By F. Brenton. Cornerstone University. 2019.
The molecule of phospholipids is composed of polar (hydrophilic) head and two non-polar (hydrophobic) fatty acids chains doxycycline 100mg free shipping. In the aqueous environment the hydrophilic parts are oriented towards the water around them and fatty acids chains to each other purchase on line doxycycline, creating so-called phospholipid bilayer (Fig buy doxycycline 100 mg with amex. Given that phospholipids are not chemically bound to each other trusted 200mg doxycycline, their lateral movement is possible. It is affected by cholesterol (found only in animal cells), which increases the rigidity of biomembranes. Schematic representation of phospholipid bilayer Other important components of biological membranes are proteins (Fig. They may be: • integral, which affect the hydrophobic parts of the phospholipid bilayer or transgress it. They are hardly separable from the biomembranes; • peripheral, which lie outside the lipid bilayer. They are associated with electrostatic bonds and can be easily separated from biomembranes. Some of them are involved in the transport of ions across the membrane (pump and ion channels) or in the transfer of substances along the electrochemical gradient by facilitated diffusion. Many of them are part of the receptors that are able to specifically bind hormones, neurotransmitters and other signal molecules. According to the number of layer contacts, thickness of intercellular space and its symmetry, intercellular junctions may be classified into three types (Fig. If the distance between membranes is 2 – 3 nm, but they are not fully merged, it is gap junction. It surrounds cell by the perimeter and thus contributes to the cohesion of the tissue; • macula adhaerens (desmosome) – strongest and most complex cell connection in shape of disk which arises at the base of cells. It develops by attachment of neighbor cell membranes which create cavities (~24 nm). From it arises out filaments, that are in contact (connection) with cell membrane. Cytoplasm in area of desmosome is modified and contains cytoplasmic plate which is associated with tonofilaments. Membrane receptors may be classified into: • receptors which are part of the ion channels – these are receptors for transport of cations (e. Extracellular part contains the N-end of the chain while in the cytoplasm there is C-end. The result is known as second messenger (the first messenger is a signal molecule) ● Figure 16. The passive transport ensures transfer of substances in the direction of concentration gradient without consumption of energy (diffusion and osmosis). The speed of transition depends only on the size of the gradient (difference between concentrations in the cell and outside). Given the selective permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane only a few substances with low molecular weight (e. It results in the movement of dissolved substances from the higher concentration to places of lower concentration. This movement will stop as soon as the concentration of the substance on both sides membrane equalized. Osmosis is a process in which water passes through the cytoplasmic membrane from the environment with a lower concentration in more concentrated environment. In case, that both solutions are isotonic to each other and cells that are in it perform no changes. If the solution in the extracellular environment is more concentrated than inside the cell, it is hypertonic solution. In plant cells occurs plasmolysis (separation of the plasma membrane from the cell wall). If the solution outside the cell is of lower concentration as in the cell, it is hypotonic solution. In plant cells only it increases their turgor – cell wall prevents them against breaking. This process occurs so that the substance is bound to transport protein on the cell surface. Facilitated diffusion Given that water diffuses across the cell membrane very slowly and in limited quantities, the transport is ensured through the special water channels – aquaporins. Active transport is the transfer of substances against concentration or electrochemical gradient without moving membrane. This process is provided by special transportation systems (channels and pumps), protein complexes, which pass through the membrane. This process is performed by cyclic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of transport proteins. This also changes the affinity to the substrate – alternately on the outside and inside the membrane. The whole process can be summarized as follows – transported substance (substrate) is attached to 16 phosphorylated transport protein; protein is dephosphorylated to open the binding site toward + + the cytoplasm and the substrate is released. In secondary active transport, the affinity of membrane transport protein is not + changed by phosphorylation, but by the attachment of ions (e. These proteins have two sites, first one for connection with ion and second one for transported substrate. In the case of the substrate and the ions are transported in the same direction, it is cotransport. In addition to the basic types of transportation some substances may transfer through transportation (ion) channels: • channels activated by electrical changes are opened and closed by changing membrane potential (e. Both processes are associated with active participation of the cytoplasmic membrane (changes in its structure or its movement). According to transported substances we distinguished pinocytosis (especially the transport of soluble substances) and phagocytosis (transport of solids). Finally, it is closed and creates a pinocytotic vesicle, which is released into cell and travels to the place of further processing. The cell generates plasma membrane processes (pseudopodia) which surround the transported material. Secreted material is located in vesicles, which usually arise from endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Vesicle approaches the plasma membrane, touched her, and merging with it and the substances are released into the environment. It is mostly based on the production, transport and recognition of specialty chemicals by cells. It influences the spatial structure of molecules that bear information (ligands) as well as the structure and location of receptors responsible for signal recognition. To maintain the accuracy of information transfer there is strong affinity between signal molecule and receptor. In the nerve regulation the transmission of signal occurs by mediator directly transferred close to the target cell – by nerve cell projection. In regard to the place of signal molecule production and overcome path to the receptor, we distinguish three main types of humoral communication: • endocrine – signal molecules are hormones produced by glands of internal secretion. Hormones are transported to the target cells by blood and interstitial fluid; • paracrine – signal molecules are excreted by cells of tissue and effect only cells in their neighborhood. Moreover, it has important role during embryonic development; • autocrine – the cell manages its own activity. The process can take place only when the cell synthesizes signals molecule which is attached to the receptor inside the cell, or effects other important protein. It also includes a considerable number of ions, inorganic and organic compounds (e. According to their composition cell organelles are distinguished into three basic types: • membrane, which are composed from one membrane (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, vacuoles and other vesicles) or from two membranes (nuclear envelope, mitochondria and chloroplasts); 18 • composed of proteins – cytoskeleton (microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, flagellas, cilia etc. The inner structure of nucleus is very complex and is characterized by high dynamics of the processes that occurs there. The second form is the mitotic nucleus which morphologically “disappears” during the indirect cell division. Nucleus is composed of three basic parts – nuclear envelope, nuclear matrix and chromatin. The inner membrane encloses the contents and the outer is in contact with the cytoplasm and endoplasmic retikulom. The space between these membranes is wide 20 – 80 nm and is called as perinuclear space.
Over 30 microorganisms can be sexually transmitted with many having similar symptoms discount doxycycline on line. Despite this complexity buy 100 mg doxycycline overnight delivery, initial management (with subsequent referral) can be accomplished in many settings with a minimum of resources buy doxycycline in united states online. The following clinical syndromes associated with sexually transmitted diseases will be discussed in this section: Urethral discharge (urethritis) App order 100 mg doxycycline. The end of this section addresses general management issues including counseling, partner notification, referral, sexual practices, symptomatic individuals and prevention. Urethral Discharge (Urethritis) Urethritis is characterized by a discharge from the urethra and burning with urination. It is usually caused by one of two bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (which causes gonorrhea) and Chlamydia trachomatis (which causes chlamydia), both of which infect and irritate the urethra. The usual incubation period for gonorrhea is 3-5 days and the discharge is yellow or green. The incubation period for chlamydia is longer, 1-5 weeks (usually 10-16 days), and the discharge is less profuse, less purulent (often white or watery) and less painful. If a microscope is available, examination of a Gram-stain of the discharge may disclose gram-negative diplococci inside of white blood cells, diagnostic of gonorrhea and the patient should be treated for both gonorrhea and chlamydia. If the Gram stain of the exudate does not disclose white cells with gram-negative intracellular diplococci, the patient should be treated for chlamydia. If no microscope is available, it is difficult to distinguish gonococcal urethritis from chlamydial urethritis with surety and the patient should be treated for both. These women do not have a urethral discharge, but have pain with urination due to the urethral inflammation. Various antibiotic regimens have been developed to treat gonorrhea and chlamydia, separately and/or together. H-2 The epididymis, which stores sperm and is located on the posterior side of the testicle, may become infected by C. In men >35 years of age, or in homosexual men, epididymitis is frequently caused by bacteria that cause urinary tract infections. Epididymitis must be differentiated from acute testicular torsion (twisting of the testicle inside the scrotal skin, which can lead to loss of blood supply to the testicle. If torsion is suspected, based primarily upon sudden onset, excruciating pain, age under 20, and elevation of the testicle, immediate consultation should be obtained because immediate surgery may be needed. Examination of a patient with epididymitis shows tenderness of the epididymis and possible swelling. In men with sexually transmitted epididymitis, there will usually be symptoms or signs of urethritis, but this may not be prominent (particularly in men with chlamydia). If possible, a microscopic examination of the urethral secretions or urine should be performed to look for white blood cells and microorganisms. Management of epididymitis includes bed rest with elevation of the testicle, ice and analgesics. Genital Ulcer Erosions of the skin (ulcers) may be caused by Herpes simplex virus (genital herpes), Treponema pallidum (syphilis) and Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid). Erosions may be caused by trauma (during sex or in zippers) or less commonly by reactions to medications (particularly tetracyclines). The most common disease is genital herpes, whose incubation period is five to10 days. Initially, small, painful, grouped blisters occur which, over several days, break open into shallow ulcerations. Over ensuing days, the ulcers crust and heal; the entire process takes about 21 days for initial attacks. The primary stage of syphilis is characterized by one to four painless smooth ulcers which appear about 21 days following infection. As the ulcers are healing, or several weeks afterward, the secondary stage of syphilis occurs and is characterized by a skin rash consisting of small flat patches, often most noticeable on the palms and soles; patients may have a low-grade fever. Without treatment, the rash will resolve after about two to six weeks, but may return. Without treatment at this stage, patients may develop tertiary syphilis in one to 30 years, characterized by neurologic (stroke, dementia) or cardiac (heart valve disease) abnormalities. H-3 Chancroid is characterized by one to four very painful ulcers which often appear quite ragged. In either case, treatment is not urgent and evaluation and therapy can be delayed. The infectious agent is a Bedsonia organism closely related to that of psittacosis. Subclinical or inapparent infections, and an asymptomatic carrier state, have been described in females. After an incubation period averaging one to four weeks, a small painless genital lesion occurs in about one fourth of patients. The lesion is an inconspicuous bump, blister, or shallow ulcer that heals within a few days and typically goes unnoticed by 0 0 the patient. Shortly after the onset of these symptoms, the patient becomes aware of a painful swelling in one or both groin areas. Early in the course of regional node involvement, one can feel one or more enlarged discrete movable tender nodes. Because there are nodes in different stages of evolution, the mass becomes large and lobulated with alternating areas of softening and hardness. The overlying skin becomes swollen, sometimes bluish-red in color, and fixed to the underlying mass. When pus forms and breakdown occurs, multiple fistulous tracts may open to the skin surface. Other symptoms less commonly found include lower abdominal pain and diarrhea due to involvement of nodes in the pelvis and around the rectum. The pain is exaggerated when walking due to the pressure by the inguinal ligament. H-4 Pruritus (Itching) Pruritus may be caused by pubic lice (crabs) and scabies; both are parasites and in both cases, pruritus is caused by sensitization to the organism. The pruritus caused by lice is limited to the genital area while that due to scabies often occurs elsewhere on the body where the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, has burrowed. For lice, the period between infestation and itching is 1-2 weeks for initial infections (and shorter for subsequent ones) while for scabies it is several weeks after initial infection but only a day or two after subsequent infection. Adult lice and their eggs (nits) in egg casings may be seen with the naked eye clinging to pubic hairs, or adult lice may be in the crusts of skin scabs formed from scratching; a magnifying lens helps visualize adults and eggs. Sarcoptes mites burrow under the skin, forming linear tracks and nodules (which house the mite); common locations are the groin, finger webs and axilla. Diagnosis of lice depends upon seeing the lice or their eggs; diagnosis of scabies depends upon seeing typical nodules. Pubic lice are treated by: lindane shampoo (1%), (not recommended for pregnant or nursing women, or children <2 years of age);or, permethrin creme rinse (1%) or pyrethrins with piperonylbutoxide. Scabies is treated by: permethrin cream (5%); or, lindane (1%), applied to the body from the neck down and washed off after 8 hours. For both diseases, bedding and clothing should be machine washed and machine dried using a hot cycle. Vaginal Discharge Vaginal discharge is a common symptom that can be normal or a symptom of various infections. Normal secretions are painless, clear, and thin, but can be quite profuse at some times of the month. Monilia, or a yeast infection, is characterized by a white, cheesy discharge resembling cottage cheese. Nonspecific vaginitis is due to a range of bacteria, and can have differing presentations. Since many things can cause this, thorough abdominal and pelvic examinations by a qualified and credentialed provider are usually needed for accurate diagnosis. Reasonable exclusion can be difficult, however, and consultation should be sought before beginning therapy. However, once the diagnosis is made, the patient can usually be treated with antibiotics as an out-patient. All patients with symptoms in the genital area, whether successfully treated or not, should not have sex until signs and symptoms have disappeared and they have been evaluated by skilled personnel.
Contamination and false positives must be avoided by not allowing the blade or swab to touch the eyelids d 100mg doxycycline free shipping. Viral specimen can be obtained with a swab quality 200 mg doxycycline, and then inoculated into chilled viral transport medium e cheap doxycycline 100mg line. Corneal biopsy can be performed with a 2-3 mm trephine to create a partial-thickness incision; forceps and scissors can then be used to excise a lamellar piece of cornea i generic 200mg doxycycline with mastercard. Consider also swabbing/scraping contact lenses or contact lens cases if applicable b. Fluid in the contact lens case may also be examined and cultured for micro-organisms 5. Bacterial and fungal culture plates and broth are examined periodically to detect visible growth 2. Microorganisms are identified by chemical staining and reactions, and may be tested for antimicrobial susceptibility 3. Acanthamoeba may be identified by trophozoite trails on blood agar, but optimally on non-nutrient agar with an overlay of killed E. For viral and chlamydial infections, an appropriate tissue-culture cell line is selected for inoculation and examined for the development of cytopathic effects and cellular inclusions C. Media: Anaerobic blood agar, phenyl ether alcohol agar in anaerobic chamber, thioglycollate or thiol broth b. Media: Non-nutrient agar with bacterial overlay, blood agar, buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar b. Growth on at least one culture medium of the same organism identified on the smear 4. Amoebic trails on culture plate, with microscopic confirmation of trophozoites from culture Additional Resources 1. Growth pattern, including speed of growth, color changes, ulceration, and bleeding 3. Risk factors, including sun or chemical exposure, pre-existing lesion, previous injury, or systemic disease B. Evaluate with Rose Bengal or Lissamine Green to define size of conjunctival lesion a. Apply specimen onto moist carrier or paper, keeping specimen flat with epithelial side up 3. Indicate orientation, such as by snipping corner of absorbent mount, making a penciled drawing to map location of biopsy, or tagging a margin of the specimen with a suture 4. Cellular atypia is a set of histopathological features involving cellular polarity; number, size, and shape of nuclei; and number of mitoses 3. Invasion of dysplastic cells beneath the basement membrane into adjacent tissue b. Gelatinous lesion may have acanthosis (thickening of epithelial layer with increased mitoses of basal epithelial cells) 2. Papilliform lesion may have hypertrophy (increased size of cells) and hyperplasia (increased number of cells) 3. Epidermalization and leukoplakia may have hyperkeratosis (excessive formation of keratin) and dyskeratosis (abnormal formation of keratin) D. Diagnosis and management of glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, and ocular hypertension 2. Preoperative planning for keratorefractive and anterior lamellar corneal surgery 3. Corneal thickness should be compared with the appearance of the corneal endothelium 1. Slit scanning pachymetry is particularly problematic in assessing corneal thickness after laser vision correction V. Explain relationship between corneal thickness and disease process Additional Resources 1. Cataract surgery in patients with Fuchs corneal dystrophy; expanding recommendations for cataract surgery without simultaneous keratoplasty. Determine the presence of abnormal corneal sensation in the presence of suspected disease 2. Wisp of cotton fiber from tip of swab brought in from side to avoid startle reflex 4. After touching central cornea of each eye, patient responds as to which eye is more sensitive, and examiner observes the interocular difference in blink reflex and verbal response B. Handheld "mechanical pencil" like device with 6 cm long adjustable nylon monofilament for testing 4. Longest extension of filament (6 cm) exerts 11 mg/mm2 pressure, shortest extension (1 cm) exerts 200 mg/mm2 pressure when applied perpendicularly to cornea 5. Perception of touch at full extension (6 cm) indicates normal corneal sensation 6. Ocular sensitivity greatest in central cornea, except in elderly where peripheral cornea can be more sensitive C. Penetrating keratoplasty grafts are anesthetic initially and never recover full sensation 6. Endothelial keratoplasty corneas will have reduced corneal sensation only at the area of the limbal incisions, similar to cataract surgery patients 7. Explain relationship between corneal sensation and disease process Additional Resources 1. To qualitatively and quantitatively image and assess up to 4-5 mm in depth the normal anatomy of the a. To qualitatively and quantitatively image and assess abnormalities of the anterior segment a. Slit lamp biomicroscopy to assess tumors on the conjunctiva, with mobility of tumor B. Gonioscopy with a standard 4 mirror gonioscopy lens or 3-mirror retinal lens before and after pupil dilation, with attention to the angle anatomy, ciliary processes, peripheral lens, zonules and anterior, peripheral retina C. Control ambient illumination and patient fixation and accommodation of the fellow eye for standardization of pupil size and angle anatomy F. Accommodation, pupil position and patient fixation of the fellow eye may affect the angle anatomy. Depth of corneal pathology to assist pre-operative planning of corneal surgery (ablative, lamellar, or full thickness) i. Possible new dark room provocative test for angle closure suspect eyes to evaluate the need for potential treatment 4. Assessment of conjunctival filtration blebs and glaucoma implants for function/scarring or patency and assessment of non-penetrating glaucoma surgical procedures 5. Ability to image an eye immediately preoperatively and postoperatively without contact with the eye 7. Avoids potential mechanical distortion of the anterior segment of the eye and change in angle/iris anatomy 9. Can be used intra-operatively or post Descemet stripping and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty to assess donor/host apposition 13. Can assess potential depth of corneal pathology prior to phototherapeutic keratectomy, automated lamellar keratoplasty etc. Dynamic investigation of anatomical angle variation and occludability with changes in illumination intensity 15. Potential for large scale, population screening at the primary care setting, in areas where angle closure glaucoma is highly prevalent D. Tumors in locations such as caruncle, inferior or superior fornix difficult to image 6. Cannot image structures behind the iris such as the ciliary body, ciliary processes, lens equator, zonules, and lesions or tumors in these areas 7. Inability to perform dynamic compression to discriminate appositional from synechial angle closure 8. Employs low coherence interferometry to compare the time delay of tissue reflections against a reference reflection, with image correction for the effect of refraction at the cornea-air interface C. Obtains images by scanning a beam of light laterally, creating a series of axial scans (A-scans) 1. Each A-scan contains information on the strength of a reflected signal as a function of depth 2. Archive and/or print the scan image for appropriate interpretation of the scan results for clinical assessment and billing purposes V.
Journal of Clinical Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and Microbiology 17 proven doxycycline 200 mg, 1148–1152 100 mg doxycycline with visa. Journal of Dairy Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76 buy doxycycline with a visa, Science 91 purchase genuine doxycycline online, 2561–2565. Journal of Applied markers concordantly identify bovine origin Microbiology 87, 770–781. Applied and (2000) Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic Environmental Microbiology 76, 361–365. Veterinary Microbiology Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 129, 418–425. For reason of space which modern genetic engineering tech- limitations, we have avoided providing a niques were performed. This relative ease of comprehensive review of the literature and manipulation means that phages also have a will instead concentrate on an illustrative versatility in biotechnology applications that subset of those studies we have identiﬁed. One aspect of that versatility can be summarized in terms of phages serving as delivery vehicles. When Variations on the Theme used for this purpose, bacteriophage virions can be considered as inert, nanoscale particles The phage genome can be modiﬁed to include that have speciﬁc activities when they interact heterologous sequences designed to be with their targets. Gene expression can be under the control the direct use of phages as killing agents of either prokaryotic or eukaryotic sequences. These various to control by a human operator or modiﬁed processes can be categorized in two ways: (i) in response to the target entity, such as by considering which physical/chemical part being released (i. Type of cargo Effect on Result of Duration of Whole phage Application delivereda Type of target host cellb modiﬁcationc effectd uptake needede Normal phage Nucleic acid Bacteria Toxic Not applicable Permanent No infection Phage therapy Nucleic acid Bacteria Toxic Manipulation Permanent No Chemotherapy Exogenous Cancer cell Toxic Manipulation Permanent Yes/no toxin (depends on toxin type) Vaccine Nucleic acid Immune or Non-toxic Manipulation Themporary Yes or protein other cells (on cells taking up phage) Gene therapy Nucleic acid Multiple cell Non-toxic Manipulation Permanent Yes types Imaging agent Exogenous Multiple cell Non-toxic Signalling Themporary No types Bacterial Protein or Bacteria Non-toxic Signalling Themporary No biosensor nucleic acid a Is the phage protein, nucleic acid sequence or some molecule bound to the phage virion the active material being transported by the phage? The Alternatively, phages may be modiﬁed obvious targets for phages are bacteria and genetically, phenotypically or both so that the natural speciﬁcity of phages has been they deliver toxins or genes expressing harnessed for a variety of biotechnological damaging products. Alternatively, phage display or form of phage therapy where prokaryotic the conjugation of non-phage molecules can cells are the target. Phages can be designed to be used to target phages to cells (see Siegel, damage or kill non-bacterial targets such as Chapter 8, this volume), either prokaryotic or tumour cells. Phage modiﬁcation of targets eukaryotic, for which there otherwise is no can also result in the generation of a signal for natural tropism. For some applications, the the sake of bacterial identiﬁcation (see Cox, interaction can be limited to simply binding Chapter 10, this volume). While antibodies can serve temporary phenomenon that induces a long- similar purposes, and indeed may be re- term eﬀect on the host. Phage therapy or sponsible for homing in on non-host targets, phage carriage of toxic genes or materials to phages have the advantage of providing a any target also, ideally, is a short-term eﬀect. Benign treatments can terms of retention and expression of include gene therapy as well as the use of constructs. This has several potential advantages Phages also can serve as scaﬀolds for alter- over standard vaccination including the ing the pharmacokinetic properties of other generation of strong type 1 immune responses molecules. As particulate antigens, (Gill and Hyman, 2010), suggests that bac- phages should be targeted to sites of antigen teriophages could serve as ideal vectors for presentation where the vaccine component vaccine delivery. Subsequent against challenge with a mouse tumour cell research in rabbits conﬁrmed that the same line expressing the same protein. In this study, three out of ﬁve eukaryotic cassete expressing the major phage-vaccinated rabbits responded afer one outer-membrane protein of Chlamydophila immunization, with the remaining two abortus was used to immunize mice. By 2 weeks afer the second immunization of a live atenuated vaccine immunization, responses in the phage- strain. In this case, both humoral proliferation afer stimulation with whole and cellular responses were found to be bacteria. The reduced response screening with no initial knowledge of the observed with ﬁlamentous phage may be due protective antigens. Following three that peptides presented in this way can immunizations with Freund’s adjuvant Gag- stimulate both humoral and cellular speciﬁc antibody responses over 2 logs higher responses (Wan et al. Peptides/proteins covered in substantial detail by Siegel that are displayed on the surface of phage (Chapter 8, this volume). While the high particles can be chosen based on previous density of display possible with ﬁlamentous knowledge of the speciﬁc disease, particularly phages can enhance immune responses of protective epitopes. This later approach, show improved immune responses to vaccine however, is limited by an incomplete phages by co-administration of T-cell epitopes knowledge of which aspects of the humoral displayed on a second ﬁlamentous phage (di immune response provide protection and by Marzo et al. Although ﬁlamentous antigenic in that they react with the products phage-display vaccines have usually been of an immune response but may not be delivered via the intraperitoneal or sub- immunogenic, that is, they are unable to cutaneous routes, some researchers have also generate an immune response themselves. It has Bacteriophage T4 is probably the second Phages as Therapeutic Delivery Vehicles 91 Table 7. The large proteins and peptides with signiﬁcant capsid of T4 contains two non-essential copy numbers continues to make T4 an proteins, both of which have been used for atractive option for vaccine development. As a proteins can be displayed at high copy consequence, they may be safer for use in numbers, which in many cases will lead to humans, although removing the ability to improved immune responses. A number of replicate may make production of vaccine studies have employed phage T4 as a carrier particles more diﬃcult. Vaccine delivery of protein antigens for vaccination, most vehicles based on both display of antigens as recently for example by an intramuscularly coat protein fusions and chemical conjugates delivered T4 vaccine that conferred complete of antigens to coat proteins have been protection to Dutch-belted rabbits against described; for more recent eﬀorts, see Zou et anthrax spores (Peachman et al. Overall, althoughﬁlamentous cases, the particles can be loaded with CpG phages are the most well-characterized oligodeoxynucleotides, which act as potent 92 J. Although not considered here, a adjuvant in a co-immunization with house description of gene therapy of prokaryotic dust mite allergen in trials that demonstrated organisms has also been proposed to combat a signiﬁcant reduction in the symptoms of antibiotic-resistant infections (e. Cytos Bio- with modifying tissue tropism so that the technology Ltd (Schlieren, Switzerland; www. These delivery technologies that are both more trials include nicotine addiction (Maurer et al. The now genetically full discussion of this delivery technology is modiﬁed cells are then returned to the body beyond the scope of this chapter, but the Cytos where, ideally, relatively long-term expres- website has a full list of relevant references sion of the introduced gene may occur. It is manipulate genotypically as well as pheno- also important to note that only a very few typically. Indeed, modiﬁcation of the tissue phages have been tested as vaccine delivery tropism of phages is an almost trivial exercise vehicles. There is a growing understanding of involving phage display technologies (see the role that shape, size and charge play in the Siegel, Chapter 8, this volume) and cloning of interaction of foreign particles with the the desired genes into phages. Further information on nucleus-homing mechanisms and the lack of phages as vaccines is given by Benhar (2001); natural sequences in vectors able to function Irving et al. Phages can deliver toxins to a cell, afer 1993) and cationic lipids (Yokoyama- targeting and either co-localization or endo- Kobayashi and Kato, 1994; Aujame et al. Toxins can be physically delivered by with ﬁlamentous phages and calcium the phage or encoded by appropriate expres- phosphate with phage (Ishiura et al. These initial studies Alternatively, an immune response against proved that phage particles can express the phage itself (facilitated by the adjuvant eukaryotic genes contained in the phage eﬀect of the phage particle) can result in genome if uptake is suﬃciently eﬃcient. In all cases, the key to proper has relatively limited biotechnological appli- functioning is phage targeting to speciﬁc cell cations, and several groups have atempted to types, which typically is eﬀected by capsid modify phages to provide tissue tropism. This modiﬁcation based on phage display speciﬁc targeting of phage particles technologies. Generally, the relatively small peptides can give tissue phage particles are targeted to cancerous cells tropism to phage particles, or in some and either a toxin is released or the immune instances antibodies displayed on phages can response against the phage itself promotes a be used to increase cellular uptake of phage cell-killing eﬀect. Another advantage of technology where a ﬁlamentous phage ﬁlamentous phages in the context of gene displays a cell-binding ligand along with a therapy is the ability to pan phage libraries to cytotoxin that is subject to controlled release select for phages displaying peptides that are (Yacoby et al. See Siegel (Chapter 8, interest, even if the bacterium is not a natural this volume) for additional discussion of target for the phage. A number of antibacterial compound is released at a reviews are available that further discuss the locally very high concentration, which results use of modiﬁed phages as gene-therapy in more eﬃcient bacterial killing. The same vectors (Uppala and Koivunen, 2000; Monaci group has developed a related technology for et al. Brain localization by phages has phage displaying a eukaryotic cell-binding been found by others (Pasqualini and ligand along with a cytotoxin, which is Ruoslahti, 1996), in this case to brain-speciﬁc subject to controlled release, is used to target blood vessels. The perspectives on this idea of phage penetration phages are endocytosed, resulting in both through anatomical barriers. They produced tumour-associated macrophages (Eriksson et a phage construct, based on the ﬁlamentous al.
A psychologist or psychiatrist is best equipped to help the family manage obsessive behavior purchase doxycycline 100mg with visa. Memory can be so poor that the child doesn’t recall that he had a soda or piece of candy ffteen minutes earlier order 200mg doxycycline otc. Parents may be advised to “pick their battles” and compromise if a situation begins to escalate toward a crisis 200 mg doxycycline with mastercard. From the start purchase 200mg doxycycline mastercard, families should be encouraged to try to identify factors or situations that tend to trigger aggressive behaviors. Some families may not be able to identify specifc situations that trigger violent or aggressive behavior, or may not be able to control the behaviors using the techniques described above. In these instances, aggressive, impulsive, or violent children may need medications to help them control their behavior. For these children, treating these symptoms may lead to an improvement in behavior. Similarly, treating an underlying depression can lead to marked improvement in angry, aggressive, or dangerous behavior. The physician may recommend visits to a family counselor, child psychologist, or psychiatrist to help both the family and the child to understand and manage behavior problems better. If a home situation is dangerous to the child or others in the family, a psychiatric hospitalization may be necessary. Removing the child temporarily allows both the child and the family to rest, refect, and heal. The child can begin treatment in a safe environment, and the family can learn different ways to manage the situation when the child returns home. This is probably because the developing brain of a child is more likely to develop seizures in response to an insult or injury than the adult brain. Blood tests should be done to rule out an infection or problem with blood sugar, sodium, or other blood chemicals. In adolescents, screening the urine for toxins such as cocaine may be appropriate. They can be auditory (such as hearing voices, which may simply make comments or may command the person to do something), visual, or sensory. They can occur in a person with severe depression, as a result of certain prescription medications, or because of the use of mind-altering drugs (such as stimulants or hallucinogens). Managing a changing physical appearance, new and unfamiliar sexual urges, learning how to interact with peers who are undergoing similar changes, and moving away from relationships with parents into strong relationships with other adolescents and adults are tall tasks for any teenager. Facing these challenges, with a disease that diminishes the ability to communicate and to understand new information, and reduces the ability to suppress impulsive or disruptive behavior, is far more challenging. The physician should have a private discussion with the girl about what sexual activity includes, how to prevent pregnancy, when sexual activity is inappropriate, and how to obtain help if problems arise. Contraceptive patches or long-acting injections may be preferable to pills or devices that must be used daily or at the time of a sexual encounter. Depending on the social or clinical situation, some might consider a sterilization procedure. A public school may be obligated to provide a personal care attendant if a girl is judged to be particularly vulnerable to the sexual or physical advances of others. Boys who are teased or physically abused or threatened should be offered the same protection that vulnerable girls would be offered. Boys who behave inappropriately may need both behavioral modifcation strategies and medications to manage their sexual urges and impulsive behaviors. For example, a boy who masturbates in public can be encouraged to use private areas such as the bedroom or bathroom, with the door closed, but may need medication if the inappropriate behavior continues or interferes with other daily activities. Consultation with a psychiatrist or psychologist experienced in the management of sexual or conduct disorders may be helpful, and inpatient treatment may be appropriate in severe cases. As the disease progresses, the young person may become confused or act aggressively, even toward family members and siblings. Verbal abuse, threats, temper tantrums and even physical violence are a possibility. They should be prepared with a safe room where they can go in time of crisis and to have a friend or neighbor who can be called upon to remove one or another party from the scene of the crisis. School attendance 3 – attends school, no special assistance needed 2 – attends school, some regular classes, some special or modifed classes 1 – attends school, few or no regular classes 0 – unable to attend school or work program B. Academic/developmental performance 3 – reading/writing/math skills appropriate to age 2 – mild decrease in academic performance but still able to take a test or to write 1 – unable to write legibly but able to communicate orally 0 – unable to read/write/communicate orally C. Chores 2 – able to assist in age-appropriate manner with household chores 1 – occasionally assists with chores 0 – unable to participate in household chores D. Activities of daily living 3 – performs self-cares in an age-appropriate manner 2 – requires some assistance for bathing, dressing, grooming, or feeding 1 – assists others who bathe, dress, or feed him/her 0 – unable to assist in self-cares E. Professional counseling should be made available to all family members before the situation becomes unmanageable. By having a realistic idea of the challenges ahead, parents or other caregivers have the time to ask questions, make plans, clear up any misunderstandings, and avoid surprises or crisis situations. The need for professional nursing, out of home placement, Advance Directives, medical Powers of Attorney and Hospice care are other important topics that may require family action. A chaplain, minister, counselor, social worker, or nurse can help the physician to discuss end of life issues with the family. The goal is to help parents or caregivers to consider the issues and make decisions before a crisis emerges. This son, the oldest of 4 siblings, has been irritable and angry, with declining school performance over the last year. Appropriate personnel from the school are involved in creating an educational plan based on the psychiatric diagnosis. The family is informed about the diagnosis and the expected course and treatments. The boy will continue to receive care for his behavioral issues from the psychiatrist. There are no evidence- based algorithms to guide the physician in providing sensitive and patient-oriented care in this diffcult stage of the disease, but there are some common sense approaches which are outlined in this chapter. In comparison to Alzheimer’s disease, which progresses in a relatively uniform fashion over a short number of years, Huntington’s Disease typically progresses over 10-20 years after diagnosis, and can follow one of several trajectories. Others may have little or no mood disturbance, but severe chorea and gait disturbance. Still others may have signifcant unawareness or denial of symptoms, leading to inappropriate decisions or behaviors. Below is a general framework that should help health professionals to provide sensitive and personalized care to people who are reaching the most debilitating phase of their disease. Individuals, families, treating physicians, and staff at long-term care facilities need to plan for several years of disease management during the late stages of the disease. May fall/lurch when standing still 2 uses wheelchair as primary way to get places within residence; moves wheelchair independently (e. Unable to self-propel a wheelchair 0 unable to sit even in a supported chair, usually because of severe chorea or truncal dyscontrol Feeding 3 eats already-prepared food using utensils, not just the fngers and hands 2 unable to use utensils properly, but still able to get some food and drink to the mouth (may be messy due to chorea or choking, but self-feeding is the primary means of taking nutrition) 1 most of the food at most meals is conveyed to the mouth by a caregiver, not the patient 0 has a feeding tube in place and uses that as the primary means of taking nutrition 101 Continence 3 independent and clean 2 independent but not always continent or poor hygiene (may be due to chorea, poor control of volitional movements, or cognitive impairment) 1 incontinent, but participates or tries to participate in performing hygiene 0 incontinent and neither asks for help nor participates actively in hygiene activities Communication 4 able to interact verbally with people besides family, caregivers; speaks in sentences and phrases that non-intimates can understand 3 still trying to speak, but not very successfully; familial people and those who are aware of the context can get the gist of what is being said, but likely do not understand all the words 2 can communicate simple concepts through single words or short phrases (e. Behavioral issues dating back to the earlier stages of the disease often lead to burnout among family caregivers. An occasional person with mild or minimal behavior problems, particularly an older person whose spouse is retired, is able to remain in the home with in-home personal care services or the equivalent from family members. For most families, an important hurdle is identifying a long-term care facility that meets the affected individual’s needs. Older individuals, and those without behavioral problems, may be appropriately placed in a local facility with ready access to family and friends. Allied health professionals specializing in nursing, social services, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology, dietetics, psychology, recreational therapy, and music therapy are invaluable resources as the team works to optimize the person’s quality of life. Oral medications do not generally provide satisfying relief of dystonia, but botolinum toxin injections of specifc muscles may provide symptomatic relief, easier care, and an improved quality of life. Medications are generally not helpful, so careful planning of the environment may be necessary. The occupational therapist can assist in identifying heavy-duty furniture or appliances, or creatively padding the chair, bed, walls, furniture corners, or toilet seat.
Through the Men’s Health Weeks the Danish Men’s Health Society collaborates with all kinds of national and local health organisations and authorities in the health areas purchase 100mg doxycycline overnight delivery. These co-operations contribute to the dissemination of knowledge on men’s health issues in different health spheres and around the country buy doxycycline online now. Men’s Health Society cheap doxycycline uk, Denmark is engaged in the Nordic Network on Men’s Health and in organising the Nordic Men’s Health Conferences cheap 100mg doxycycline with mastercard. Men’s Health Society, Denmark is also a member of the European Men’s Health Forum. He is the President of Men’s Health Society, Denmark and a member of the Board of Directors of the European Men’s Health Forum. Feminist objectives in the later veloped countries, men in England & Wales live shorter decades of the century focused most strongly on mat- lives than women (77. Overall, women’s activism has dence of the ten most common cancers that affect both succeeded in bringing about the acceptance by most sexes is almost twice as high in men). Men are also more people and most institutions, that discrimination on likely to develop most forms of serious illness earlier in the grounds of gender is unacceptable. This has been the lifespan (for example men aged 50 – 54 are fve times a signifcant political achievement and is arguably the more likely to die of coronary heart disease). It can be diffcult to see that gender ine- than women in personal health issues, and less likely qualities also sometimes affect men and boys. Health to engage with community processes built around mu- is the most signifcant case in point. This basic truth is way to address the health needs of men is to position the of course at the centre of the present wave of inter- issue where it properly belongs - within the debate about national interest in the links between masculinity and gender equalities. This approach – as in England & Wales has largely been led by men and we shall see later – has been crucial to the signifcant women with a professional or academic interest in the progress in the past two or three years in particular. These people have tended to be driven by profes- An essay explaining why the differences in health status sional concern. In other words, the campaign for bet- between men and women (whether to the disadvantage ter male health has differed fundamentally from the of either sex) should properly be regarded as a health in- activism on women’s health, which was essentially a equality forms the introduction to a report published by “grass roots” or “consumer” movement. It came ence of a reasonably-sized base among health work- in April 2006, when the Equality Act 2006 became law. This support was welcomed by ing was the greater willingness of funding bodies government departments keen to demonstrate that, to support research projects in the field. This latter although the primary political impetus was to build included government funding of an important two on the progress since the 1970s in achieving greater year project aimed at increasing uptake of chlamy- equality for women, there were benefts for both sexes dia screening by young men, the findings from which in the new law. This is of met on a number of occasions with health ministers central importance, since, in the feld of health specif- in the Labour administration who were interested in cally, outcomes are inarguably poorer for men. Rather it has given a solid base in law for the ar- health campaigners if it had not come at a time when there guments that the wisest advocates of better male health had already been several years of hard work and aware- were already making. If there had not been such a frame- the rate of progress and a sense that the improvements work in place then the Equality Act might have been noth- that are now steadily accruing are more likely to be lasting. Having said this, it should be added that the Equality Act Instead, and as a direct consequence of policy-makers thinking in a more concentrated way about gender inequalites, England & Wales have seen specifc account taken of male health at the highest possible level. Furthermore the Depart- tackle poorer outcomes in men; the National Chlamy- ment of Health’s own guidance to the Equality Act6 includes dia Screening Programme has published a detailed a strong emphasis on men’s health needs and behaviours. This would certainly require a long term commit- ancy are not keeping pace with the rest of the ment to the support and education of future generations population. Overall therefore, the ment “working together” with total of eleven non-gov- present situation in for male health England & Wales ernmental organisations “to improve knowledge and seems a positive one and, with good management skill”. The Department of Health promises that Stra- and a little bit of luck, promises to remain so for the tegic Partners will be “at the heart of shaping policy. He has written policy papers on several specifc aspects of men’s health and led a number of research projects. He is currently leading a three year government- funded project looking for ways to close the gap between men and women in the uptake of bowel cancer screening. He is also conducting a review (also government-funded) examining the most important issues in men’s mental health. David has represented the “men’s health interest” on a number of national and re- gional committees. What has arguably been the most Compared to men in the highest occupational classes, signifcant development, however, has been the recent men from the lower occupational classes have poorer publication of a national men’s health policy1. The pub- health outcomes and experience signifcantly higher lication of the policy in January 2009 followed a com- mortality rates3. Young men (15-24 years) are a par- mitment, as set out in the National Health Strategy2, ticularly high risk group7-9, with suicide being the prin- to develop a national policy for men’s health. It is also well creased focus in recent years on the statistics for men recognised in Ireland5 and internationally10-11 that men in relation to life expectancy, mortality and morbidity3-5 are often reluctant to seek help and continue to present provided a strong impetus and mandate for men to be (too) late in the course of an illness. With Ireland being the frst country in the past, the focus on gender and health in Ireland to publish a national men’s health policy, it is impor- has tended to be synonymous with women’s health12, tant to document the evolution of men’s health onto the the signifcance of gendered health practices (partic- policy agenda in Ireland. This chapter will focus on the ularly gendered patterns of help-seeking), have more key issues that led to the development and publication recently come to the forefront in the context of men5,13. It will describe the methodologies and key This refects more deep-rooted and widespread changes principles used for policy development and refect on that have occurred in gender relations. In Ireland, as in some of the opportunities and challenges in terms of other developed countries, the challenge to the posi- making the policy succeed. Not all men in Ireland than that of women (almost 5 years)6 and men have benefted from unprecedented economic boom during higher death rates than women for most of the leading 35 Men’s health in Ireland the 1990s15. The Agency has funded a number of research initiatives with disintegration of rural communities has resulted in a focus on men, including, barriers relating to men’s use isolation, diffculties with access to services and spe- of sexual health services21, and men’s experience of sex, cifc adverse consequences for the mental health of ru- contraception and crisis pregnancy22. Such changes have occurred against a back- Agency at the Department of Social and Family Affairs drop in Ireland of an increasing shift towards secular- has also funded research on policy and practice issues isation and individualism17. The Men’s Health in the economy in Ireland, labour market vulnerability Forum in Ireland (www. Health’s recent publication of an ‘All-Ireland Men’s Health Directory’24 provides a very worthwhile database of activity A number of important and specifc developments in the area of men’s health on the island of Ireland. The following section will outline the response Project in Dublin, which provides a wide range of clinical, of the Irish government to men’s health, and, in par- outreach and counselling services for gay and bisexual ticular, will chart the key methodologies and principles men. This section will present a brief over- view of the methodologies used and the key principles 36 Table 1 Key steps in the development of the national men’s health policy National Health Strategy 20012 > The development of a national men’s health policy identifed as a priority Research commissioned to inform > Jan 2002- Dec 2004 the development of a policy Men’s Health Report “Getting Inside Men’s Health”5 National Conference > Dec 2004 1st National Conference on Men’s Health Expert Steering Group > Nov 2004 Appointment of National Steering Committee Nationwide Consultation > Feb – Dec 2005 National Men’s Health Days Hosted 7 Focus Groups Targeted and Public Call for Submissions Review of Evidence > Feb 2005 – December 2006 Bilateral Meetings > January - August 2007 Meetings with key stakeholders and other Government Departments Implementation & Evaluation > Jan 2009 – Dec 2013 Following publication of a specifcally commissioned as well as structuring actions to meet those needs, men’s health research project5 at the frst National with due regard to the broader determinants of health. Conference on Men’s Health, an expert Men’s Health Ô Phase 1 comprised six men’s health days that Steering Group was convened to develop the national were held in strategic locations all over Ireland, policy with representatives from across a range of and which consulted with all key stakeholders in government departments, statutory, community/ the statutory, community and voluntary sectors. Under the Ô Phase 2 comprised the hosting of a series of “fo- terms of reference of the Steering Group, it was agreed cus groups” (discussion groups held for research that following an extensive nationwide consultation, purposes) with subpopulations of men whose both a Policy containing higher order recommendations voices were not represented at the men’s health and a specifc Action Plan would be developed. Before embarking on the fnal phase of consultation, an The level of consultation engaged in for this policy was extensive review of both the national and international lit- extensive, comprising four distinct phases with a strong erature on men’s health was conducted to establish the focus on research. The framework adopted throughout effcacy of translating the issues raised through the con- each phase mirrored the fve guiding principles of the 25 sultation process into policy recommendations and ac- Ottawa Charter. While the issues raised did guide the review of the in which the health of any individual may be affected literature, it was not solely limited to those issues. This review also took cognisance of: the scope Ô incorporates a community development approach within existing policy documents to promote men’s Ô focuses on prevention as well as cure health; the stakeholders who would commit to imple- Ô adopts a strengths perspective menting policy at various levels; the steps to be taken and the key actions needed to ensure the implementa- Ô seeks to support men to become more active tion of policy initiatives; and an anticipation of the pos- agents and advocates for their own health sible barriers to developing and implementing a men’s The dissemination of the policy has begun via a variety health policy. Prior to these meetings, a Follow-up briefngs and workshops are planned with draft policy and action plan was circulated to each relevant government departments and key stakeholders. There is also ongoing training of health service providers, community workers and academics in the area of men’s A number of key theoretical and philosophical princi- health. The Implementation Group that is to be appointed ples informed the development of the policy. The policy: to oversee the implementation and evaluation of the Ô is frmly positioned within existing government policy1, will be responsible for monitoring and evaluating policy (inter-sectoral/inter-departmental) and the policy and aligning the policy implementation to has invested in an extensive consultation process ongoing research fndings. Evaluation of the policy to develop strong partnerships with existing pol- must give consideration to the collection of data that icy across a number of government departments is aligned to the policy recommendations and actions. Undoubtedly, there will be much national and the paradigm that help-seeking is synonymous with international interest in the progress of the policy in weakness in men, and rather to portray good health the years to come. Many challenges lie ahead in the maintenance and prompt help-seeking as being part implementation of this policy. The principal challenge harsh economic climate in which the policy has been involved in monitoring and evaluating the policy will be published and the reduction in public spending that is to apply a cost-beneft analysis that should highlight currently being implemented across all government the value of early interventions and a more preventative departments. Finally, in the context dovetails with existing policy across different government of a gender relations approach to men’s health, there departments, and that all potential sources of funding is the ongoing challenge of convincing all stakeholders and resources are targeted by focusing on collaboration that improving the health of men can have both direct and partnership in developing men’s health work.