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When the skin at the site of an entrance wound has been supported by tight clothing discount 50mcg flonase with visa, eversion of the margins of the wound may be absent and the margins may even be abraded purchase 50mcg flonase otc, albeit somewhat irregularly effective 50mcg flonase, but nevertheless making differentiation from entrance wounds more difficult order flonase amex. Entrance wounds caused by damaged or fragmented bullets may be so atypical that it may not be possible to offer a useful opinion as to their nature. It is inappropriate to offer an opinion on the caliber of a bullet based on the size of an entrance wound, and it is not possible to state whether the bullet was fired from a revolver, pistol, or rifle by only the appearance of the wound. These inju- ries typically are seen when an individual has tried to defend himself or herself against an attack and are the result of instinctive reactions to assault. When attacked with blunt objects, most individuals will attempt to protect their eyes, head, and neck by raising their arms, flexing their elbows, and covering their head and neck. Thus, the extensor surface of the forearms (the ulnar side), the lateral/ posterior aspects of the upper arm, and the dorsum of the hands may receive blows. Similarly, the outer and posterior aspects of lower limbs and back may be injured when an individual curls into a ball, with flexion of spine, knees, and hips to protect the anterior part of the body. In sharp-blade attacks, the natural reaction is to try and disarm the attacker, often by grabbing the knife blade. Occasionally, the hands or arms may be raised to protect the body against the stabbing motion, resulting in stab wounds to the defense areas. In blunt-force attacks, the injuries sustained usually take the form of bruises if the victim is being punched or kicked, but there may also be abra- sions and/or lacerations depending on the nature of the weapon used. If the victim is lying on the ground while being assaulted, he or she will tend to curl up into a fetal position to protect the face and the front of the trunk, particu- larly from kicks. In these circumstances, defensive bruising is likely to be seen on other surfaces of the trunk and limbs. The absence of defense injuries in persons otherwise apparently capable of defending themselves against an assault may be particularly significant if it is believed that other injuries found on the victim could have been self- inflicted or if it is believed that they were incapacitated through alcohol, drugs, or other injury. The declaration also established guidelines for doctors when faced with cases of suspected torture. Clinicians view torture in two main contexts: first, torture that is perpetrated by criminals and terrorist orga- nizations, and second, torture that is carried out, or allegedly carried out, by the police or other security force personnel during the detention and interro- gation of prisoners and suspects. Injury Assessment 149 Criminal groups and paramilitary organizations may torture their cap- tives for numerous reasons. It may be to extract information from an opposing gang or faction, to discipline informants and others engaged in unsanctioned criminal activity, or simply to instill fear and division within a community. The victim is usually bound, blind- folded, and gagged, and the wrists and ankles may bear the pale streaky linear bruises and abrasions caused by ligatures. Black eyes, fractures of the nose and jaws, and dislodgment of the teeth are all fairly typi- cal. Cigarette burns, usually seen as discrete circular areas of reddish-yellow, parchmented skin, are also quite common. Patterned injuries resulting from being struck with the butt of a gun or tramline bruising owing to blows with a truncheon or baseball bat may be seen; in Northern Ireland, shooting through the lower limbs (“knee-capping”) is a favored method of punishment by para- military organizations. Systematic torture by security personnel, usually during interrogation of suspects, ranges from the subtle use of threats and intimidation to physical violence. Hooding, prolonged standing, and the use of high-pitched sound have all been used, as have attempts to disorientate prisoners by offering food at erratic times, frequent waking up after short intervals of sleep, and burning a light in the cell 24 hours a day. Physical abuse includes beating of the soles of the feet, so-called falanga, which, although extremely painful and debilitating, does not usually cause any significant bruising. Repeated dipping of the victim’s head under water, known as submarining, may prove fatal if prolonged, as can the induction of partial asphyxia by enveloping the head in a plastic bag. Electric torture is well documented and carries the risk of local electric shocks and fatal electrocution. Telefono, as it is known in Latin America, con- sists of repeated slapping of the sides of the head by the open palms, resulting in tympanic membrane rupture. Doctors who have access to prisoners in custody have a heavy responsi- bility to ensure that they are properly treated during detention and interroga- tion. In all cases of suspected or alleged ill-treatment of prisoners, it is essential that the doctor carry out a methodical and detailed “head-to-toe” examina- tion. All injuries and marks must be accurately recorded and photographed, and the appropriate authorities must be informed immediately. Increasingly, forensic physicians are involved in assessments of refugees and asylum seek- ers to establish whether accounts of torture (both physical and psychologi- cal) are true. This role is likely to expand in the future, and the principles of independent assessment, documentation, and interpretation are, as with other 150 Payne-James et al. Introduction The term bite mark has been described as “a mark caused by the teeth alone, or teeth in combination with other mouth parts” (10). Recog- nition, recording, analysis, and interpretation of these injuries are the most intriguing challenges in forensic dentistry. Biting can establish that there has been contact between two people—the teeth being used for offense or defense. When individual tooth characteristics and traits are present in the dentition of the biter and are recorded in the biting injury, the forensic significance of the bite mark is greatly increased. Early involvement of the forensically trained dentist, with experience in biting injuries, is essential to ensure that all dental evidence from both the victim and any potential suspect(s) is appropriately collected, preserved, and evaluated. There may be insufficient evidence to enable comparisons to be made with the biting edges of the teeth of any par- ticular person, but, if the injury can be identified as a human bite mark, it may still be significant to the investigation. It is important that the forensic dentist discusses with investigators the evidential value of the bite mark to enable resources to be wisely used. Clearly, conclusions and opinions expressed by the forensic dentist often lead him or her into the role of the expert witness subject to rigorous examination in court. The forensic physician will mostly be involved with biting injuries to human skin and any secondary consequences, including infection and disease transmission, but should be aware that bites in foodstuffs and other materials may be present at a crime scene and be easily overlooked. It is essential that a human bite can be distinguished from an animal bite, thus exonerating (or incriminating) the dog or cat next door. The following sections will consider issues surrounding bites to human skin caused by another human. Early rec- ognition of a patterned injury (suspected of being caused by biting) by medi- cal personnel, social services, and other investigating agencies is extremely important; the injury may be the only physical evidence and must not be lost. Ideally, the forensic dentist should be contacted sooner rather than later when a possible biting injury is discovered to ensure that all evidence is collected appropriately. All too often the dentist is brought in at a later date, when there has been incorrect recording of the bite mark and the injury is partly healed and distorted or fully healed and no longer visible. Reliance may then have to be placed on ultraviolet photography to demonstrate the “lost” injury (11). Injury Assessment 151 Bites can be found on the victim or the assailant (living, deceased, child, or adult). It is well known that biting is often a feature in nonaccidental injury to children (see Chapter 5). If a bite mark is found on an anatomical site that is accessible to the victim, it becomes necessary to exclude him or her from the investigation. If the answer to the first question is “don’t know,” “possibly,” or “yes,” then request the assistance of the forensic dentist. Ensure that swabs are taken from the injured site (with controls) and photographs should be taken. Make sure that you know which forensic dentists are available in your area; this will prevent delays and frustration. You will need to know whether your local forensic dentist has experience and training in bite mark-analysis or whether he or she focuses mainly on identifications. The forensic dentist will examine the suspected biting injury and con- sider the following: • Whether the injury is oval or round. However, note that a mark from only one arch does not mean that it is not a biting injury. Characteristics, such as tooth size, shape, displacement, rotations, wear facets, etc. Differential Diagnosis It is important to remember that other injuries can mimic bite marks. The following have all been queried as biting injuries: • Dermatological conditions. In a single bite mark, one or any combination of several or all of these components may be present, and they may be discrete or superimposed. However, the complex situation may become even more complicated when there are multiple bite marks at a single location where they may overlap as a result of the biter trying to get a better “grip;” all this leads to interpretation difficulties. In attempting to get answers to these questions, a clearer picture of the incident may develop.

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When you reduce the toxic load on the body and give the body proper nutritional support purchase flonase amex, in most cases these bothersome symptoms will disappear order flonase 50 mcg online. Even more important buy flonase 50 mcg free shipping, by addressing these warning signs now we can ensure better long-term health and avoid the progression of minor problems to more serious conditions order 50 mcg flonase with visa. A toxin is defined as any compound that has a detrimental effect of cell function or structure. Our modern environment seriously overloads the liver, resulting in increased levels of circulating toxins in the blood, which damage most of our body’s systems. A toxic liver sends out alarm signals, which are manifested as psoriasis, acne, chronic headaches, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and chronic fatigue. Heavy metals tend to accumulate within the brain, kidneys, liver, immune system, and other body tissues, where they can severely disrupt normal function. Most of the heavy metals in the body are a result of environmental contamination from industry. In the United States alone, industrial sources dump more than 600,000 tons of lead into the atmosphere, to be inhaled or—after being deposited on food crops, in fresh water, and in soil—to be ingested. Although we are no longer using leaded gasoline in cars (it is still used in piston engine airplanes and helicopters, however), its use for so many decades added a large amount of lead to the environment, from which it is only very slowly cleared. Other common sources of heavy metals include lead from the solder in tin cans, pesticide spray cans, and cooking utensils; cadmium and lead from cigarette smoke; mercury from dental fillings, contaminated fish, and cosmetics; and aluminum from antacids and cookware. Some professions with extremely high exposure include battery makers, gasoline station attendants, printers, roofers, solderers, dentists, and jewelers. Toxic metals cause damage in three main ways: by blocking the activity of enzymes (for example, mercury blocks the enzyme that converts the thyroid hormone T4 to the more active T3, resulting in functional hypothyroidism), by displacing minerals (such as lead replacing calcium in bones, making them weaker), and by increasing oxidative stress, which negatively affects virtually all tissues and functions in the body. Mild cases of toxicity may be associated with headache, fatigue, and impaired ability to think or concentrate. A person with severe toxicity may experience muscle pains, indigestion, tremors, constipation, anemia, pallor, dizziness, and poor coordination. Heavy metals have a very strong affinity for body tissues composed largely of fat, such as the brain, nerves, and kidneys. As a result, heavy metals are almost always linked to disturbances in mood and brain function as well as neurological problems (including multiple sclerosis) and high blood pressure (the kidneys regulate blood pressure). Numerous studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between intelligence, childhood learning disabilities, and body stores of lead, aluminum, cadmium, and mercury. Determination of Heavy Metal Toxicity Determining the body load of toxic metals can be difficult and is controversial. Measuring blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic is good for determining current exposure. However, it is not very good for determining total body load, which better correlates with toxicity. In the past, hair mineral analysis was considered a useful tool for measuring toxic heavy metals. Unfortunately, more recent research shows that some people have trouble eliminating heavy metals from the body, so they can show low levels in the hair even when the body levels are high. This involves taking drugs that chelate heavy metals in the body; the resulting chelation products are then excreted in the urine. The level of toxic metals in the urine after chelation correlates with the body load. Anyone who is interested in optimal health should be evaluated for heavy metal load. This recommendation is particularly true if you have been exposed to heavy metals or have symptoms associated with heavy metal toxicity (see the table). Persistent Organic Pollutants This category of toxins is primarily dealt with by the liver and includes drugs, alcohol, solvents, formaldehyde, pesticides, herbicides, and food additives. It is staggering to contemplate the tremendous load placed on the liver as it detoxifies the incredible quantity of toxic chemicals it is constantly exposed to. Most common are psychological and neurological symptoms such as depression, headaches, mental confusion, mental illness, tingling in the hands and feet, abnormal nerve reflexes, and other signs of impaired nervous system function. Respiratory tract allergies and increased rates for many cancers are also noted in people chronically exposed to chemical toxins. Microbial Compounds Toxins produced by bacteria and yeast in the gut can be absorbed by the body, causing significant disruption of body functions. Examples of these types of toxins include endotoxins, exotoxins, toxic amines, toxic derivatives of bile, and various carcinogenic substances. Gut-derived microbial toxins have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases, including liver diseases, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, pancreatitis, allergies, asthma, and immune disorders. In addition to toxic substances being produced by microorganisms, antibodies formed against microbial antigens can cross-react with the body’s own tissues, thereby causing autoimmune diseases. Diseases that have been linked to cross-reacting antibodies include rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, diabetes, and autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the absorption of toxic substances, we recommended a diet rich in fiber, particularly soluble fiber, such as that found in vegetables, guar gum, pectin, and oat bran. Fiber has an ability to bind to toxins within the gut and promote their excretion. The immune system as well as the liver is responsible for dealing with the toxic substances that are absorbed from the gut. Breakdown Products of Protein Metabolism The kidneys are largely responsible for the elimination of toxic waste products of protein breakdown (ammonia, urea, etc. You can support this important function by drinking adequate amounts of water and avoiding excessive protein intake. Diagnosis of Toxicity In addition to directly measuring toxin levels in the blood or urine, or by biopsy of fat, there are a number of special laboratory techniques useful in assessing how well we detoxify the chemicals we are exposed to. Clearance tests measure the levels of caffeine, acetaminophen, benzoic acid, and other compounds after ingestion of a specified amount. Other tests for liver function (serum bilirubin and liver enzymes) are also important but are less sensitive. Genetic testing is a newer option that can determine which detoxification enzymes are not optimal. Perhaps the best way to help determine if your liver is functioning up to par is to look over the following list. If any factor applies to you, we recommend following the guidelines for improving liver function given below: • More than 20 pounds overweight • Diabetes • Presence of gallstones • History of heavy alcohol use • Psoriasis • Natural and synthetic steroid hormone use Anabolic steroids Estrogens Oral contraceptives • High exposure to certain chemicals or drugs: Cleaning solvents Pesticides Antibiotics Diuretics Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Thyroid hormone • History of viral hepatitis Naturopathic physicians use a number of special laboratory techniques to determine the presence of microbial compounds, including tests for the presence of abnormal microbial concentrations and disease-causing organisms (stool culture); microbial by-products (urinary indican test); and endotoxins (erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a rough estimator). The determination of the presence of high levels of breakdown products of protein metabolism and kidney function involves both blood and urine measurement of these compounds. How the Body’s Detoxification System Works The body eliminates toxins either by directly neutralizing them or by excreting them in the urine or feces (and to a lesser degree through the hair, lungs, and skin). Toxins that the body is unable to eliminate build up in the tissues, typically in our fat stores. The Liver The liver is a complex organ that plays a key role in most metabolic processes, especially detoxification. The liver is constantly bombarded with toxic chemicals, both those produced internally and those coming from the environment. The metabolic processes that make our bodies run normally produce a wide range of toxins for which the liver has evolved efficient neutralizing mechanisms. However, the level and type of internally produced toxins increase greatly when metabolic processes go awry, typically as a result of nutritional deficiencies. Yet even those eating unprocessed organic foods need an effective detoxification system, because even organically grown foods contain naturally occurring toxic constituents. It filters the blood to remove large toxins, synthesizes and secretes bile full of cholesterol and other fat-soluble toxins, and enzymatically disassembles unwanted chemicals. The liver also plays a critical role in the excretion of metal toxins such as mercury. The Liver’s Detoxification Pathways Proper functioning of the liver’s detoxification systems is especially important for the prevention of cancer. Up to 90% of all cancers are thought to be due to the effects of environmental carcinogens, such as those in cigarette smoke, food, water, and air, combined with deficiencies of the nutrients the body needs for proper functioning of the detoxification and immune systems. Our exposure to environmental carcinogens varies widely, as does the efficiency of our detoxification enzymes. High levels of exposure to carcinogens coupled with sluggish detoxification enzymes significantly increase our susceptibility to cancer. The link between our detoxification system’s effectiveness and our susceptibility to environmental toxins, such as carcinogens, is exemplified in a study of chemical plant workers in Turin, Italy, who had an unusually high rate of bladder cancer.

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The ethanolic extract had more hypoglycemic effect than watery extract of Orthosiphon aristatus discount 50 mcg flonase. Extracts of other selected plants produced no hypoglycaemic effects on the glucose loaded hyperglycaemia rabbit model buy cheap flonase 50mcg. Probable purchase flonase on line amex, structural features of the compounds are being speculated on the light of the present data discount flonase 50mcg on-line. A clinical trial to determine the hypoglycemic potential of locally grown Momordica charantia Linn. Fruit powder was carried out on 26 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients for a period of 28 days during which their diet, exercise, smoking and all medications except anti-hypertensives were restricted. It was found that the fruit powder had highly significant effect on the glucose tolerance patterns in 92. Clinically evident side effects were not detected and it had no effect on liver function test, blood urea and cholesterol levels. The reputed hypolipidiemic effect of locally grown saffron Carthamus tinctorius L. The 80% ethanolic extract of saffron leaves and stem (2g/Kg) and Standard drug lovastatin (500mg/Kg) intraperitoneally. The mean blood total cholesterol levels of the saffron leaves and stem treated group were82. Both saffron leaves and stem treated rat showed not significant lowering the total cholesterol but the standard lovastatin treated rat showed significant lowering the total cholesterol (p<0. Hypolipidiemic effect of (ovJoD;) seed on triton induced hyperlipidiemic rat model. The 70% ethanolic extract of (ovJoD;) seed (2g/Kg) and Standard drug Lovastatin (500mg/Kg) intraperitoneally. The 70% ethanolic extract of (ovJoD;) seed treated rat showed not significant lowering the total cholesterol but the standard lovastatin treated rat showed significant lowering the total cholesterol(p<0. Khin Kyi Kyi; Mya Bwin; Sein Gwan; Chit Maung; Aye Than; Mya Tu, M; Tha, Saw Johnson. Early trials with the water-alcohol soluble extract in a dose of 125mg/kg given intravenously were found to produce a fall in arterial blood pressure of 20-40mmHg. Further fractionation of the extract was carried out and screened for hypotensive activity. The fraction designated F-7 produced a fall in the arterial blood pressure which was sustained up to 1 hour. An indigenous medicinal plant growing in Myeik, Tanintharyi Division whose bitter fruit commonly known as Yardan-zeet is very similar to the vernacular name of the Chinese drug "Yardan-zeet" the ripe bitter fruit of Brucea javanica (L. Due to the similarity in the common names, the specific name of Yardan-zeet plant obtained from Myeik was identified taxonomically. Yardan-zeet fruit available in Yangon market as antidysenteric drug was also identified by comparing the macroscopic features and microscopic characters with that of the identified Yardan- zeet from Myeik. The macroscopic features and microscopic characters of Myeik and market Yardan-zeet fruits were identical. The findings from this study reveals that Yardan-zeet fruits are of the same species as the Chinese drug "Yadanzi" the bitter fruit of Brucea javanica (L. Identification of cultivated chounggyah plant and comparative pharmacognostic studies with market sample. Comparative pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemical studies revealed that cultivated and market Chounggyah are not identical. Identification of omega-3 fatty acid and evaluation of antioxidant activity on seed of Perilla frutescens (L. The primary aim of this study was to identify alpha linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid) in Perilla seed oil and the secondary aim was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Perilla seed. Perilla seed oils yields were studied by driect pressing method, extracted with petroleum ether by refluxing method and Soxhlet extraction method, and were found that the yield percents were 29-44%, 26-35% and 36-45% respectively. Each sharp peak with the relevant molecular weight was identified as 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (omega-3 or δ-linolenic acid methyl ester), 9, 12-Octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (omega-6 or linolenic acid methyl ester), 9 Octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (omega-9 or linolenic acid methyl ester) respectively. Among these fatty acids, the propotion of of δ- linolenic acid known as omega-3 fatty acids was found to be greatest (81%). In-vitro and in-vivo antimicrobial activity of essential oil and thymol obtained from Carum copticum Benth and Hook. The aim of study is to determine the in-vitro and in-vivo antimicrobial activity of essential oils and isolated thymol from Carum copticum and to evaluate the acute toxicity of isolated thymol. The essential oils of air-dried fruit samples were obtained by hydrodistillation method. It was observed that essential oil, standard and isolated thymol was effective against S. In-vivo study, open wounds were induced by Staphylococcus aureus strain in albino rats and treated with essential oil, isolated thymol, and standard th thymol. It showed that complete wound healing rate of essential oil was 6 day; th isolated and standard thymol was 5 day. In conclusion, essential oil and isolated thymol from Carum copticum Benth & Hook. In-vitro antibacteria activity of extracts and active compound from stem bark of Mangifera indica L. The bark has been traditionally used in Myanmar for the treatment of various ailments. In the present study, the extracts of mango cultivar Sein-ta-lone stem barks were screened for phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity. From this, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides were observed in the bark. The barks defatted with petroleum ether were extracted successively with acetone and 70% ethanol repeatedly to obtain mangifera compound. In-vitro antibacterical activities of extracts and isolated mangifera were investigated on some pathogenic bacteria strains; Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella bodyii, Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysentriae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes and Vibrio cholera by agar disc diffusion methods. The present study highlighted some medical values from mango stem barks and isolated mangiferin compound. In-vitro antibacterial activity of some indigenous plants and effect on in vivo Staphylococcal induced wounds. Phyllanthus emblica: Zibyuthee (11 species); Foeniculum vulgare: Samonsaba (1 specie); Nyctanthes arbortristis: Seikphaluywet (6 species); Piper betle: Kunywet (13 species); Piper nigrum: Ngayokkaungsai (5 species); Terminalia chebula: (11 species); and Vinea rosea: Thinbawmahnyoywet (6 species) respectively were demonstrated by using agar disc diffusion technique. For in vivo study, Staphylococcus aureus strain was induced as open wounds in experimental rats and topical application of plant extracts in paraffin was introduced. It was noted that the plant Piper betle (Kun) and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (Seikphalu) accelerated the rate of wound healing and tensile strength without formation of pus and induration when compared with the controls. In-vitro antibacterial of some medicinal plants on bacteria causing diarrhoea and dysentery. Diarrhoea and dysentery still play an important role as major morbidity and mortality in many countries. In Myanmar diarrhoea and dysentery stood as the fourth priority disease in the National Health Plan (2006-2011). The emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria accounts for a significant challenge in the treatment of these infections. As there are numerous medicinal plants which are reputed to be effective against many diseases, the present study was carried out to detect antibacterial activity of some reputed medicinal plants on bacteria causing diarrhoea and dysentery. The different extracts of 16 medicinal plants were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique at the Bacteriology Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar) during 2007 and 2008. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts with the most significant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants that had antibacterial activity on bacterial causing diarrhoea and dysentery were found to be Garcinia morella Desr. The research findings provide necessary data for further in vivo animal studies and clinical trails on effectiveness of these medicinal plants. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate scientifically the in vitro antimicrobial activity of whole plant and leaves of Danta-thu-kha (Scoparia dulcis Linn.

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Volume with edition Editor and other Secondary Authors for the Volume (optional) General Rules for Editor and other Secondary Authors • A secondary author modifes the work of the author purchase 50 mcg flonase with mastercard. Books 219 • Place the names of secondary authors afer the title proven flonase 50mcg, following any Type of Medium or Edition statement • Use the same rules for the format of names presented in Author/Editor above • Follow the last named editor with a comma and the word editor or editors; the last named illustrator with a comma and the word illustrator or illustrators purchase flonase on line amex, etc 50 mcg flonase mastercard. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Language Word for Editor Word for Translator Word for Illustrator Russian redaktor perevodchik konstruktor izdatel Spanish redactor traductor ilustrador editor Box 92. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Chicago as the place for a publication of the American Medical Association), place the city in square brackets, such as "[Chicago]". Volume with geographic qualifer added to place of publication for clarity Publisher for the Volume (required) General Rules for Publisher • A publisher is defned as the individual or organization issuing the volume • Record the name of the publisher as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there • Abbreviate well-known publisher names if desired but with caution to avoid confusion. If you abbreviate a word in one reference in a list of references, abbreviate the same word in all references. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation is given in the publication. Tokyo: Medikaru Rebyusha; Beijing (China): [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute]; Taiyuan (China): Shanxi ke xue ji she chu ban she; Box 98 continues on next page... Terefore in transliterating Chinese publisher names only the frst word and proper nouns are capitalized] • If the name of a division or another part of an organization is included in the publisher information, give the names in hierarchical order from highest to lowest Valencia (Spain): Universidade de Valencia, Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia y Documentacion Lopez Pinero; • Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Aarhus (Denmark): Aarhus-Universitetsforlag [Aarhus University Press]; • As an option, you may translate all publisher names not in English. 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If no date of publication can be found, but the publication contains a date of copyright, use the date of copyright preceded by the letter "c"; for example c2005. Volume with estimated date of publication Pagination for the Volume (optional) General Rules for Pagination • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the volume appears • Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text • Follow the page total with a space and the letter p • For volumes published in more than one physical book, cite the total number of volumes instead of the number of pages, such as 4 vol. Many books published in multiple volumes with separate authors/editors and titles are paginated anew with each volume. If the entire publication has no page numbers: • Count the total number of pages of the text • Express the total as leaves, not pages • End with a period Example: 37 leaves. 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Series for the Volume (optional) General Rules for Series • Begin with the name of the series • Capitalize only the frst word and proper nouns • Follow the name with any numbers provided. As an option, the name of the overall series editor may be included with the series information. When other names are used: • Abbreviate them and end the abbreviated words with a period Section = sect. Standard volume with a separate title and separate authors/editors for each volume 22. Volume without a series number Language for the Volume (required) General Rules for Language • Give the language of publication if not English • Capitalize the language name Books 239 • Follow the language name with a period Specific Rules for Language • Volumes appearing in more than one language Box 117. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der homoopathischen Materia medica; vol. Yttre arbetsmiljofaktorer som halsorisker bland halso- och sjukvardspersonal [Health risks in the work environment of health care personnel]. Esthetic problems of individual teeth, missing teeth, malocclusion, special populations. Some examples of notes are: • If the volume is available from a distributor rather than the publisher, give the name of the distributor, its location, and any accession or fnding number. Other types of notes 242 Citing Medicine Examples of Citations to Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Author/Editors 1. Abdomen: higado, bazo, vias biliares, pancreas y peritoneo [Abdomen: liver, spleen, bile ducts, pancreas and peritoneum]. Yttre arbetsmiljofaktorer som halsorisker bland halso- och sjukvardspersonal [Health risks in the work environment of health care personnel]. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der homoopathischen Materia hedica; vol. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der homoopathischen Materia medica; vol. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der homoopathischen Materia medica; vol. Esthetic problems of individual teeth, missing teeth, malocclusion, special populations. Volume with series title published with equal text in two or more languages Klunker W. Sleep, dreams, sexuality = Sommeil, reves, sexualite = Schlaf, Traume, Sexualitit. Synthetic repertory: psychic and general symptoms of the homeopathic materia medica = Repertoire synthetique: symptomes psychiques et generaux de la matiere medicale homeopathique = Synthetisches Reportorium: Gemuts- und Allgemeinsymptome der Homoopathischen Materia Medica; vol. Esthetic problems of individual teeth, missing teeth, malocclusion, special populations. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Books Te general format for a reference to a part of a book, including pagination: Books 249 Examples of Citations to Parts of Books Rather than citing a book as a whole, separately identifed portions of a book may be cited. Chapters, sections, tables, charts, graphs, photographs, appendixes, and the like are considered parts of books when they are written or compiled by the authors of the book. Tey are contributions when the book has an overall editor or editors and the individual chapters or other components in the book are written by various authors, usually called contributors. In general, most modern texts have standardized to three types of parts: fgures, tables, and appendixes. However, other names may be found for parts, including section, chart, graph, box, and photograph. Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication: • Begin a reference to a part of a book with the book itself, then follow it with information about the part.

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