By Y. Mitch. Antioch College. 2019.
Additional information includes Common and serious undesirable effects including: * Immediate adverse reactions or those that may occur shortly after administration * Injection- or infusion-related adverse events purchase bystolic cheap online, either due to rapid administration or those which are injection-site related * Other adverse reactions Pharmacokinetics in the main provides an indication of the elimination half-life of the drug order bystolic with paypal, which can be useful in determining duration of effect discount 2.5mg bystolic with amex. Some monographs provide information on other pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameters where these might be helpful generic bystolic 5mg with mastercard. Significant interactions drugs are grouped together under subheadings to give an indication of likely effect of the interaction. These lists are not comprehensive and more detailed sources such as Stockley’s Drug Interactions2 should be used if required. Action in case of overdose gives guidance on managing therapeutic overdose of the drug and in most cases lists general supportive measures required. For the management of significant overdose an on-line source such as Toxbase3 should always be consulted. Counselling points are intended to provide a prompt for healthcare professionals as they speak to patients about their therapy. Any other reference source used is stated in the normal way using the Vancouver system of referencing. Feedback Feedback on any aspect of the book would be welcome via the e-mail address pharmpresseditorial@rpharms. Hospital clinical pharmacy beckoned her back to secondary care in 2002: she is now Pharmacy Team Leader on the Medical Assessment Unit at the Royal Blackburn Hospital. Lynn is married and, when she’s not writing pharmacy books, loves studying wildlife and travelling and is addicted to puzzles of all types. Vince Goodey graduated in 1985 from the London School of Pharmacy, and has since worked primarily in the hospital sector in clinical and managerial roles. He studied pharmacy at Sunderland Polytechnic, graduating in 1988 with first-class honours, and then completed his pre-registration year with Boots in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He continued working for Boots in a variety of pharmacy and store management positions in the North West of England. In 2002 he changed disciplines and became Community Services pharmacist at Queens Park Hospital in Blackburn. He follows Formula One motor racing closely, enjoys reading, eating out, going to the movies, playing guitar and songwriting. Jane Wright, after working for 18 years in the Civil Service, attended the University of Manchester to study pharmacy. Jane graduated in 1994 and did her pre-registration year at the Royal Preston Hospital. For the next ten years Jane worked in Blackburn hospitals in a variety of clinical roles, her last being Clinical Services Manager with responsibility for education and training. In 1999 she obtained a Diploma in Clinical & Health Services Pharmacy at the University of Manchester. Jane is married and in her spare time enjoys playing with Molly and Polly (two very lively dogs). A cknow ledgem ents All the authors would like to thank Cat, Katie, Joanna and Kevin (our contributors) for all their time, expertise and patience. The advice and assistance provided by the National Extravasation Information Service in producing Appendix 6 is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks also to Bruce Burnett who put the original draft of Appendix 6 and Appendix 7 together for the Clinical Pharmacy Pocket Companion. Alistair thanks Rachel, Amelia and Imogen for all their support throughout the creation of this publication. Jane thanks Steve for his tolerance, and apologies to Molly and Polly for all the missed walkies opportunities. Vince thanks Joanne and Josh for their support and Marm for all her well- intentioned but aberrant key padding. Finally we would like to thank everyone at the Pharmaceutical Press who has had a hand in this publication, particularly Christina De Bono, Louise McIndoe, Rebecca Perry and Linda Paulus. Dose in renal impairment: use with caution in severe impairment: "risk of bleeding. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation before administration and discard if present. Continuous intravenous infusion Preparation and administration *Filter either at the preparation or at the administration stage. Inspect visually for particulate matter or discolor- ation before administration and discard if present. Giveatthecalculated rate via avolumetricinfusiondevicethrough anin-linenon-pyrogeniclow- protein-binding 0. Technical information Incompatible with No information Compatible with Flush:NaCl0. Stability after From a microbiological point of view, should be used immediately; however, preparation prepared infusions may be stored at 2--8 C and infused (at room temperature) within 24 hours. If platelets drop to: and at 24 hours * 60000 cells/mm3 (60Â109/L), heparin and aspirin should be stopped. Pharmacokinetics Initial elimination half-life is 10 minutes, followed by a second phase of about 30 minutes. Significant * The following may "abciximab levels or effect (or "side-effects): interactions thrombolytics, coumarin anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs. Action in case of Symptoms to watch for: Allergy, thrombocytopenia or uncontrolled bleeding. Stop administration and give supportive therapy as appropriate, including platelet transfusion if necessary. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. Acetylcysteine 200mg/mL solution in 10-mL ampoules (20% solution) * Acetylcysteine is used for the prevention of hepatotoxicity in the treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdosage. It is most effective if given within 8 hours of ingestion, after which effectiveness declines sharply. As there is a risk of increased acetylcysteine side-effects, it is unwise to institute treatment before paracetamol levels are known unless more than 8 hours have elapsed since ingestion or levels are likely to be delayed. Refer to the poisoning treatment graph (Figure A1) at the end of the monograph: * Otherwisehealthypatientswhoseplasmaparacetamolconcentrationsfallonorabovethe‘Normal treatment line’ should receive acetylcysteine. If there is doubt about the timing of the overdose, consideration should be given to treatment with acetylcysteine. An initialdose of 140mg/kgas a5% solution is followed by 70mg/kg every 4 hours for an additional 17 doses. As a mucolytic via nebuliser (unlicensed): the adult dose is 3--5mL acetylcysteine 20% injec- tion, nebulised 3--4 times daily using air (use of concentrated oxygen causes degradation). This can be avoided either by giving a lower dose -- diluting 1mL acetylcysteine 20% in 5mL NaCl 0. Dilute the injection to 4 times its volume with diet soft drink and give to the patient to drink; if given via a nasogastric tube, water may be used as the diluent. Technical information Incompatible with Equipment made of rubber and some metals, e. A change in colour to light purple is not thought to indicate significant impairment of safety or efficacy. Stability after From a microbiological point of view, prepared infusions should be used preparation immediately; however, solutions are known to be stable at room temperature for up to 24 hours. Renal function * #K has been reported in patients with paracetamol and serum K poisoning, irrespective of the treatment given. Serum * Metabolic acidosis can be a complication of bicarbonate paracetamol overdose. Additional information Common and serious Immediate: Anaphylactoid or hypersensitivity-like reactions have been reported undesirable effects in 0. Symptoms have often been relieved by stopping the infusion, but occasionally an antihistamine or corticosteroid may be necessary. Infusion-related: Too rapid administration: Higher incidence of hypersensitivity reactions. This assessment is based on the full range of preparation and administration options described in the monograph. The prognostic accuracy after 15 hours is uncertain, but a plasma paracetamol concentration above the relevant treatment line should be regarded as carrying a serious risk of liver damage.
Stimulation of these receptors leads to vasoconstriction resulting in an increase in peripheral vascular resistance cheap bystolic 2.5 mg on line, an increase in systemic blood pressure purchase 5mg bystolic fast delivery, and an increase in venous return to the heart purchase bystolic 5mg amex. Alpha 1 receptors are also found on cardiac myocytes where stimulation leads to an increase in contractility bystolic 5mg on line. The predominant effect of alpha 1 receptor stimulation (by phenylephrine) is an increase in blood pressure. Stimulation of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in the brainstem vasomotor center leads to a decrease in sympathetic tone. Stimulation of alpha 2 receptors at the end of postganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals leads to an inhibition of neurotransmitter release. Alpha 2 receptors are found in some vascular beds (such as the intestines) and activation of these receptors leads to vasoconstriction. Alpha 2 receptors are also found in the kidney where the regulate sodium and water excretion. Alpha 2 receptors have a higher affinity for epinephrine than do alpha 1 receptors, and are therefore more responsive to catecholamines released into the circulation from the adrenal medulla. The predominant effect of alpha 2 receptor stimulation (by clonidine) is a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. Both are believed to influence heart rate and contractility; however, beta 1 receptors are thought to mediate most of the beta receptor effects in the heart. Chronic stimulation of cardiac beta receptors may produce structural changes in heart muscle resulting in heart failure (cardiomyopathy). The predominant effect of beta 1 receptor stimulation (by isoproterenol) is tachycardia and increased contractility. Beta 2 receptors are found in blood vessels in skeletal muscles where the mediate vasodilatation. Beta 2 receptors in the kidney may be involved in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte excretion. Beta 2 receptors have a higher affinity for epinephrine than do beta 1 receptors, and are therefore more responsive to catecholamines released into the circulation from the adrenal medulla. The predominant effect of beta 2 receptor stimulation (by isoproterenol) is a decrease in blood pressure. Stimulation of these receptors leads to a slowing of impulse formation, a slowing of impulse conduction, and a mild decrease in cardiac contractility. The receptors and the cellular effector systems modulated by the receptors are summarized below (simplified). The function of both adrenergic and muscarinic receptors are subject to both transcriptional and posttranslational regulation. The process of desensitization is probably required for normal physiologic function. However, in certain disease states such as heart failure, loss of beta-1 receptor function due to desensitization by high levels of circulating catecholamines may contribute to poor ventricular function. Furthermore, desensitization limits the effectiveness of certain drugs which act as agonists at adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. In the case of the alpha 2 receptor, there is a rapid attenuation to the antihypertensive effects of clonidine, probably by down regulation of alpha 2 receptors in the vasomotor center. If clonidine is suddenly withdrawn, the reduction in the number of alpha 2 receptors results in an increase in vasoconstrictor tone and a rise in blood pressure over pretreatment levels. Sensory impulses are carried predominantly by the vagus nerve to the solitary tract nucleus in the medulla. Baroreceptors found in the carotid artery and the aortic arch have been well characterized and respond to changes in blood pressure. There is also evidence for baroreceptors in the great veins, the right atrium, and the ventricles. Furthermore, there are receptors in the lungs and pleura that may also be responsive to intravascular volume. Baroreceptor nerve endings are located in the adventitia and monitor arterial pressure by detecting changes in the diameter of elastic arteries. The frequency of impulses from these baroreceptors is related to the absolute diameter of the artery and the rate of increase in diameter. After a prolonged period of increased blood pressure the baroreceptors adapt to a new “set point". The carotid sinus is located in the internal carotid artery just distal to the bifurcation. Various responses of cardiac arrhythmias to carotid sinus stimulation (Table 16-1): Arrhythmia Response Sinus tachycardia 1. Increased atrial rate because of increased A-V Block Atrial fibrillation or flutter Slowing of ventricular rate because of increased A-V block A-V junctional tachycardia 1. Atherosclerosis impairs the sensitivity of baroreceptors by reducing the compliance of the artery. This may in part explain the tendency for orthostatic hypotension (a symptomatic fall in blood pressure when going from a supine to a standing position) in the elderly. This is a condition where mild increases in external pressure around the carotid sinus, such as might be caused by a tight shirt collar, can produce marked bradycardia and often syncope. This is often associated with tumors of the neck, prior neck surgery or radiation to the neck. The reflex response to activation of chemoreceptors includes an increase in vagal tone to the heart and an increase in sympathetic tone the peripheral vascular beds. In a healthy subject most of the minor adjustments made in heart rate, for example from supine to standing to walking, are made by the parasympathetic nervous system. These adjustments are made by withdrawing parasympathetic tone to increase the heart rate. In contrast, changes in blood pressure are mediated primarily by the sympathetic nervous system. In general, the parasympathetic nervous system responds more rapidly to a change in body position than the sympathetic nervous system. The relative importance of the parasympathetic nervous system in regulating resting heart rate is illustrated on the following page. As the level of physical activity increases, the sympathetic nervous system becomes more influential. Adjustments in heart rate from resting to a normal walk are primarily accomplished by withdrawal of vagal tone, however further increases in heart rate require an increase in sympathetic tone. Catecholamines released from the adrenal medulla into the circulation and from sympathetic nerve terminals act on beta 2 receptors in skeletal muscle resistance vessels, and alone with local factors produced by muscles, lead to vasodilatation and enhance blood flow to muscles. At the same time, blood flow to the abdominal viscera including the kidneys is reduced. Furthermore, catecholamines activate receptors in renal tubules resulting in an enhanced reabsorption of salt and water. Thus, the autonomic nervous system makes the appropriate adjustments in cardiovascular function to optimize fuel and oxygen delivery to muscles, heart and brain. The autonomic nervous system is also critical for preserving vital functions in response to injury involving a large loss of an individuals blood volume. In the extreme case, blood flow to viscera, skin and muscles is severely reduced to preserve perfusion of the brain heart and lungs. In addition, catecholamines acting at alpha 2 receptors in spinal nerves have an analgesic effect. During this session I will ask members of the group to help me demonstrate the normal function of the autonomic nervous system. The following tests are normally used to evaluate patients thought to have autonomic dysfunction. These tests are safe, simple and can be performed with equipment readily available in the clinic. Valsalva Maneuver: Subject sits quietly and then blows into a mouthpiece attached to a manometer to achieve a pressure of 40 mmHg for 15 s. During phase 1 intrathoracic pressure augments ventricular pressure leading to a brief increase in arterial pressure. During phase 2 the increase in intrathoracic pressure reduces the flow of venous blood to the heart resulting in a drop in blood pressure cardiac output and therefore a drop in blood pressure. Phase 3 begins immediately after release of intrathoracic pressure resulting in a further drop in blood pressure. As a result of the reduced blood pressure during phase 2 and 3, the baroreceptor activity is reduced leading to an increase in sympathetic tone and a subsequent increase in heart rate and arterial resistance.
It can be shown that under these conditions generic bystolic 2.5 mg on line, muscle B must be attached to the wing 0 purchase 5mg bystolic overnight delivery. If the wingbeat frequency is 110 wingbeats per second bystolic 2.5mg online, the period for one up-and-down motion of the wings is 9 × 10−3 sec purchase bystolic 5mg with mastercard. The downward wing movement produced by muscle B takes half this length of time, or 4. Such a rate of muscle contraction is commonly observed in many types of muscle tissue. Because the pressure applied by the wings is uniformly distributed over the total wing area, we can assume that the force generated by each wing acts through a single point at the midsection of the wings. During the downward stroke, the center of the wings traverses a vertical distance d (see Fig. The total work done by the insect during each downward stroke is the product of force and distance; that is, Work Fav × d 2Wd (6. Our insect makes 110 down- ward strokes per second; therefore, its power output P is 4 −3 P 112 erg × 110/sec 1. The wings of insects, light as they are, have a ﬁnite mass; therefore, as they move they possess kinetic energy. To obtain the moment of inertia for the wing, we will assume that the wing can be approximated by a thin rod pivoted at one end. The maximum angular velocity ω max can be calculated from the maximum linear velocity vmax at the center of the wing vmax ωmax (6. When the wings are decelerated toward the end of the stroke, this energy must be dissipated. During the downstroke, the kinetic energy is dissipated by the muscles themselves and is converted into heat. The wing joints of these insects contain a pad of elastic, rubberlike protein called resilin (Fig. The kinetic energy of the wing is converted into potential energy in the stretched resilin, which stores the energy much like a spring. Using a few simplifying assumptions, we can calculate the amount of energy stored in the stretched resilin. Although the resilin is bent into a com- plex shape, we will assume in our calculation that it is a straight rod of area A and length. Furthermore, we will assume that throughout the stretch the resilin obeys Hooke’s law. This is not strictly true as the resilin is stretched by a considerable amount and therefore both the area and Young’s modulus change in the process of stretching. Typically, in an insect the size of a bee the volume of the resilin may be equivalent to a cylinder 2 × 10−2 cm long and 4 × 10−4 cm2 in area. We will assume that the length of the resilin rod is increased by 50% when stretched. Experiments show that as much as 80% of the kinetic energy of the wing may be stored in the resilin. The hind legs of the ﬂea, for exam- ple, also contain resilin, which stores energy for jumping (see Exercise 6-3). Compute the force on the body of the insect that must be generated during the downward wing stroke to keep the insect hovering. Referring to the discussion in the text, compute the point of attachment to the wing of muscle B in Fig. Assume that the shape of the resilin in each leg of the ﬂea is equivalent to a cylinder 2 × 10−2 cm long and 10−4 cm2 in area. If the change in the length of the resilin is 10−2 cm, calculate the energy stored in the resilin. How large would these pads have to be in order for them to store 1 enough energy for a m jump? In the next three chapters, we will discuss the behavior of liquids and gases, both of which play an important role in the life sci- ences. The diﬀerences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained in terms of the forces that bind the molecules. In a solid, the molecules are rigidly bound; a solid therefore has a deﬁnite shape and vol- ume. The molecules constituting a liquid are not bound together with suﬃ- cient force to maintain a deﬁnite shape, but the binding is suﬃciently strong to maintain a deﬁnite volume. Therefore a gas has neither a deﬁnite shape nor a deﬁnite volume—it completely ﬁlls the vessel in which it is contained. Fluids and solids are governed by the same laws of mechan- ics, but, because of their ability to ﬂow, ﬂuids exhibit some phenomena not found in solid matter. In this chapter we will illustrate the properties of ﬂuid pressure, buoyant force in liquids, and surface tension with examples from biology and zoology. When a force is applied to one section of a solid, this force is transmitted to the other parts of the solid with its direction unchanged. Because of a ﬂuid’s ability to ﬂow, it transmits a force uniformly in all directions. A ﬂuid in a container exerts a force on all parts of the container in contact with the ﬂuid. The pressure in a ﬂuid increases with depth because of the weight of the ﬂuid above. In a ﬂuid of constant density ρ, the diﬀerence in pressure, P2 − P1, between two points separated by a vertical distance h is P2 − P1 ρgh (7. The relationship between the torr and several of the other units used to measure pressure follows: 1 torr 1mmHg 13. Because the pressure throughout the ﬂuid is the same, the force F2 acting on the area A2 in Fig. There are, however, soft-bodied animals (such as the sea anemone and the earthworm) that lack a ﬁrm skeleton. For the purpose of understanding the movements of an animal such as a worm, we can think of the animal as consisting of a closed elastic cylinder ﬁlled with a liquid; the cylinder is its hydrostatic skeleton. The worm pro- duces its movements with the longitudinal and circular muscles running along the walls of the cylinder (see Fig. Because the volume of the liquid in the cylinder is constant, contraction of the circular muscles makes the worm thinner and longer. Contraction of the longitudinal muscles causes the animal to become shorter and fatter. If the longitudinal muscles contract only on one side, the animal bends toward the contracting side. By anchoring alternate ends of its body to a surface and by producing sequential longitudinal and cir- cular contractions, the animal moves itself forward or backward. Assume that the circular muscles running around its circumference are uniformly distributed along the length of the worm and that the eﬀective area of the muscle per unit length of the worm Section 7. The force Ff in the forward direction generated by this pressure, which stretches the worm, is 2 4 Ff P × πr 1. We will now use Archimedes’ principle to calculate the power required to remain aﬂoat in water and to study the buoyancy of ﬁsh. If its density is greater than that of water, the animal must perform work in order not to sink. We will calculate the power P required for an animal of volume V and density ρ to ﬂoat with a fraction f of its volume submerged. This problem is similar to the hovering ﬂight we discussed in Chapter 6, but our approach to the problem will be diﬀerent. This motion accelerates the water downward and results in the upward reaction force that supports the animal. If the area of the moving limbs is A and the ﬁnal velocity of the accelerated water is v, the mass of water accelerated per unit time in the treading motion is given by (see Exercise 7-1) m Avρw (7. The force producing this change in the momentum is applied to the water by the moving limbs. The kinetic energy given to the water each second is half the product of the mass accelerated each second and the squared ﬁnal velocity of the water.
See Addiction of barbiturates purchase cheap bystolic line, 160–161 purchase 2.5mg bystolic with amex, 164 aggression and discount 2.5mg bystolic, 51–54 buy bystolic online now, 523–524 Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 283 of benzodiazepines, 172 allergies to, 105–106 Drug courts, 431–434, 445–446 of caffeine, 214–215 controlled (See Schedules of drugs) in California, 217 of calcium carbimide, 215 crime and, 364–371 coerced treatment and, 277 clearance and elimination phase, as discriminative stimuli, 971–974, 973 Drug czars, 1281, 1297–1298 852–853, 853 foreign policy and (See Foreign policy) Bennett, William J. See Schedules of drugs safe use of, 888–889 substance abuse research and, 1277 Drug-seeking behavior. See Exclusionary rule Education Commission of the States, 409 Entertainment Industries Council, 906 Duffy, Clinton, 1124 Educational accreditation. See also Cue- Duke, Benjamin Newton (Buck), 1091, Edwards, Grifﬁth, 401 assessment studies 1093–1094 Egypt, ancient, and beer, 77–78, 164–165 adjunctive behaviors and, 30–31 Dumas, Alexander, 592–593 Eighteenth Amendment. See Prohibition animal research on, 994–995, 998–999 Dunne, Joseph, 557–558 Eighth Amendment and forfeiture laws, 152 conditioned place preference, 990–991 DuPont, Robert L. Eisenhower, Dwight David, 132 cocaine and, 1161 on coerced treatment, 276–277 El Paso Intelligence Center, 1274–1275 craving and, 356, 357, 968 decriminalization and, 884 Elasticity (Economics), 167–168 gambling and, 553–554 parent groups and, 838 Elavil. See also Drunk driving barbiturates and, 160, 164 1346–1347 Dykstra, Lenny, 1105 benzodiazepines and, 175, 179, Enzyme multiplied immunoassays, 626, 628 Dynamic psychotherapy, 1264 1020–1021 Enzymes, drug metabolizing, 446–448, Dynorphin, 474 chloral hydrate and, 255 859–861. See also speciﬁc Dysphoria, from opioids, 806 drug and alcohol use, 54–63, 61 enzymes, e. See Employee assistance programs amphetamines, 110, 114–122, 145 Early Retrospective Study of Cocaine Elders, Jocelyn, 449, 886–887 Electrotonic junctions. See Epidemiologic Catchment enzymes and, 859–861 methamphetamines, 110, 114–122, 145, Area surveys of nicotine, 786, 1202 722–723 Eclectic treatment. See National Liberation Army trafﬁcking patterns, 117 alcohol taxes and, 1073 (Colombia) tobacco homelessness and, 613–614, 616–617 Embassies, 1274 in Asia, 143 The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Emergency room treatment, 8, 12, 317. See Alcohol gambling and, 552 of gambling addiction, 555–559, 561 Ethyl chloride, 643 Latin-Americans and, 612 High School Senior Survey, 600–610 Ethyl ether, 643. See Cocaethylene Family therapy, 1233–1238 homelessness and, 616 Euphoria for heroin addiction, 1178 of inhalants, 645–647 amphetamine-induced, 111, 113 for polydrug addiction, 1191 of Jewish substance abuse, 672–673, 674 brain structures and, 194–196, 195 Family violence, 521–532. See Meprobamate responsibility, relapse and, 1230 Uniform Crime Reporting Program) Equanil. See Anabolic steroids Exclusionary rule, 510–511 Act of 1965, 50 Ergot, 377, 690 asset forfeiture and, 152, 153 Federal Communications Commission, 50, Erythroxylon coca. See Coca plant driving drunk and, 472 685 Escobar, Pablo, 658–660 zero tolerance and, 1372 Federal Drug Management Ofﬁce, Medellin violence and, 285–286 Executive Ofﬁce of the President, 1278–1279, 1284 terrorism and, 1081 1278–1282. See Hormone Existential models of addiction, 1307–1308 ‘‘Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug replacement therapy Expectancies, 512–514 Trafﬁc Prevention,’’ 1301–1302 Esvar. See Cannabis sativa alcohol-related aggression and, 363 Federal Trade Commission Ethanol. See Vision Festival of Life, 1369 racial proﬁling and, 947–949 Fetal alcohol syndrome, 73, 297, 533–537 Ethinamate, 502 acetaldehyde and, 307 Ethiopia and coffee, 210, 279, 874–875 F characteristics of, 317–318 Ethnicity, 507–510. See also Cannabis sativa cocaethylene and, 267 Abuse Prevention and Control Act Gap junctions, 777 cocaine and, 898–899 of 1970 Garagiola, Joe, 1105 drugs effect on, 537–543 Forfeiture of assets. See Block grants Gas chromatography methods, 456, 457, tobacco and, 302 Forth Worth, Texas, Public Health Service 584 Fifth Amendment. Public Health Gasoline as inhalant, 644 Fiji, 677 Service Hospitals Gastrointestinal disorders Filipino Americans and alcohol, 254 Fourteenth Amendment. See Exclusionary alcohol and, 219–220, 304–308, 322 Fillmore, Kaye Middleton, 672 rule caffeine-related, 213, 214 Financial Action Task Force, 740–741 Fourth Amendment. See Metronidazole wine use in, 79 Gautier, Theophile, 592–593 Flashbacks, 293, 693, 1024 Franklin, Benjamin, 101–102 Gaviria, Cesar, 285, 286, 658–660 Flay, Brian R. See also Women and Fleming, Robert, 1124 of methamphetamines, 118–119 Florida substance abuse Freon. See Federal Trade Commission Fluorescence polarization immunoassays, Gene regulation, 577 Functional tolerance, 25 General Accounting Ofﬁce, 190 626, 628–629 Funding. See also Government funding Fluorodeoxyglucose, 623–624 General Assistance welfare program, 1337 of parent prevention groups, 838 Generalized anxiety disorder, 139 Fluoxetine, 1026, 1027 for research, 964–965 alcohol and, 970, 1156, 1251 Genes, 577. See Pure Food assessment of, 551–555 vulnerability and, 232–234, 1316, 1318, and Drugs Act of 1906 epidemiology of, 555–559 1322–1324 Food and Drug Administration progression of, 554 Genome project, 578 alcohol advertising and, 39 Gaming industry. See Gamma-hydroxybutyrate on tobacco, 684, 685, 1204–1205 memory and, 710, 711 Gin, 407–408 Ford, Gerald R. See Corticosteroids anabolic steroids and, 126–127 opioids and, 816–817, 1122 Glucose metabolism Harvard University, 409, 980–981 imaging techniques and, 623–625 Hashish, 592–593, 593. See also Cannabis limbic system and, 688–689 H sativa opioids and, 297 Habit, deﬁned, 22. See also Dependence Hawaii methamphetamine epidemic, Glucuronic acid, 448 syndrome 118–119 Glue, 644 Habitrol. See Patches (Nicotine) Hayyah, Jabir ibn, 406 Glutamate, 578–579 Habituation, 22, 399–400. See also Hazelden Foundation, 1134, 1244, alcohol effects on, 75 Dependence syndrome 1245–1246 neuronal network hypothesis and, 196 Haggard, Howard W. Glutathione, 448 International Opium Convention of 1912, Department of Health and Human Glutethimide, 59, 579, 579 198 Services Glycine Mexico and, 726–727 Health care professionals. See also drug metabolism and, 448 Haight-Ashbury district, methamphetamines Physicians neurotransmission and, 777–779, and, 116 addiction in, 629–633 780–781 Haight-Ashbury Free Clinics, Inc. See Cardiovascular Goodlett, Douglas, 914 antipsychotics for, 137 disorders Gordon S. See Prevention yippies and, 1369–1370 methadone treatment and, 720 Great Awakening, 1077–1078 Hammurabi’s code, 78 needle exchange programs and, 763, 766, Greece, ancient Handsome Lake (Religion), 81 767 betel nut use in, 183 Hansen, William B. See Genetics Growing Healthy, 478–479 in the Netherlands, 769–771 Herodotus, 144 Guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins. State of Michigan (1991), 697 Heroin, 441, 594–596, 595 Guarana seeds, 210 Harmful use addiction to, 809, 810–811, 1173–1174 Guatemala criteria for, 388, 389 from Afghanistan, 655 crop control in, 664 deﬁned, 654–655 allergic response to, 105 as opium source, 655–656, 657, Harmine, 157 barbiturates with, 162–163 660–661, 664, 1054 Harrison, Francis B. See Terrorism and drugs Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914, 349, Britain Gum (Nicotine), 785–786, 788, 1088, 591–592 abuse in, 199–204, 599 1203–1204, 1255 Anslinger, Harry J. See Comprehensive Alcohol health risks of, 15, 881 subgroups of, 508–509 Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, ibogaine and, 622 vulnerability and, 1325 Treatment and Rehabilitation Act interdiction of, 441 Histamine of 1970 introduction of, 815 barbiturates and, 105 Human immunodeﬁciency virus. See Clinical research legalization of, 881, 881–882 neurotransmission and, 777–779 Huss, Magnus, 101–102, 103, 398 memory and, 712 History Hutchison, Sir Robert, 336 from Mexico, 655, 656–657 of alcohol, 77–86 Hydromorphone, 618, 618, 832 from the Middle East, 655 alcoholism term, 101–104 5-hydroxytryptamine. See Henbane in Netherlands, 769–770 of drug policies, 885–886 Hyothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, from Pakistan, 655 of heroin treatments, 1181 1331–1332 during pregnancy, 893–897 of opioids, 813–820 Hyperactivity. See Allergies treatment for abuse (See Heroin addiction Hypertension, 321, 1351–1352 History taking. See Diagnosis of substance treatment) Hypnosis, 1089, 1200, 1242–1243 from Turkey, 655 abuse Hypnotics. See Methamphetamines vulnerability and, 1326–1327 Addicts Index, 199, 201–204, 1011–1012 High School Senior Survey, 36, 496, 498, Iceland and alcohol, 83 British policy and, 198–199, 1010 Icelandic Model, 1246 600–610, 602–607 heroin treatment and, 597–598 alcohol, 497 Ifex. See Ifosfamide Rolleston Committee and, 1010, Ifosfamide, 220 cannabis, 498 1011–1012 cocaine, 499 IgE. See Mate´ decriminalization and, 701–702, 905 614, 890–891 dropouts and, 422–423 I’ll Quit Tomorrow, 273 Hong Kong and methamphetamines, 119 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant drug risks and, 878 Hoover, Herbert C. See Inpatient treatment alcohol pharmacotherapy and, 1155–1156 Hinduism and alcohol beliefs, 80 House of Lords (Britain), 200 for cocaine addiction, 1254–1255 Hippocampus, 194–195, 687–688 House of Refuge, 566 Immediate hypersensitivity, 104–105 Hirsch, Amy E. See Congress Immigration Hispanic Americans, 610–613 Housing, alcohol- and drug-free, 67–70, 585 border management and, 190–191 adolescent substance abuse and, 34, How to Form a Families in Action Group in from China, 253 608–609 YourCommunity, 924 inebriate asylums and, 1119–1120 cultural considerations for, 506 Hubbard, L. Ron, 379 from Latin America, 610–611 gangs among, 566–567, 567, 568, 571, Hughes, Harold E. See Addicted babies International Certiﬁcation Reciprocity Border Patrol (See Border Patrol) Infectious diseases. See Economic conditions purposes of, 386 allergic responses and, 104–106 Information Agency, 1274, 1277–1278 substance abuse deﬁnition, 400 tobacco and, 302 Information regulation, 683, 685 International drug control. See also Source Impaired control and dependence syndrome, Informed consent (Clinical testing), 966–967 countries for illicit drugs 391 Ingersoll, John E. See International Narcotics Control Intravenous route of administration International drug trafﬁcking. See Source Strategy Board complications from, 342–344 countries for illicit drugs Incentive motivation. See Social Security pharmacokinetics and, 849 286 programs; Welfare viral hepatitis and, 313 International Narcotics Control Strategy Independent reinforcers and behavioral Injuries. See Accidents and injuries Board, 943 economics, 168–170 ‘‘Inner child’’ concept, 272 report, 659–660, 1055 India Inner City Families in Action, 924–925 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and, alcohol use in, 80, 145 Inpatient treatment, 1216. See also 1033, 1034, 1035 betel nut use in, 183 Therapeutic communities International sources of illicit drugs.