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As a result the light falling on the collimator mirror is rendered parallel and reflected to the prism (F) generic alavert 10mg amex, where it undergoes refraction generic 10mg alavert amex. The back surface of the prism is aluminized 10mg alavert fast delivery, so that the light refracted at the first surface is reflected back through the prism alavert 10mg for sale, undergoing further refraction as it emerges. The desired wavelength of light is selected by rotating the wave- length selector fixed on top of the monochromator case. The spectrum from the prism is directed back to the collimating mirror which centres the chosen wavelength of light on the slit and the sample (G). Light passing through the sample strikes the phototube (H), causing a voltage to appear across a load-resistor. The voltage is duly amplified and registered on either the strip-chart recorder or the null-meter. The Milton Roy Spectronic(R)-20 definitely provides a low-cost and easy to operate instrument, that is still capable of achieving absorbance readings accurate to ± 1 or 2%. A computer system has also been provided to enable automatic spectrochemical measurements and perform calculations simultaneously. It could be accomplished by the help of the following two cardinal modifications, namely : (a) Need for a continuous change in wavelength so that light through the blank and through the sample may be monitored continuously, and (b) Measurements done with a recording spectrophotometer. The above two modifications have been duly incorporated in a double-beam spectrophotometer. In fact, the source beam is usually split in two different manners, namely : (a) Separated in Space : In this instance, the source beam is split between the sample cell-path and the reference cell-path, and finally detected by two diode detectors. Here, the two detectors should be adequately matched so that no changes occur relative to each other during the measurements, (b) Separated in Time : In this case, the source beam is split with the help of an optical chopper which permits the source beam to alternate between the sample cell-path and the reference cell- path. Here, the source should be stable enough so that no changes take place in the radiant energy during the chopping time. Keeping in view, this specific, rigid and stringent requirement, the separation-in-space method is found to be normally of lower precision and accuracy than the separation-in time-method. Evidently, the optical choppers are quite expensive, and therefore, the instrument manufacturers very often utilize the separation-in-space method for the routine measurement spectrophotometers. However, the most sophisticated double-beam spectrophotometer is usually pretty expensive by vir- tue of the following facts, namely : (i) Greater operating stability, (ii) Rapid speed compared to single-beam instruments, (iii) Complicated optical system involved, and (iv) Recording device for recording absorbance Vs wavelength. These instruments are mostly based on microcomputer-controlled devices with built-in recorder to accom- plish faster speed and greater operating stability. Extinction is solely dependent upon the following two factors, namely : (a) Concentration of the absorbing substance present in the solution, and (b) Thickness of the absorbing layer taken for measurement. Bearing in mind the ease in calculations and also the convenience of reference, the extinction of a 1-cm layer of a 1% w/v solution is usually recommended in most of the official compendia (i. This particular property is the basis for most assay methods included in pharmacopoeia that are absolutely free from interfering materials, besides being utilized for identifying substances. In actual practice, where a test or an assay recommends the usage of a Reference Substance, the spectrophotometric measurements are always performed first with the solution prepared from the Reference Substance by the directions provided in the specific monograph and then with the corresponding solution prepared from the substance under examination. Nevertheless, the second measurement must be done immediately after the first, by employing the same cell and the same instrumental parameters. Importantly, when a double bond recording instrument is being employed the solvent cell is always placed in the reference beam. Particular care must be taken to employ solvents free from contaminants absorbing in the specific spectral region being used. In measuring the extinction of a solution at a given wavelength, the extinction of the solvent cell and its contents must not exceed 0. Particularly, the solvent in the solvent cell should always be of the same purity, grade and batch as that employed to prepare the respective solution and above all it must be free from fluorescence at the wavelength of measurement. All the measure- ments are normally performed with reference to the solvent used to prepare the solution being examined, unless otherwise indicated in the individual monograph. In tests for identification, a recording instrument is always preferred ; besides, the concentration of the solution and the path-length are specifically monitored. In case, the laid down conditions are not suitable for a particular instrument, the thickness of the solution (i. Now, transfer 10 ml of this solution into a 100 ml volumetric flask, add 10 ml of buffer solution pH 9. To tube 1 add 10 ml of imidazole-mercury reagent, mix, stopper the tube and immerse it in a water-bath previously maintained at 60 °C for exactly 25 minutes, with occasional swirling. Calculations : The content of C16H19N3O5S may be calculated from the difference between the extinctions of Solution-1 and that of Solution-2 and from the difference obtained by repeating the operation using 0. Cognate Assays : Ampicillin can also be assayed by employing the above method using 0. The primary aromatic amino group present in the latter is subsequently diazotized in the usual manner and coupled in acidic solution with N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine hydro- chloride in the absence of light (caution). To an aliquot of the resulting acetic acid solution an excess of phenoldisulphonic acid is added to produce a yellow colour which is subsequently intensified by adding an excess of ammonia. Materials Required : Glyceryl trinitrate tablets : 20 ; glacial acetic acid (90% v/v) : 5 ml ; phenoldisulphonic acid solution (heat 3 g of phenol with 20 ml of sulphuric acid on a water-bath for 6 hours, and transfer the resulting liquid to a stoppered vessel) : 2 ml ; strong ammonia solution ; 20 ml ; potassium nitrate (previously dried at 105 °C) : 1 g ; Procedure : Weigh and powder 20 tablets. To 2 ml of the supernatant liquid add 2 ml of phenoldisulphonic acid solution and allow to stand for 15 minutes. Finally, measure the extinction of a 1-cm layer of the filtrate at 405 nm, as described earlier, employing as blank 2 ml of glacial acetic acid, treated exactly in a similar fashion, begin- ning at ‘‘add 2 ml of phenoldisulphonic acid solution......... Taking 2 ml of this solution, just repeat the assay beginning the procedure at ‘‘add 2 ml of phenoldisulphonic acid solution...... Cognate Assays : The following two pharmaceutical products, namely : Pentaerythritol tetranitrate Tablets and Diluted Isosorbide dinitrate are assayed by using a solution of phenoldisulphonic acid as detailed below : S. Now, measure the extinction of the irradiated solution at the maximum at about 418 nm as described earlier. Give a brief and comprehensive account of the following terminologies : (a) Electromagnetic spectrum, (b) Molar absorptivity, (c) Absorption spectra, (d) Structural features, and (e) Absorption bands. Discuss the theory, procedure and calculations for the assay of the following medicinal compounds : (i) Folic acid, (ii) Glyceryl trinitrate tablets, and (iii) Trans-Diethylstilbesterol. It also serves as a powerful ‘analytical tool’ for the extensive and intensive study of molecular structure. In fact, infrared absorption spectra are due to changes in vibrational energy accompanied by changes in rotational energy. In usual practice, however, either the wavelength (µ) or the wave number (cm–1) is employed to measure the position of a given infrared absorption. More precisely, the infra- red regions may be categorized into three distinct zones based on their respective wave numbers and wave- lengths as stated below : S. Far Infrared 667-50 15-200 Besides, the infrared region is found to be normally rich in peaks by virtue of the fact that there exist a number of vibrational modes (3n-6, where, n = number of atoms for any nonlinear molecule). Example : The C = O stretching frequency is about 1700 cm–1 ; whereas the C—H stretching frequency is about 3000 cm–1 and both of them are almost independent of the rest of the molecule as depicted in Table 22. Example : The C—C stretching frequency depends largely on what else is bonded to the carbon atoms. It is interesting to observe here that this particular region of the spectrum is densely populated with bands. As we know that no two ‘fingerprints’ could be identical in human beings, exactly in a similar manner no two compounds may have the same ‘fingerprint region’. Thus, each and every molecule essen- tially gives rise to a unique spectrum which offers a characteristic feature of the same. Therefore, it would be necessary to have a clear concept of various modes of vibrations often encoun- tered in different molecules having a variety of functional moieties, laws governing them and the mathemati- cal derivations related to them. Rather it may be regarded as a sort of flexible system comprising of balls of varying masses representing the atoms of a molecule and springs of varying strengths representing the chemical bonds of a molecule. The vibrations for molecules are of two types, namely : (a) Stretching, and (b) Bending (or deformation). Stretching Vibration causes stretching whereby the distance between the two atoms increases or decreases, but the atoms remain in the same bond axis. Bending (or Deformation) Vibration causes bending whereby the position of the atom changes relative to the original bond axis.
Hydrophobically modiﬁed glycol chitosan nanoparticles- encapsulated camptothecin enhance the drug stability and tumor targeting in cancer therapy purchase alavert 10mg with amex. A new atherosclerotic lesion probe based on hydropho- bically modiﬁed chitosan nanoparticles functionalized by the atherosclerotic plaque targeted peptides purchase cheap alavert line. Physicochemical characteristics of pH-sensitive poly(l-histidine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(l-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) mixed micelles cheap alavert american express. Thermal cycling enhances the accumulation of a temperature-sensitive biopolymer in solid tumors order alavert with american express. In vivo imaging of tumors with protease- activated near-infrared ﬂuorescent probes. Design, synthesis, and characterization of urokinase plasminogen-activator-sensitive near-infrared reporter. Optical visualization of cathepsin K activity in atherosclerosis with a novel, protease-activatable ﬂuorescence sensor. In vivo imaging of thrombin activity in experimen- tal thrombi with thrombin-sensitive near-infrared molecular probe. Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: New technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging. Optical imaging of matrix metalloproteinase–2 activity in tumors: Feasibility study in a mouse model 1. Imaging of differential protease expression in breast cancers for detection of aggressive tumor phenotypes. In vivo imaging of protease activity in arthritis: A novel approach for monitoring treatment response. A near-infrared-ﬂuorescence-quenched gold-nanoparticle imaging probe for in vivo drug screening and protease activity determination. Synthesis and characterization of a small, membrane- permeant, caspase-activatable far-red ﬂuorescent peptide for imaging apoptosis. Biochemical and in vivo characterization of a small, membrane-permeant, caspase-activatable far-red ﬂuorescent peptide for imaging apoptosis. Visualization of antitumor treatment by means of ﬂuorescence molecular tomography with an annexin V-Cy5. Real time single cell analysis of Bid cleav- age and Bid translocation during caspase-dependent and neuronal caspase-independent apoptosis. Design, synthesis, and characterization of a dual modal- ity positron emission tomography and ﬂuorescence imaging agent for monoclonal anti- body tumor-targeted imaging. Toxicity and antitumor activity against solid tumors of micelle-forming polymeric anticancer drug and its extremely long circulation in blood. Imaging epider- mal growth factor receptor expression in vivo: Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution characterization of a bioconjugated quantum dot nanoprobe. We are fully conversant in microbial, mammalian cell, and other bioprocessing platforms. It all ﬂashed before me with a single, chilling image on a screen — my wife had a brain tumor. Thanks to her strong will and quality medical treatments, Mieko and I are back to doing what we love best — enjoying our family. We didn’t think about how the quality of Mieko’s medications helped speed her recovery, but Jubilant HollisterStier does. Horvat Working together affords many New European Pharmacopoeia unseen opportunities for chapter aims to resolve problems pharmaceutical innovation. Our flexibility, quality and superior customer care will ensure your Commerical Supply Chain needs are met. WellSpring’s philosophy of quality and customer care will reduce your organization’s Supply Chain expenses. Over the summer, hundreds tion, and Research Achievement awards smart manufacturing, nanomanu- of individuals raised nearly $1 million in Chicago. The funds are to All of the individuals working to iden- to improve and speed patent reviews be used to purchase the land where Tesla tify new disease diagnostics and therapeu- • Help small businesses obtain early worked and to build a museum in his tics, whether or not they are recognized on stage financing. The interest and initiative taken by the global stage, serve as the backbone to Both President Obama and Governor donors to keep a scientific legend’s work this industry. For without new products to Romney support basic stem-cell research alive is more than moving. Much has Romney’s official website includes his is not only plaguing healthcare systems and been said along the campaign trails regard- plan for American jobs and economic distressing caregivers worldwide, but that ing manufacturing and innovation, but the growth. Let’s hope that, no matter how »Follow me on National Science Foundation, and 23 Election Day turns out, that R&D still has Twitter@PharmTechAngie other agencies, a 19% increase over a significant role. Analytical Development • Analytical Testing • Formulation Development Oral Solid Dose & Parenteral Manufacturing • Packaging • Stability Storage 800. It is vide more opportunities, and allow one Small Pharma Task Force to identify the important that scientists and researchers to assemble a “complete package” for a unique needs of the members from smaller establish these relationships within big given project. But, as with any relation- trial, complete the bioanalytical assays, dations to ensure that members who are ship, there are bound to be challenges. One recommen- According to an April 2012 report from In recent years, industry has also taken dation was to allocate programming at Booz & Company, “Nimble Partnerships in a more collaborative approach with aca- this year’s annual meeting (taking place the Pharma Industry,” there are four types demic research institutions. Preferred Capability Partner, and Strategic partnering relationships with compa- Additionally, we have learned that there is Partner. Tightening federal budgets have put a need for more programming on discov- these relationships, companies must align a strain on academic laboratories, and ery, a primary activity of small pharma, the design, structure, and performance the industry is trying to cut costs and im- biotech, and academia. Lastly, we’re or- measures of their relationships with their prove productivity by outsourcing. Companies that adopt a quick, environment allows for the increased leaders to discuss the progression of the capability-centered approach to partner- opportunity for collaboration from both industry over the next 20 years. Our goal ships are likely to be more focused, make parties and an increased acceleration in is to identify what industry, government, better use of their distinct capabilities, and drug discovery. We had ume parental product in two different found the same mold on an employee’s to replace the samples and chide the factories; one in Europe and one in gown plate and on his glove touch plate. The bulk tank had been stored on vacation, so it was a new-to-the-job world, sometimes in the same mar- for an abnormally long time in a cooler, person who did this and clearly didn’t ket. Each are packed into cases of 10 and an employee noted that there was understand all the requirements. The mold must have next day, the test passed, but then two this reason, they designed the small- been transferred to the product hose, days in a row failed. Both products are marketed from the bulk tank staging room into while it did, there were also intermittent in the same country, however, we had the fill room. The hose was disinfected total organic carbon and particulates many complaints for breakage on the in the fill room using ethyl alcohol, failures. We lost a week of pro- loss of use of the fill room could have duction, but finally got it cleaned up. We immediately closed ter for Biologics Evaluation and Re- share, please email it to Control at the room and quarantined the product search’s lot-release branch,” said our AgentinPlace@advanstar. We then disinfected with a mold- had received a container of unlabeled use your experience in the column, killing agent, applied twice over two samples. Without a label, they could you’ll receive a Pharmaceutical days, and then resampled. World Index :: Corporate ﬁnancial independence and Services a single A credit rating :: Solid Dosage Forms (Tablets & Capsules) :: All capabilities at one 1. In 1911, the Indian Patents and Design Acts came into ef- fect whereby a Controller was installed to manage patent-related issues. When India gained independence from Great Britian, the Patent Act of 1970 was introduced to spur innovation and economic growth. It abolished the product patent system based on the “Ayyangar Committee Report, 1959,” which examined the factors influencing the high prices of the drugs and pharmaceu- ticals in India. Using this press in your lab will signiﬁcantly improve tablet uniformity, reduce trial-and-error, decrease formulation waste, and save valuable time and effort. India has since enforced a set of strict companies in India, says: “Only a short focus on the rejuve- patent laws, and foreign players are facing obstacles in the review nation of the fragile healthcare delivery system, healthcare process, patent tracking, and pregrant and postgrant opposi- financing, and rapid development of healthcare infrastructure tion, says Ajaykumar Sharma, associate director, pharma and by the government or public private partnership will address biotech, healthcare practice of Frost and Sullivan (South Asia the access issue. The interpretation of different sections of the It is also impractical to envisage that the granting of com- Patent Act of 2005 and review of application remain the big- pulsory license will resolve the issue of access to patented gest challenge. This challenge is increased by the lack of trained medicines on a long-term basis.
Nanoemulsion is transparent trusted alavert 10 mg, stable buy alavert american express, and spontaneously formed 10mg alavert with amex, whereas a macroemulsion is milky and nonstable that requires some energy to form (49) alavert 10mg without a prescription. The formation of nanoemul- sion is dependent on a narrow range of oil, water, surfactant, and cosurfactant concentration ratios (48). A cosurfactant is commonly used to lower the interfacial tension and ﬂuidize the interfacial surfactant (48–50). Nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants are the ﬁrst line of choice for emulsion-based systems (51). Structurally, nanoemulsions biphasic with oil or water as the continuous phase, depending on the phase ratios (48). As nanoemulsion is in a dynamic state and the phases are inter- changeable, it is difﬁcult to characterize these systems, unlike other disperse sys- tems. As these systems have water and oil phases, both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs can be delivered using nanoemulsions (48,49). The surfactants in the system can act on the intercellular lipid structure and increase skin permeation (48). On the other hand, the oil phase may act as an occluding agent and can increase skin hydration (51). Drug release from the nanoemulsions depends on whether the drug is in the internal or external phase (52). Nanoemulsions have been found to pro- duce higher skin penetration than macroemulsions (53). In contrast, a comparative study of macroemulsions and nanoemulsions found no signiﬁcant difference in the skin penetration of tetracaine (54). The emulsion droplets may collapse or fuse with the skin components, and thus the size of the emulsion may have a minimal effect on skin penetration. On the other hand, nanoemulsions have also been shown to penetrate through the hair follicles (55). Furthermore, the drug can be adsorbed, complexed, or conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles. Unlike the other systems discussed so far, these are relatively rigid nanosystems. Various types of biodegradable and nondegradable polymers can be used for the preparation of these nanosystems. Some of the polymers that have been used for topical or transdermal drug delivery include poly(lactide-co- glyocolide), polymethacrylate, poly(butyl cyanoacrylate), poly(E-caprolactone), and chitosan (56–60). Recently, poly(vinyl alcohol)–fatty acid copolymers and tyrosine- derived copolymers have also been used for preparing nanocapsules or nanoparti- cles for skin applications (61,62). Nanoparticles or nanocapsules can be prepared by either solvent evapora- tion or solvent displacement procedures (63). In solvent evaporation technique, the polymer is dissolved in an organic phase, such as dichloromethane or ethyl acetate. This organic phase is then dispersed in an aqueous phase containing the surfac- tant and emulsiﬁed by sonication or high-pressure homogenization. Subsequently, 138 Venuganti and Perumal the organic phase is removed by evaporation under reduced pressure or continu- ous stirring to form polymeric nanoparticles (63). In this method, a lipophilic drug is loaded in the polymeric matrix by dissolving the drug in the organic phase. In solvent displacement method, the polymer is dissolved in a water-miscible organic solvent and injected into an aqueous medium with stirring in the presence of the surfactant as a stabilizer (63). Water-miscible organic solvents such as ethanol, acetonitrile, and acetone are used. The rapid diffusion of the organic solvent through the aqueous phase with the dissolved polymer at the interface leads to the formation of nanoparticles. Only a few studies have investigated the size-dependent penetration of polymeric nanoparticles into the skin. On the other hand, there was a size- and time-dependent accumulation of particles in the follicular regions, where 20-nm particles accumulated more than the 200-nm particles. The 40-nm particles were found to penetrate deeper in the follicles and also further pen- etrate into the epidermal Langerhans cells present at the infundibulum of hair fol- licles. On the other hand, the larger particles (750 and 1500 nm) did not penetrate into the follicles. In this regard, hair follicles can be used as a reservoir for drug delivery to localize the drug to the hair follicles or deliver the drug to the surround- ing epidermal cells (4). This was found tape-stripping studies in human volunteers by using ﬂuorescent-labeled poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (300–400 nm). The nanoparticles are slowly cleared from the hair follicles by sebum secretions and the migration of par- ticles to nearby cells and through the lymphatic system (4). The surface charge on the polymeric nanoparticles also inﬂuences their permeation through the skin. The authors attributed the higher penetration to the charge repulsion between the negatively charged skin lipids and the carboxylate groups in the negatively charged nanoparticles (66). The larger surface of the smaller 50-nm particles and the high charge density in 500-nm particles were attributed to their higher skin penetration (65). One of the distinct features of dendrimers is their large number of surface functional groups that can carry a high drug payload and also undergo multivalent interactions with the biological membranes (67). Due to their unique architecture, drugs can be encapsulated inside the core (nanocontainers), com- plexed, or conjugated to the surface functional groups (nanoshells). The surface functional groups in the dendrimers can be tailored for various drug delivery applications (67,68). The number of branches and surface functional groups increases with each dendrimer generation. Many studies have been reported with dendrimers in cell cultures and other routes of administration (68), but very few studies have explored dendrimers for skin mediated drug delivery. Cationic den- drimers were found to penetrate deeper (40–60 m) in the skin compared to other dendrimers (Fig. It has been found to increase the skin penetration of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drug molecules (70–73). The possible mechanisms include increased drug solubil- ity, increased skin partitioning, and the penetration-enhancing effect through their interaction with the skin lipids (70–73). However, further studies are required to clarify their mechanism of skin penetration. In particular, liposomes and lipid nanopar- ticles are widely used in cosmetic products for their moisturizing and smoothen- ing effect on the skin (37,74). Furthermore, they can be used to deliver skin pro- tectants, antioxidants, and skin-whitening agents. Vesicular systems can be used to deliver hydrophilic and hydrophobic cosmetic agents and improve their skin retention and sustain the release of these agents. Table 4 provides a representative list of cosmetic agents delivered using various nanosystems. Inorganic sunscreens, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, derive their sunscreen functionality from their particulate nature. The functionality of organic sunscreens can be improved by encap- sulating them in various nanosystems (79) in which the nano-encapsulated sun- screen can function as both particulate and organic sunscreens. Furthermore, the encapsulation improves skin retention and reduces systemic absorption of sun- screens. In addition, the nanosystem can protect the organic sunscreen from pho- toxidation and enhance sun protection factor by sustaining the release from the nanosystem (79). Polymeric nanoparticles, made of poly(vinyl alcohol) substituted with various satu- rated fatty acids, including myristic, palmitic, stearic, and behenic acids, were used to limit the skin penetration of benzophenone-3 (61). In a similar manner, nanocapsules made of poly(E-caprolactone) were used to protect octyl methoxycinnamate (82). In such cases, the active agent has to penetrate to a depth of 20 to 200 m in the skin (83). Therefore, deformable liposomes, ethosomes, and niosomes have been widely explored for topical and transdermal applications. The concentration of estradiol was signiﬁcantly increased in the epidermis by using transfersomes compared with an aqueous solution (85).
Mobile phone technologies improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting: a randomized controlled trial of text message reminders purchase alavert 10 mg online. Medication diaries do not improve outcomes with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Kenyan children: a randomized clinical trial generic alavert 10mg. Adult patients’ adherence to anti-retroviral treatment: a survey correlating pharmacy refill records and pill counts with immunological and virological indices order alavert 10 mg with amex. Pharmacy adherence measures to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy: review of the literature and implications for treatment monitoring buy alavert now. Validation of self-report and hospital pill count using unannounced home pill count as methods for determination of adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy assessed by unannounced pill counts conducted by telephone. Mortality of patients lost to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited settings: systematic review and meta-analysis. Reasons for loss to follow-up among mothers registered in a prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission program in rural Malawi. Transactions of the Royal Soceity of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2008, 102:1195–1200. Block appointments in an overloaded South African health centre: quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Assessment of the effectiveness of a home-based care program for patients coinfected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus after discharge from a reference hospital in South-Eastern Brazil. Health care utilization and costs of a support program for patients living with the human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis in Peru. Impact of introducing human immunodeficiency virus testing, treatment and care in a tuberculosis clinic in rural Kenya. Guidelines for the psychosocially assisted pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence. Provision of antiretroviral therapy to children within the public sector of South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2008, 102:905–911. Nurse led, primary care based antiretroviral treatment versus hospital care: a controlled prospective study in Swaziland. Effectiveness and acceptability of delivery of antiretroviral treatment in health centres by health officers and nurses in Ethiopia. Outcome assessment of decentralization of antiretroviral therapy provision in a rural district of Malawi using an integrated primary care model. Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment: a comparison between hospitals and health centers in Ethiopia. Patient retention and attrition on antiretroviral treatment at district level in rural Malawi. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2009, 103:594–600. Harmonized monitoring and evaluation indicators for procurement and supply management systems. Збірка містить матеріали науково-практичної конференції молодих вчених та студентів «Актуальні питання створення нових лікарських засобів». Матеріали згруповано за провідними напрямками науково-дослідної та навчальної роботи Національного фармацевтичного університету. Розглянуто теоретичні та практичні аспекти синтезу біологічно-активних сполук і створення на їх основі лікарських субстанцій; стандартизації ліків, фармацевтичного та хіміко-технологічного аналізу; вивчення рослинної сировини та створення фітопрепаратів; сучасної технології ліків та екстемпоральної рецептури; біотехнології у фармації; досягнень сучасної фармацевтичної мікробіології та імунології; доклінічних досліджень нових лікарських засобів; фармацевтичної опіки рецептурних та безрецептурних лікарських препаратів; доказової медицини; сучасної фармакотерапії, соціально-економічних досліджень у фармації, маркетингового менеджменту та фармакоекономіки на етапах створення, реалізації та використання лікарських засобів; управління якістю у галузі створення, виробництва і обігу лікарських засобів; інформаційниих технологій у фармації та медицині; основ педагогіки та психології; суспільствознавства; філології. Book of Abstracts includes materials of Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientists and Students «Actual questions of development of new drugs». Materials are groupped according to the main directions of scientific, research and educational work of the National University of Pharmacy. The development of science has always been one of the most important tasks for our university. Because we are both the greatest pharmaceutical educational institution in our country, and the developed research structure, we want to provide not only good specialists, but also new and safe medicines. Of course, nowadays we already have powerful scientific basement – well-known scientists, professors and their achievements. Today 371 medicines with wide range of pharmacological activities are in various stages of implementation. But in order to continue the development of current research areas in the future we need you – students and young scientists with a strong desire to make our life better, healthier, happier. Different Student Scientific Societies have been fruitfully working in every department for 70 years already. Nowadays they unite more than 700 students, among them – students from foreign countries too. Student Scientific Societies are 3 the first step for students and young scientists on the way of improving their skills. You can choose the most interesting for you research area in pharmacy: from synthesis of new biologically active molecules and their analysis to preclinical and clinical testing, industrial aspects or marketing research. You have brilliant opportunity to test yourself in order to find your own way in science during students‘ years. Because altogether we are working for our main goal – development of new, safe and efficient medicines. Thus our Conference «Topical issues of new drugs development» is the first step for you today. Nowadays publication of abstracts is carried out entirely in English, as well as our plenary sessions. The Conference is an important part of your scientific work – an interesting and challenging pathway that leads to PhD degree, then to the degree of Doctor of Science, to professorship. Almost 90 % of our teaching staff, as well as I‘m myself, has started their scientific career the same way. Someone can say that scientific work isn‘t always easy and straight, that it needs lots of energy and even money. But we must understand that without the development of national science it‘s just impossible to make our country strong and independent, as it will be for sure in the nearest future. That‘s why the main goal for us is making science fashionable for talented youth and creating all necessary conditions for your scientific work. Smoking is an act of burning dried tobacco leaves and is inhaled which is easily absorbed into the bloodstream. It is gotten from a tobacco plant, which is dried and folded into cylindrical shapes and called cigarettes. It is also an administration route since combusted substances can easily be absorbed into the bloodstream and work actively in the various parts of the body. Cigarettes have additives substances called Nicotine, it causes aerosol and gases to have deep penetration in the lungs, which can be easily absorbed and causes the addictive character. The aim of the study was identification of harmful substances in cigarettes and their influence on the human body as activator of genetic and non- genetic conditions. Burning incense was also a means of Smoking which was mainly practiced by Babylonians, Chinese and Indians for ritual and religious purposes. Smoking was later introduced for self pleasure in North America and Southern Africa by Arabians mostly Ethiopian who traded coffee. Smoking is means of communication between strangers in places like bars, night club, on streets. It is mostly practiced due to idleness and loitering, also due to adolescence curiosity and to suppress depression. It is also proved that soldiers used and are still using cigarettes for calling down and to tolerate more hardship. Smoking can not only be done with tobacco, but weed, cocaine, heroin, and other hard drugs. It is should be said that some lung disorders have no relationship to smoking and inhaling compounds which are contained in cigarettes.