By A. Yasmin. Teachers College. 2019.
Now wrap some of the posterior wall of the stomach round the oesophagus as in a fundoplication (30-6B) order arimidex in india, and suture the posterior gastric wall around the front of the oesophagus to the anterior gastric wall order arimidex 1mg mastercard, allowing enough room for the oesophagus within discount arimidex 1mg free shipping. The difficulty inserting the sign before the tooth Various dental problems may lead to serious illness; number has made this system unpopular arimidex 1mg amex. Do not forget that a hospital As so often, much of what you can do will be limited by can play a key role in dental health and education; your anaesthetic skills, or those of your assistant. Make sure you brush a patients teeth yourself in theatre before operating on his mouth! When mixed together on a glass slab with the spatula listed above, these make an effective analgesic and a mildly antiseptic dressing for Fig. Food tends to accumulate between a tooth and its gum, You may not find yourself scaling many teeth yourself, and cause the gum to slowly recede. This makes the pocket but there must be someone in your hospital who could do larger, so that food accumulates even more easily. This is not Ingestion of food increases mouth acidity, which attacks easy behind the lower front teeth, and needs much the enamel lining of the teeth. The prevention of gum disease, and most of its treatment, Use the spoon end of a scaler (31-3F) to remove deep is improved oral hygiene: better tooth-brushing hardened plaque (31-3J). Rinse the mouth out thoroughly, and then demonstrate how to clean the teeth properly. Advise use of dental floss, avoidance of sticky sugary You should be able to extract teeth, either for severe foods including most fizzy drinks. Try to remove the tooth with all its roots, and without chromic acid 5% od, and treat with oral metronidazole. Measure the depth of the gum pockets with a special blunt The secret of success is to force the beaks of the forceps probe which you can introduce under the gingiva over the visible crown of the tooth, and under the gums, alongside the tooth. Forceps for the upper jaw are straight, or slightly curved; those for the lower jaw have blades at right angles to their handles. Ideally, forceps should avoid the crown, and fit the whole surface of the neck and root of a tooth. The blades must be sharp, so that they can easily slide between a tooth and its gum. The teeth which have one root are: the upper incisors and canines, and the lower incisors, canines, and premolars. You will need two forceps for upper molars: one for the right and another for the left. The buccal blade with a beak on it is designed to grip the two outer roots, and the palatal blade is designed to grip the one inner root. Dental forceps are expensive, so you may have to A, plaque around the lower front teeth. B-C, use of a toothstick on manage with these 2 universal forceps, but they are not so easy to use. I, severe if you dont have one you may be able to use the narrow blades of periodontal disease. If you are fortunate to have this, acquaint yourself with If you can save the tooth, scrape out the carious portion, its proper use. But if one or more of the teeth are loose in their sockets, (3) A periodontal abscess. If a small hole in the tooth seems to be responsible for the pain, clean out the cavity. Use a mixing spatula on a glass surface to make a paste of zinc oxide powder, and oil of cloves. Under 12yrs, be very careful when you remove a deciduous (primary, or milk) tooth, lest you remove or damage the permanent tooth underneath. Occasionally, however, when pain is referred, it is not clear even which jaw is affected. Toothache may come from an infected maxillary sinus, or the temporo-mandibular joint! If there is These may give you problems: pressure but not pain, anaesthesia is adequate; otherwise (1) Buried, impacted (31. Grip the tooth socket To extract a lower right molar, stand behind the right between the index and middle fingers of your left hand, shoulder, and use a side-to-side rocking action (31-6E). If you have difficulty extracting the lower 3rd molar, If you are extracting a lower right premolar or molar this may be because its roots are deformed, and need to be tooth, stand behind the patient (31-5B). If your chair does not have a head For all others, stand in front, but on the left side. For all upper teeth, put the finger and thumb of your left hand on either side of the gums. To extract an upper incisor, or canine, which have a single conical root, rotate the tooth at the same time as you press it firmly in the direction of its apex (31-6D). To extract an upper premolar, which has delicate roots (the 1st premolar often has 2), be as gentle as you can. If you cannot get him low enough, stand on To extract an upper molar, which has 3 roots, 2 on the a step or something stable. Support the jaw with one finger inside outer side, and a single large one on the inside next to the and one outside. The beaks of lower molar forceps are both so that the pointed blade slips down outside the crown pointed to fit between the 2 flattened roots. Use constant downward while you make slight side-to-side rocking movements to pressure, and support the jaw in your other hand. Make sure you support the socket firmly To extract a lower canine, which has a more rounded between your finger and thumb, because you can easily root, use gentle rotating movements (31-6D). If the tooth is immovable, and fails to yield when you apply reasonable force with forceps, or an elevator, (31-8) it probably needs dissection. If the enamel crown or root breaks, examine it carefully to see how much you have left behind. In a healthy patient, the retained apex of a vital tooth is unlikely to cause trouble. Otherwise, wedge a blunted 26-gauge needle firmly into the exposed root canal of the tooth fragment, and pull on this to extract it. B, tilt the head backwards and support it against a wall, or ask an assistant to support it. Note the excellent position of the operator in If you displace a tooth into the sinus or if, while you are this figure. C, the teeth to rotate (those with single roots), and the extracting an upper molar, you feel supporting bone teeth to rock (those with >1 root). Push the inner and outer sides of the empty the same teeth are extracted on the other side, the same socket together. This will raise the morning, start rinsing out the mouth with water, using a pressure in the maxillary sinus, make blood in the socket small spoonful of salt to a cup of water. Tell him not to bubble, and deflect a wisp of gauze you hold over the touch the socket, or play with it with his tongue. If you have extracted a tooth for an abscess, repair of the defect, and do not put any instrument through commence antibiotic treatment if the swelling does not the fistula: you may infect the sinus. Advise oral Use a half-circle cutting needle and 3/0 black waxed intake of a sloppy diet. Pass 3 such sutures through the fistulous tract, and close the fistula with a buccal flap. If you do not have haemostatic gauze, use cotton wool; but be sure to remove If you lose a tooth while you are extracting it, the pack after 48hrs. Alternatively, bring the edges of the immediately bring the head forwards, and ask the patient gum together by chipping away bone from the crests of the to cough it out. Do not be content with inadequate suturing; it will only cause more problems later. If you break or dislocate the mandible, you will need to fix it internally and reduce it. Place a firm gauze pack on top and ask the patient repair it with absorbable sutures. It is a local osteitis of If necessary use a dental elevator to clear away the soft condensed bone. As you do so, hold it with your thumb near its tip, to prevent it doing any unnecessary damage (31-8B).
The laceration occurs in the pharynx or cervical oesophagus just above the cricopharyngeus (30-1) purchase generic arimidex pills. Instrumentation to remove a sharp foreign body order arimidex 1mg on-line, and dilation of strictures are the other common causes of damage further down the oesophagus arimidex 1 mg otc. A substantial oesophageal injury causes severe pain and quickly develops mediastinitis or peritonitis order 1mg arimidex amex, which present as septic shock. If there is a mucosal tear (Mallory-Weiss syndrome), there is only bleeding; occasionally there is a small breach that allows a leak of organisms. South American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) in Textbook of Tropical Surgery, Westminster 2004, p. It can occur in serious sternomastoid and carotid sheath laterally with a finger, and the trauma in road accidents (usually head-on collisions), trachea and thyroid medially. C, dissect bluntly along the pre-vertebral fascia avoiding damage to the recurrent laryngeal and from penetrating injuries, including foreign bodies. Insert a soft tube into the oesophagus if the hole is large, or a These are likely to be fatal. If the perforation is higher up still a neck exploration or He is intensely thirsty, but sips of water make the pain thoracotomy, oesophageal repair and mediastinal drainage worse. Feel and listen with a stethoscope for surgical will be needed, which may well be impossible to organize. You might just save the patient by draining the upper Check for absent breath sounds or hyper-resonance in the oesophagus in the neck (30-5) and performing a left chest. The main differential diagnosis is a perforated peptic ulcer, but here the pain comes before the vomiting. Other differential diagnoses include myocardial infarction, spontaneous pneumothorax, and acute pancreatitis. Early on there are no clinical or radiographic signs in the chest; these come later when treatment may be too late. Pull down the occur if there is a blood clotting disorder, or the patient is stomach to expose the lower oesophagus. The oesophageal tear is usually longitudinal just above the The cause is a small laceration of the mucosa of the lower oesophago-gastric junction, slightly on the left. You can then not usually see it at Put a continuous suture along the left edge of the subsequent endoscopy. A more substantial tear may cause problems rupture and the left edge of the gastric patch. This avoids the risk of thermal osteonecrosis, and requires Make sure the pad really does press on to the socket this no flaps. A dental sinus caused by a chronically infected residual dental root which has caused an abscess in the bone around it. Surgery and Clinical Pathology in the Tropics, Livingstone 1960, permission requested. B, how to hold this with A lower 3 molar sometimes fails to erupt because it faces your finger close to the end, to act as a guard. A pocket or flap of gum (operculum) may overhang a fistula into the maxillary sinus. E, make a relieving incision through it, so that food is trapped and inflammation results. Use metronidazole likely to occur with molars and premolars, than with for infection, and ask him to use hot antiseptic mouth incisors and canines. If this fails, tissues to discharge on the gums or on the surface of the introduce an inferior alveolar and lingual nerve block. Within the next 2-3days, a bluish-black area of If the 3rd molar is completely horizontal, split it with a discoloration appears externally on the lips, or cheek. But destruction of the deeper tissues, teeth and skeleton can produce such appalling disfigurement that expert plastic reconstruction will be necessary. Untreated cancrum oris is almost always quickly fatal, owing to associated illness (e. Mixed organisms including Fusiformis and Borrelia are mostly responsible, but it is not contagious. Correct protein energy acute ulcerative gingivitis, and then spreads to the lips and malnutrition and electrolyte losses, by normal feeding if cheeks. Change these dressings often, and keep them moist by adding more solution to the outer layers. Chronic infection causes the epithelial remnants in the periodontal membrane to grow, and In a fit patient, cut away any separating dead tissue, become cystic. Dental cysts are usually quite small, and remove any loose teeth or sequestra (dead bone). Occasionally, they grow When quite large sequestra are ready to separate, you may large enough to expand the alveolus in which they arise. The fluid they contain is usually clear, In an unfit patient, allow the dead tissues to separate but may contain cholesterol crystals. If the bone over a cyst is thin it may More often, they have to be removed after 3-4wks, crackle like an eggshell when you press it. Radiographs when the patients condition has improved enough for show a clearly defined, well corticated, unilocular surgery to be safe. A dentigerous cyst usually arises in a young adult from Try to organize reconstruction at 3-6 months, the follicle of a normal unerupted, or erupting, permanent before marked trismus develops. It expands the lateral aspect of the jaw while the to mature, the local tissues to become supple and soft, stronger medial side resists deformation. Meanwhile, maintain forms the cyst usually fails to erupt, and you can see that it good nutrition and oral hygiene. These children have major psychological difficulties of Radiographs show a well corticated unilocular adjustment; do all you can to help them. These make the are: contents creamy, so that it looks like pus, and can only be (1);Infection: an alveolar abscess (6. Actinomycosis classically follows oral surgery, or may The commonest one is a nasopalatine cyst, which develops complicate poor dental hygiene; infection arising from from epithelial remnants in the nasopalatine canal, Actinomyces israelii spreads across tissue planes and immediately behind the upper front teeth. If it is causing results in a woody hard swelling around the mandible, problems it should be enucleated. If this is impractical you resulting in sinuses discharging yellow sulphur-like may have to open it out, taking care not to injure the granules. These are not sulphur at all, just yellow in colour; they stain blue under microscopy. Simple methods are to: There is no lymphadenopathy early on as the bacillus is (1);Marsupialize a cyst, by removing the mucosa over it, too large to pass in the lymphatics; lymphadenopathy together with the immediately underlying bony wall and implies secondary infection. In case of penicillin allergy, you can use (3);Decompress a dentigerous cyst, by opening it, erythromycin or doxycycline. A cyst is an area of radiolucency Stand exactly in front of the patient and inspect the face surrounded by a radio-opaque line. A loss of cortex, indicating an aggressive lesion, smaller than the others, it might be a persistent milk particularly a carcinoma. If you withdraw clear yellow fluid it is a If a dental cyst is small and symptomless, cyst. If it is small but is causing symptoms, remove Microscopy will tell you which of these it is. If a dental cyst is large, and especially if it is in the upper jaw (unusual), remove the tooth. The danger is that you may produce a fistula between the mouth and the nose or the maxillary sinus. If there is a dentigerous cyst <15cm diameter, marsupialize it especially if it is in the lower jaw. Clear the bony covering of the cyst, fracture its eggshell You can approach all cysts from inside the mouth, surface, and remove a piece of bone from its most unless you need also to resect the jaw. Nibble away more bone, and push the cyst Approach the cyst from the side of the jaw on which the off the bony wall of the cavity in which it lies. If it is equal on both sides, approach it If it is a dentigerous cyst, its lining will be held round the from the buccal side. Remove the superficial part of the lining (31-12E), so as to This may be: expose the cavity widely, and render the deeper part of its (1);A giant cell tumour which is only locally invasive, lining continuous with the oral mucosa.
In 1772 purchase arimidex 1mg without prescription, a British scientists called as Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) discovered the laughing- gas (N2O best buy for arimidex, nitrous oxide) cheap arimidex 1mg overnight delivery. In 1800 effective arimidex 1 mg, Humphry Davy (1778-1829), a British chemist, following his experiences determined that the nitrous oxide is suitable for surgical anaesthesia. Horace Wells (1815-1848), an American dentist, used nitrous oxide during a dental extraction in 1844. On the 16th of October 1846 (Ether day), William Morton (1819-1868), an American dentist narcotized a patient in a Massachusetts General Hospital of Boston. This was the first public demonstration of a surgical intervention in which the patient was narcotized by ether. Jackson, who was a chemist, discovered the ether and first performed a self- experiment in Boston. The patient inhaled the gas and after an initial anxiety he falled asleep shortly after it. A neoplasm of the left jaw was removed by professor John Collins Warren in 5 minutes. After the patient became consciuos he declared that he did not feel any pain during the operation. In 1847, Ignc Semmelweis (18181865), a Hungarian obstetrician, introduced the compulsory hand-washing with chlorinated lime to prevent the puerperal fever. Thereafter, the mortality rate of women, who were in labour, decreased from 30% to 1%. It unambiguously proved that decomposing organic matter on the specialists hands, who made the examinations and treatments, propagated the mortal disease. In 1847, Kolletschka, who was a professor of forensic medicine, died in sepsis following an injury during an autopsy. Based on the report of autopsy of Kolletschka, Semmelweis determined that his septic clinical picture was similar to those seen in autopsies of women who died in puerperal fever. He recognized the common cause: The corpusles from the dead body could enter into the blood stream. Semmelweis had to face many rejections when he introduced the effectiveness of hand disinfectioning. The Hungarian surgeon, Jnos Balassa (1814-1868) was the first one in Hungary who applied ether narcosis. He was 28 years old when they nominated him as the head of the department of the Surgical Diseases. He established and made internationally known the independent Hungarian Surgery by his multi- faceted surgical works and publications. He took part in the preparation of the universities educational reform and in the organization of modern surgical education. He performed a large number of urinary bladder incisions and the disintigration of the stones. His written works are of great importance in abdominal hernias and plastic surgeries. He set up the Medical Weekly Journal in 1857, which is the fifth one among the oldest medical journals all over the world and also a 8 part of the Hungarian Cultural Heritage. He was contemporary with the Pl Bugt (1793- 1865), who created many (medical) words and so the main parts of those words which are used nowdays in the medical literature are orginating from him. He also assumed that microscopic particles, which are originated from the surrounding tissues, cause wound infection and pus formation. Sndor Lumnitzer (1821-1892), a Hungarian surgeon, effectively dealed with the plastic surgery. Sir Joseph Lister (1827-1912), who was a professor of surgery in Glasgow, based on the germ theory of Louis Pasteur introduced the disinfectioning processes in surgery. He believed that even in the case of a complicated fracture there is only a need to inject a material into the wound which can kill the septic germs. Lister found the carbolic acid (phenol) as an effective material for this purpose. In the operating theatre Lister sprayed carbolic acid onto the operative area, onto the instruments and bandages, and even onto the air. His antiseptic theory revolutionized the surgery, since the surgeons were incapable of managing the wound infection until that time. Hmr Hltl (1868-1940) played an important role in the spread of the antiseptic surgery in Hungary. Emil Theodor Kocher (1841-1917), a Swiss surgeon, edited his book about the surgical removal of goitres. Jules mile Pan (1830-1898), a French surgeon, resected the stomach partially due to a pyloric cancer and then sewed the remaining part to the duodenum. Theodor Billroth (1829-1894), an Austrain surgeon, performed the first successful gastrectomy. In his experiments, he developed the optimal methods for surgical treatment of the cancers of the bladder and intestines. Gustav Adolf Neuber (1850-1932), a surgeon from Kiel, applied the aseptic treatment of wounds aimfully to prevent the infections. Ernst von Bergmann (1836-1907), a surgeon who introduced the gas sterilization of the instruments in his clinic in Berlin. His classic report on early operative interference in cases of appendicitis was presented before the New York Surgical Society in its scientific session. He described that in 99% of cases the symptoms of inflammation are originated from the right lower part of the abdomen (i. He determined the area of greatest abdominal pain which is the exact place of the typical muscle guarding (nowdyas, known as McBurneys point). Later, he set forth in another paper 9 the incision that he used in cases of appendicitis, now called McBurneys incision. Wilhelm Conrad Rntgen (1845-1923), who was a German physicist, discovered the X- ray which revolutionized the patient treatment. Halsted (1852-1922) was a surgeon at the Johns Hopkins Medical School, who developed the surgical rubber gloves. In 1890 he asked the Goodyear Rubber Company to manufacture thin surgical gloves for his chief scrub nurse (and his later wife) Caroline Hampton) who was suffering of dermatitis due to use of disinfectants. Bloodgood (1867-1935), who was Halsteds student, initiated the rutine use of surgical gloves in 1896. This method reduced the incidence of the dermatitis, as well as the number of the postoperative wound infections. During sterile intervention, all participants use paper or textile cap - which covers their whole hair- as well as surgical mask. At the Vienna Surgical Society he reported the first case of renal autotransplantation in which the kidney was placed in the the neck of a dog. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), a French surgeon, developed and published a technique for the end-to-end anastomosis of blood vessels. Thus, he created the surgical basis of the cardiovascular surgery and organ transplantation. Georg Kelling (1866-1945) the word laparoscopy was used by him which is a Greek word:, meaning soft tissue, and c meaning inspection. His main professional field was the thoracic- and lung surgery, especially the surgeries of alterartions due to tuberculosis. In the Congress of German Surgical Society he demonstrated the pressure equalizing process invented by him. Gyula Dollinger (1849-1937) was a surgeon, who founded the Hungarian Surgical Society. According to the Hungarian surgical belief, Victor Fischer (an ingenious designer of surgical instruments) was the inventor of the first surgical stapler that was used by Hmr Htl. In 1912, Ramstedt described a new technique to save the life of the infants suffering from spastic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. His electrosurgical unit let the high frequency alternating current pass through the body allowing it to cut or coagulate (electrocautery). With the support of the Charite in Berlin, they opened the Institute of Medical Cinematography. They put a camera above the operating table which was electrically directed and could make films from operations.
From this concentration the experiment was performed with a duplicated calibration curve at different concentrations arimidex 1mg with amex, which was read at 517nm buy generic arimidex pills. An average concentration of 72 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants those used for standard curve analysis was chosen for the initial concentration of the metha nol extract from leaves of Morinda citrifolia order 1mg arimidex fast delivery. Through a mathematical analysis of linear regression curve was obtained concentration vs cheap arimidex 1mg otc. Oleifera leaves was carried out in methyl alcohol for the phytochemical sieve, the results are shown in the following table (Table 2), and qualitative tests that were performed for each secondary metabolite are named in the same table. Reagent Test Dragendorf ++ Mayer + Alkaloids Wagner + Sonneshain + Silicotungstine + Tanines ferric chloride - phenols Potassium ferricianide + Fehling - reducing sugars Benedic - ammonium hydroxide - Coumarins Erlich + Flavonoids Sodium Hydroxide + Sesquiterpenlactones hidroxylamine chlorehydrate - Saponines Libermann Bouchard + cardiotonic Glycosides Kedde, Baljet, legal - cyanogenic Glycosides Guignar - Table 2. The results of this phytochemical analysis presented in Table 2, shows qualitatively the sec ondary metabolites found in the methanol extract of leaves of M. The more abun dant compounds in the leaves of this tree and also the must reported in several articles are: i. Flavonoids 74 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants v. Saponins In the case of metabolites such as tannins, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, the tests results were negative for the methanol extract of leaves of M. Phytochemical results for the extracts obtained from leaves of Guarumbo (Cecropia obtusi folia Bertolt), Musaro (Lophocereus sp. Description of those plants collected in Mxico and presenting high content of antioxidant compounds 6. Azadirachta indica Active compounds of Neem have been identified while others have not, and analyzed the most common are: nimbin; nimbidin; ninbidol; gedunin; sodium nimbinate; queceretin; sal annin and azadirachtin. Fruits from Neem Tree The flowers are astringent and expectorant and also Seed oil is extracted. Flowers from Neem Tree Neem kills some infectious organisms, contributes to the immune response at various levels, this increases the possibility that the body fight bacterial infections alone, viral and fungal. Neem increases the production of antibodies, improves the response of immune cells that release mediators white blood cells. For Diabetes: Neem extract orally reduces insulin re quirements by between 30% and 50% to people who are insulin dependent. With Cancer: polysaccharides and limonoids found in the bark, leaves and Neem oil reduces tumors and cancer . Passiflora edulis Sims Another plant which has been described with therapeutic applications is the genus Passi flora, whics comprises about 500 species and is the largest in the family Passifloraceae. Passi flora edulis Sims is native from the Brazilian Amazon, known by the common name for passion fruit [40, 41]. The word passion comes from the Portuguese- Brazilian passion fruit, which means food prepared in Totuma [41, 42]. Leaves and flower of passion fruit The ethnopharmacological information reveals that Passiflora edulis Sims has been used in traditional medicine around the world. In India, the fresh leaves of this plant are boiled in small amount of water and the extract is drunk to treat dysentery and hypertension, and the fruits are eaten to relieve constipation. The flowers are nocturnal, appear only on copies of more than two meters high and are colored green, but in the four seasons can take a pink color, the stem prolifera tion and leads to masses of slender spines long they can get to cover it completely. These plants are drought resistant so as to avoid daily water ing and exposure to damp, besides being very sensitive to frost. It is endemic to Baja California Sur, Baja California and Sonora in Mexico and Arizona in the United States It is a common species that has spread efficiently over the worldwide. The fruits are edible, but are hard to come by competition with birds and in sects. Southeastern Mexican indians prepare a tea from the pulp and skin of the cactus to relieve arthritis. Some members of this ethnic group say the plants with five ribs are very good for treating cancer. For diabetes: using the Musaro with a seven-pointed cladode, boiled in 1 liter of water, strain and drink three glasses of cooking, one before each meal. Musaro or gooseberry is the tea made by slicing sections fifteen or twenty two inches long from the stems of cactus. These cuts are then placed in a container large enough to contain five gallons of water and boiled for eight to ten hours until the liquid is reduced to approximately one gallon. People take this treatment for serious stomach diseases but they should drink tea in large amount. From extracts of Lophocereus sp two compounds have been isolated: pylocereine and lophocine a dimeric alkaloid with cytotoxic activity [46, 47]. Cecropia obtusifolia Bertolt Family: Cecropiaceae Common name: The names that are known are "guarumbo", "chancarro", "hormiguillo", "chifln" and "koochlle" among others. Its trunk is straight and presents a cavity where you can find some ants inside it, with branches that grow along this horizontally. Distribution in Mexico: located along the coasts of Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi to Ta basco on the side of the Gulf of Mexico and Sinaloa to Chiapas Pacific side. Traditionally the dried leaves (15 g) are heated in water (500 mL) and the result is an infusion which is then filtered and taken as "daily water", cold infusion is often consumed in hot weather. It is reported that this plant contains -sitosterol, stigmasterol, 4-ethyl-5-(n-3 valeroil)-6-hexahydrocoumar ins. Conclusion The plant kingdom has been the best source of remedies for curing a variety of disease and pain. This is why medicinal plants have played a key role in the worldwide maintenance of health. Traditional herbal medicine is intimately related to the Mexican popular culture; its use has origins based on ancestral knowledge. Natural products of higher plants are an im portant source of therapeutic agents; therefore, many research groups are currently screen ing the different biological activities of plants. Mexico has an extensive variety of plants; it is the fourth richest country worldwide in this aspect. Some 25 000 species are registered, and it is thought that there are almost 30 000 not yet described. Natural antioxidants that are present in herbs and spices are responsible for inhibiting or preventing the deleterious con sequences of oxidative stress. Spices and herbs contain free radical scavengers like polyphe nols, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, having antioxidant activities, Indeed all these plant studied have several biological effects and they could also be used as a source of natu ral antioxidants. Further pharmacological studies are underway to identify the active con stituents of the plant extracts responsible for the showed activities. As a final comment, compounds in plants are of great importance for the treatment of several chronic and degen erative diseases like diabetes and cancer, among others. Author details Jorge Alberto Mendoza Prez and Toms Alejandro Fregoso Aguilar1 2* 1 Department of Environmental Systems Engineering at National School of Biological Scien ces-National Polytechnic Institute. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Human Health: Currens Status and Future Prospects. Comparison of the Total Antioxidant Content of 30 Widely Used Medicinal Plants of New Mexico. Free Radicals and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract: Importance in Human Health and Disease Prevention. Deter mination of the Phenolic Composition of Sherry and Table White Wines by Liquid Chromatography and their Relation with Antioxidant Activity. Correlation of Pigment and Flavanol Content with Antioxidant Properties in Selected Aged Regional Wines from Greece. Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Leaf Extract and Fruit of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in a Mouse Model of Diabetes. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Moringa Oleifera Leaves in Two Stages of Maturity. Antiinflamato ry and Antioxidant Activity of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Ecuador. Differential Antioxi dant Properties of Red Wine in Water Soluble and Lipid Soluble Peroxyl Radical Generating Systems. Action of Phenolic Derivates (Acetoa minophen, Salicylate, And 5-Aminosalicylate) as Inhibitors of Membrane Lipid Per oxidation and as Peroxyl Radical Scavengers. A Comparative Study of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Neem Leaf and Dexamethasone. Natural Glycosides Containing Allopyranose from the Passion Fruit Plant Circular Dichroism of Benzaldehyde Cyanohydrin Glycosides. Introduction The natural phenolic compounds have received increasing interest in the last years, since a great amount of them can be found in plants and consumption of vegetables and beverages with a high level of such compounds may reduce the risk of development of several diseases due to their antioxidant power, among other factors.
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