsaswellassome Suggested on-call action domestic animals and ticks. In Sweden and Finland, it is believed that tularaemia is transmitted to hu- Tularaemia is endemic in many parts of the mans and animals via mosquitoes. Large out- breaks in Europe were recently reported from Acquisition NorthernEurope(Finlandin2000andSweden in 2003) and the Balkans (e. The infectious dose is low and de- Clinical features pends upon the portal of entry and the type of F. Person-to-person transmission loglandular, pneumonic, septicaemic and ty- has not been reported. Symptoms include high fever, body aches, swollen lymph glands and Prevention difficulty in swallowing. Fatalities occur mainly from ty- Health education to phoidal or pulmonary disease. With appropri- avoid tick bites; ate antibiotic treatment, the case-fatality rate avoid untreated potentially contaminated is negligible. Laboratory conrmation Diagnosis is mostly made clinically and con- firmed by a rise in specific serum antibodies. CrossreactionswithBrucellaspeciesoc- Tularaemia is notifiable in many countries cur. Compatible clinical illness with laboratory Severeunexplainedcasesofsepsisorrespira- confirmation of tularaemia. A clinically simi- Investigation of a cluster lar, though usually less severe, illness may be caused by S. The Search for a common source of infection collective name for these conditions is enteric related to arthropods, animal hosts, water or fever. In underdeveloped Response to a deliberate release countries the incidence of infection is around 50/100,000 per year and is more common in Report to local and national public health summer. The illness begins with fever; rigors may oc- Chemoprophylaxis (currently ciprofloxa- cur. The spleen may be enlarged Typhoid fever 227 and abdominal tenderness is common but not Splenectomy (e. Osteomyelitismay develop, especially in those predisposed by The incubation period ranges from 1 to 3 sickle cell disease. The infectious period lasts as long as include cholecystitis, meningitis and typhoid bacilli are present in the stool. Relapses occur in 510% of cases, begins in the first week of illness; approxi- and may be more common following antibi- mately 10% of patients will be excreting bacilli otic treatment. Definitive diagnosis of typhoid is by culture of the organism from a normally sterile site (e. Blood, urine and faeces should be cul- Prevention tured; faeces are usually positive after the first week of illness and results should be available Sanitation, clean water and personal hy- in 72 hours. The Widal agglutination test control measure, although it provides useful detects antibody to the somatic O, flagellar protection in individuals. Acute ommended for travellers to endemic coun- andconvalescentseramayprovidearetrospec- tries, including those visiting their country of tive diagnosis when a fourfold rise in titre oc- origin. Infection results from the ingestion of water Report on clinical suspicion to local public or food contaminated by faeces from a hu- health authorities. Di- rectperson-to-personspreadispossibleinpoor Check antibiotic resistance of isolate. Achlorhydria Caseswhohavenotvisitedanendemiccoun- and disturbance of bowel flora (e. Exclude othersuntilformedstoolsfor48hoursandhy- Suggested case definition giene advice given. Rickettsia are small bacteria that replicate only Exclude all other cases until clinically well intracellularly. Transmission is by means of for 48 hours with formed stools and hygiene an arthropod vector. Onlyepidemictyphusisprimar- Excludecontactsinriskgroups14untiltwo ily a disease of man. Investigation of a cluster Investigate to ensure that secondary trans- Diagnosis mission has not occurred. Thein- Chains of transmission can be investigated fection then becomes generalised and there is through phage typing. If there is a rash, it appears around the fourth or fifth day of illness and Control of an outbreak may have either a dusky macular appearance or be petechial. In the most serious infections, Outbreaksshouldbeinvestigatedasamatter multiple organ damage may develop, usually of urgency. T bl M a R I n Di s y Cl i n E 1 2 w N a :r ( w w 50 % R prow ze w 50 - w e N o w w a A w x i s c T qui n t n a 1 2 w L R m M u typh i 1 2 w e w w R p A R 31 4 d i c s R r ttsi i N o A w U e U w R M o 20 % B 58 on or A w R on or M e A A B r zi l. Fa w S A Qu A A r R U A S 621 M i t J O w R tsutsuga m ush i P N e w s w P i c O A A M o 5% I n L P R Ko E 1 34 w w w E h a n si s Fo U E 2) 1 4 Fo U J M a E se n n tsu 230 Diseases Rickettsial infection should be considered if Suggested on-call action there is fever with either the typical rash or an eschar and an appropriate travel history. To confirm serologi- knowofothercasesthenconsultLocalOut- cally use assays that detect antibodies to rick- break Plan. To remove attached ticks use fine- tipped tweezers or fingers shielded with a tis- sue,papertowelorrubbergloves. Graspthetick Clinical features as close to the skin as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure, twisting may cause Characterised by explosive watery diarrhoea, the mouthparts to break off and remain in the usually accompanied by abdominal cramps. Thetick(saliva,hemolymph,gut)maycontain Fever and chills occur in a minority of cases as infectious organisms therefore do not squeeze may bloody diarrhoea. Death is rare but movingthetickdisinfectthebitesiteandwash may occur in very young children or elderly hands with soap and water. For a louse-borne disease epidemic delous- ing measures with changing of clothes and impregnation with insecticide may be neces- Laboratory conrmation sary. The organism may also be cultured from food: at least 103 organisms per gram would Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes a gastrointesti- beexpected. Therearenumerousserotypesbut nal infection that is particularly associated isolates from both food and faeces often con- with consumption of contaminated seafood. The organism multiplies rapidly at room Investigation of a cluster temperature:mostoutbreaksappeartoinvolve food being held for several hours without Plot epidemic curve: if all cases within refrigeration, allowing formation of an infec- 48 hours then single exposure likely. FreshshellfishimportedintoEurope sume continuing source as secondary spread from Asia has been contaminated in the past. The organism is killed by temperatures of Obtain food (especially seafood) and 80C for 15 minutes and refrigeration is effec- travel/recreation history for 48 hours before tive at controlling multiplication.
However purchase nitroglycerin 2.5 mg mastercard, the multivariable analysis was impressive due to the power obtained by a very large number of patients purchase 6.5mg nitroglycerin with visa, which enabled us to control for all differences between the groups proven nitroglycerin 2.5 mg. The propensity score matched analysis included most of MultArt patients and also demonstrated a strong independent survival benefit associated with the use of MultArt grafting buy generic nitroglycerin 6.5 mg on-line. Influence of the internal-mammary-artery graft on 10-year survival and other cardiac events. Multiple arterial grafts improve late survival of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Analysis of 8622 patients with multivessel disease. Coronary bypass surgery with internal-thoracic-artery grafts: effects on survival over a 15-year period. Long term (5 12 years) serial studies of internal mammary artery and saphenous vein coronary bypass grafts. Comparison of nitric oxide release and endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor mediated hyperpolarization between human radial and internal mammary arteries. This information can provide the basis and until now has remained largely unquantifed. They can occur at any point in the course of human The capabilities of the information age highlight development, from hydronephrosis in utero to urinary this defciency. They may be acute system describing prevalence and incidence across and self-limited or chronic and debilitating, may all urologic diseases. Instead, various government primarily affect quality or quantity of life, and may and non-government agencies in the United States be fnancially insignifcant or catastrophic. Still others occur without any symptoms health department health information systems, and at all and are discovered incidentally or during federal, state, and private insurance claims-based screening. For many urologic diseases the etiology datasets that can provide useful health statistics. Indeed, as the American population undertook this effort with the aid of sophisticated ages, there is a growing need for information about research methodologies and experienced analytic the urologic health problems facing older adults. We searched all potential data sources for xi Urologic Diseases in America Introduction relevant information and health statistics in order to Table 1. Conditions analyzed in Urologic Diseases in gather current and retrospective data on all aspects of America the epidemiology, practice patterns, costs, and impact Urolithiasis of urologic diseases in the United States. Urinary tract infection We began our work by conducting an exhaustive Female nationwide search for all possible sources of health Male Pediatric data for urologic diseases in America. This search Sexually transmitted diseases included data sources such as the large population Pre-natal hydronephrosis surveys maintained by the federal government (e. We stratifed the scope of urologic practice into These codes appear in the frst table of each chapter. Because We applied these codes to analytic fles from each resources were limited, we were unable to address dataset. Wherever possible, we stratifed results into certain less frequent urologic diagnoses. For certain economic analyses, we constructed developed a set of codes from the National Center multivariate models. At this hard to identify and summarize principal fndings meeting, we also shared with them detailed literature for the frst four urologic conditions, we encourage reviews that included all pertinent population- both casual and formal readers of the compendium based epidemiologic and economic studies in the to roll up their sleeves and wander leisurely through urologic conditions of interest. The chapters are rife with provided expert feedback and subsequent input on large and small results, some annotated in the text and the execution of additional analyses and refnement others waiting to be discovered in the myriad rows of the previous ones. Interested readers could explore any of tables and fgures, we asked the writing committee these fndings in more detailed, multivariate analyses. The essays they submitted hospitalizations, and costs for the most recent years of on each clinical topic were subjected to three rounds data analyzed for the interim compendium. Other Medicare data, epidemiology, and health services methodological limitations are listed in the methods research. The Urologic Diseases in America project represents a major step toward accomplishing those goals. Calhoun, PhD Assistant Professor of Urology Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, Illinois Gary C. For the purposes of this chapter, we 5% of females in the United States will form a kidney have tried to distinguish upper urinary tract stones stone (i. These fgures would be slightly stones (bladder stones), although in some cases the higher if stones that form in other parts of the urinary data for the two sites are combined. Likewise, anywhere in the urinary tract, including the kidneys cystitis and pyelonephritis may mimic acute renal and bladder. Musculoskeletal pain, particularly over the for the formation of kidney and bladder stones are fanks, may also be incorrectly attributed to stone entirely different. Ultrasound has the advantage disparate, with kidney stones occurring most often of avoiding exposure to radiation or contrast and can 3 Urologic Diseases in America Urolithiasis Table 1. The anatomy of the upper and lower tracts in diameter, regardless of composition, with the may also infuence the likelihood of stone formation exception of indinavir stones. There is no clear defnition that distinguishes some anatomic abnormalities, specifcally obstruction crystalluria (or the passage of sludge) from urolithiasis, (e. Ureteroscopy is primarily used to in the renal parenchyma are distinguished from treat ureteral stones but is increasingly being used calcifcations in the urinary collecting system. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy important precursors to stone formation (3), although is indicated for large-volume renal calculi and for further studies are needed to clarify this issue. Less common stones include therapy for urolithiasis is indicated in fewer than 2% those made of xanthine, indinavir, ephedrine, and of patients today. This may have an impact on stones, simultaneous treatment of bladder outlet the interpretation of the rates, as indicated later in obstruction is commonly performed, combining the chapter. There is no new information available either open prostatectomy or transurethral prostate on rates for specifc stone types and sizes or for frst- resection with stone removal or fragmentation. A trend toward Because stones in the urinary tract may be less invasive treatment options that require shorter present but asymptomatic, prevalence estimates based hospital stays and enable quicker convalescence on questionnaires or medical encounters are likely to has reduced hospital costs and lessened the burden be underestimates. Nevertheless, the costs of stone is important to distinguish between prevalent stones diseaseboth direct medical expenditures and the (stones that are actually in the patient) and prevalent costs of missed work and lost wagesare diffcult to stone disease (patients with a history of stone disease ascertain. This chapter provides data from a variety but who may not currently have a stone). For this of sources to assist in estimating the fnancial burden chapter, the term prevalence refers to prevalent stone of urolithiasis in terms of expenditures by the payor. While this chapter presents the best available Several factors have hampered our information regarding the fnancial burden of stone understanding of the prevalence and incidence of disease, some important limitations should be kept urolithiasis. Although a variety of beliefs regarding the frequency of stone there are clear differences in some rates by age and disease. In the 19881994 period, considerable light on the relative importance of these the age-adjusted prevalence was highest in the South factors. Percent prevalence of history of kidney stones for 1976 to 1980 and 1988 to 1994 in each age group for each gender (A) and each race group (B). The rates in women appear to be According to the Healthcare Cost and Utilization relatively constant across age groups. The steady decline in the rate of hospitalization the true prevalence of stone disease. In addition, for patients with upper tract stones between 1994 these new data cannot be used to determine incidence and 2000 likely refects the greater effciency and or recurrence rates. The include temporizing procedures prior to defnitive high rate of inpatient hospitalization for the older stone treatment such as placement of a ureteral stent age groups likely refects the lower threshold for or percutaneous nephrostomy to relieve obstruction, admission for an acute stone event or after surgical especially in an infected kidney. National rates of inpatient and ambulatory surgery visits for urolithiasis by age group, 2000. Admission group than in the <65 age group, peaking in the 75- to rates for Hispanics were one-half to two-thirds those 84-year group in each year of study. Age-adjustment did not affect regional age-unadjusted and the age-adjusted data, the male- differences in admission rates, but it did slightly to-female ratios also fell slightly over time. Although the total number of procedures increased from 1994 to 1998, the rate decreased (from 14 15 Urologic Diseases in America Urolithiasis Table 9. In all years of study, the rates highest in the 85+ age group, although they increased of procedures increased with age to a maximum in the substantially after age 64by 2.
The tanks were 140 cm tall order cheapest nitroglycerin, which meant that for much of the working day he had to work in an awkward buy nitroglycerin canada, squatting working posture with knees bent and knee joints rotated buy 2.5 mg nitroglycerin mastercard. After 2 weeks work in the bottom tanks he developed symptoms from the meniscus of his left knee with locking of the knee joint order nitroglycerin cheap online, swelling, tenderness and pain. The ships welder was diagnosed with a meniscus lesion of his left knee after having performed knee-loading work as a ships welder for 2 weeks. There is furthermore good time correlation between the exposure in the workplace and the onset of the disease. Example 2: Recognition of meniscus disease of right knee after work (plumber for 6 days) A 27-year-old plumber worked for 6 days with pipe replacements in a large institution. In the period in question, about 4-5 hours a day, the work consisted in taking down old pipes and putting up new ones in the basement system of the institution. When taking down the old pipes and putting up new ones he frequently bent his knees and at the same time rotated his knee joints in a stooping working posture. After 6 days work he had pain, tenderness and swelling in his right knee, and a medical specialist made the diagnosis of right-sided meniscus lesion, based on an arthroscopy examination. The plumber performed knee-loading work for days, his work for more than half of the day being characterised by squatting and awkward working postures, causing frequent rotation and flexion of his knees. He was diagnosed with meniscus lesion of the right knee, and there is good correlation between the onset of the disease and the knee-joint loading work. Example 3: Claim turned down meniscus disease of both knee joints (plumber for 2 years) A 31-year-old plumber worked in a small business for well over 2 years. His work mainly consisted in different types of replacement of pipes and sanitary equipment in private homes, including special piping work and replacement of sanitary equipment in kitchens and bathrooms. The work involved some kneeling as well as squatting work, but typically there were relatively good space conditions, allowing him to extend his knees and change working postures during the performance of the work. After well over 2 years work he had pain and tenderness as well as locking, first in his right knee and 121 after a short while also in the left knee. In addition there were indications of chondromalacia (softened cartilage) of both knees as well as beginning degenerative arthritis of the right knee. After working for well over 2 years the plumber was diagnosed with a meniscus lesion in both knees. However, his work was not characterised by squatting work under cramped conditions where he would have to bend his knees and at the same time rotate his knee joints for at least half of the working day. Example 4: Claim turned down meniscus disease of right knee (ships painter for 5 years) A 42-year-old painter worked in a shipyard for a period of well over 5 years. More than half of the working day his work consisted in spray-painting bottom tanks of the ships and in other hardly accessible ships areas. During this part of the working day, the work was usually performed in a squatting posture with knees bent and knee joints rotated. After well over 5 years work he found a new job and was employed in a normal painters firm, where the major part of the work was performed in a standing posture and under good space conditions. After well over 2 years employment in the new job he had sudden pain, tenderness and swelling of his right knee, and a medical specialist made the diagnosis of right-sided meniscus injury. The ships painter had relevant knee- loading work with squatting under cramped conditions during his 5-year employment. However, he only developed symptoms of a right-sided meniscus disease 2 years after changing to work as an ordinary painter, which did not put stress on his knee. Therefore there is no good time correlation between the disease and the previous, knee-joint loading work. Item on the list The following knee disease is included on the list of occupational diseases (Group D, item 4): Disease Exposure D. Jumpers knee Jumping/running with frequent starts and stops (tendinitis/tendinosis patellaris) (acceleration/deceleration) while flexing and extending the knee 4. About the disease Stresses on the kneecap tendon (patella ligament), in the form of jumping/running with frequent acceleration and deceleration while flexing and extending the knee, lead to microscopic ruptures at the patellar tendon attachment at the lower edge of the kneecap. The first symptom is tenderness, which at first disappears when the knee gets warm. Gradually, because the load often continues despite the tenderness, tendon degeneration occurs (tendinitis). In some cases the symptoms occur at the tendon attachment from the frontal part of the thigh extensors (musculus quadriceps femoris) at the upper edge of the kneecap. Tendinitis/tendinosis at the tendon attachment at the lower and upper part of the kneecap as well as at the tendon attachment at the lower leg (tuberositas tibiae) are on the list. The kneecap tendon connects the lower edge of the kneecap with the upper and 124 front part of the shinbone (tuberositas tibia) The function of the kneecap tendon therefore is to transfer the performance of the large anterior thigh muscle when the knee is flexed and extended. The kneecap tendon, which connects the lower part of the kneecap with the shinbone, is subject to a loss of stress when it has to transfer the power released by the powerful thigh musculature to the lower leg. This frequently repeated load can lead to a rupture at the tendon attachment at the lower edge of the kneecap. Pre-existing and competitive diseases/factors The National Board of Industrial Injuries will make a concrete assessment of whether any stated competitive factors are of a nature and an extent that might give grounds for completely turning down 125 the disease or whether there are grounds for making a deduction in the compensation if the claim is recognised. Examples of possible competitive factors: Meniscus lesion Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament Rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament Cartilage damage (osteochondral lesions) Periosteal ruptures (periosteal avulsion) Tendon inflammation Accumulation of fluid in the joint Bursitis Inflammation of a plica (plica synovialis) Rupture of the kneecap tendon Degenerative arthritis (arthrosis) Soft cartilage at the back of the kneecap (chondromalacia patellae) 4. Exposure requirements Main conditions In order for jumpers knee to be recognised on the basis of the list, there must have been the following exposure: Jumping/running with frequent acceleration and deceleration while flexing and extending the knee This disease is caused by high pressure on the kneecap in connection with jumping/running, where there is continued acceleration and deceleration with simultaneous flexing and extending of the knee. Jumpers knee is the most frequent in sports involving a lot of jumping, for example volleyball and basketball, which are characterised by jumping and landing where high pressure on the kneecap is created through acceleration and deceleration during flexing and extending of the knee, which may overload the tendon above or below. This is a load pattern which is also seen in certain other types of professional athletes such as football players, badminton players, tennis players, runners etc. Intensive weight-training Intensive weight-training for a long period of time can contribute to the development of the disease. This is because weight-training with a heavy weight-load increases considerably the pressure on the kneecap in connection with continued flexing and extending of the kneecap. This type of load may increase the risk of developing jumpers knee and may give grounds for reducing the requirement to the duration of the load per week and the total duration in relation to the paragraph below. Hard surface Jumping and running on a hard surface (indoor courses or outdoor courses with a hard surface or similar conditions) may increase relatively the pressure on the kneecap and thus also the load on the knee tendon (patellar tendon) in connection with jumping/running on a soft surface (grass, gravel, etc. This type of load may increase the risk of developing jumpers knee and may give grounds for reducing the requirement to the duration of the load per week and the total duration in relation to jumping/running on a soft surface, see the paragraph below. Duration of the work The load in the form of jumping/running med frequent starts and stops (acceleration/deceleration) while flexing and extending the knee must in principle have lasted at least 12 hours per week for a long time (for months). The requirement that the weekly load must have been at least 12 hours and that the total duration of jumping/running must have been months can, however, be reduced if the load has occurred in combination with at least 5 hours of intensive weight-training per week and/or jumping/running on a hard surface. If there has been a substantial weekly load for 20 hours or more, it is also possible to reduce the requirement to the duration. The requirement to the weekly load in the form of jumping/running cannot be reduced to less than 8 hours per week. The requirement to the total duration of the load cannot be reduced to less than one month. Time correlation A prerequisite for recognition is a relevant time correlation between the development of jumpers knee and the knee-loading work with continued jumping/running. The relevant time correlation will usually be that the first symptoms of the disease develop some time after commencement of the stressful work (weeks/months depending on the severity and nature of the load). If the onset of the symptoms does not occur in close connection with a relevant load (immediately or within a few days after the exposure), this will indicate that there are other causes of the disease. Furthermore, jumpers knee must not have been diagnosed prior to relevant exposure at work. Managing claims without applying the list Only jumpers knee is covered by group D, item 4, of the list of occupational diseases. Jumpers knee not covered by the list may in special cases be recognised after submission of the claim to the Occupational Diseases Committee. This may for instance be a jumpers knee developed after 127 (a) Many hours of hard weight-training per week, where the person in question has not, or only to a very limited extent, been exposed to loads in connection with jumping/running (b) Extraordinarily severe weekly loads for less than one month (for weeks) The practice of the Occupational Diseases Committee in the assessment of claims not covered by the list will frequently be updated on the website of the National Board of Industrial Injuries. Examples of decisions based on the list Example 1: Recognition of right-sided jumpers knee (professional football player for 8 years) A 32-year-old male football player was diagnosed by a medical specialist with right-sided jumpers knee (tendinosis patellaris), consistent with the tendon attachment under the kneecap. For the past 8 years he had been a professional player in one of the big clubs in Denmark, and he had practised at least once every day. The training was varied and consisted in general football playing, interval training, running, and weight-training with heavy weights. The football player practised indoors on parquet floors and outside on grass and man-made grass. He was a regular on the team and therefore started on the pitch in most of the games, which meant that in the course of one season he played a game approximately once a week.