N. Samuel. Missouri Western State College.
The primary endpoint buy 2.5mg femara with visa, ipsilateral stroke or death stenosis between 50 and 70% generic femara 2.5 mg, in high-degree within 30 days generic femara 2.5 mg on-line, was 6 order femara 2.5 mg without prescription. The reported medium-term Whether this translates into higher long-term outcomes were comparable and the restenosis rate event rates is not yet known. The intracranial stenosis and randomized them to either risk reduction is even higher in stenosis >90%. Predictors for a recurrent ischemic event should be given prior to, during and after carotid were the degree of stenosis, stenosis in the vertebro- surgery . Most likely all antihypertensive in subtypes of ischemic stroke: the German stroke data drugs are effective in secondary stroke bank. Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and targets (<140/90 mmHg in non-diabetics and Management. The high risk of stroke Statin therapy reduces the rate of recurrent immediately after transient ischemic attack: a stroke and vascular events. Early risk of recurrence Aggressive lowering of blood glucose does not by subtype of ischemic stroke in population-based reduce the risk of stroke and might even increase incidence studies. Complications following acute homocysteine with vitamin B6, B12 and folic ischemic stroke. An improved scoring system for identifying patients at high early not effective in the secondary prevention of risk of stroke and functional impairment after an acute stroke and may even increase the risk of fatal transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. N Engl J Med after endarterectomy or the combination of clo- 2008; 358(15):1547–59. Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Billot L, candesartan cilexetil therapy in stroke survivors. Lowering vascular events among 20,332 individuals with recent homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to stroke. A clinical trial of estrogen-replacement recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol therapy after ischemic stroke. Heart meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet Protection Study Collaborative Group. Effects of therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on stroke and and stroke in high risk patients. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to Chapter 19: Secondary prevention aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes 49. N Engl J Med 2001; stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation 345:494–502. Diener H, Bogousslavsky J, Brass L, Cimminiello C, strokes in atrial fibrillation: Frequency and effect of Csiba L, Kaste M, et al. Acetylsalicylic acid on a antithrombotic agents in the stroke prevention in atrial background of clopidogrel in high-risk patients fibrillation studies. J Am Coll Cardiol on practice guidelines and the European Society of 2007; 49(19):1982–8. Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 guidelines for 41. Int J Clin Pract 2001; warfarin in the first year of therapy among elderly 55:162–3. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischemia of 23:368–80. Algra A, De Schryver E, van Gijn J, Kappelle L, atrial fibrillation after transient ischaemic attack or Koudstaal P. Benefit of carotid factors for stroke and death within 30 days after endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid endarterectomy and stent-protected moderate or severe stenosis. Randomised trial of endarterectomy for Endarterectomy versus stenting in patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. European Carotid Surgery Trialists’ Collaborative Stenting for carotid artery stenosis. Circulation 2006; Prediction of benefit from carotid endarterectomy in 113(4):555–63. Rothwell P, Eliasziw M, Gutnikov S, Warlow C, moderate intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. It adds a social perspective with Although progress in the acute treatment of stroke emphasis on participation. While for many decades of the last century it was After the acute treatment, stroke patients with believed that, “once development is complete, the relevant neurological deficits should in general be sources of growth and regeneration of axons and treated by a specialized neurorehabilitation clinic or dendrites are irretrievably lost. The best timing for transferring a patient after nerve paths are fixed and immutable: everything can initial treatment (e. A few years later in 1936 it was reported cussion, but early initiation of rehabilitation is man- that therapeutic exercises influence the course of spon- datory for outcome optimization (whereas ultra-early taneous recovery of a brain affection . It has been a high-intensity training in the first hours to few days long way, however, to what we now know, first by might be problematic). As an exception, in severe disorders recovery can others) with structured organization and processes and vary and these patients may even show onset of func- the stroke patient taking part in a multimodal, intense tional recovery after a longer period . The the course of time after the onset of stroke is possible Section 4: Therapeutic strategies and neurorehabilitation due to a mechanism described as neuroplasticity, reorganization in the motor cortex adjacent to the which can be observed and investigated by different lesion. Hebb first deficits with damage to corticospinal tract, it is described neuroplasticity with regard to the function suggested that of synapses , and later this principle was also linked interruption of projections from the primary to the functioning of neurons in the wider context of motor cortex (M1) leads to increased neuronal networks. With functional imaging, however, it focused and efficient brain activity in a later could be demonstrated that vicariation takes place phase reflecting reorganization , and in cortical representation areas. Another clinical which are reminiscent of normal activation example is the change in lateralization of speech in patterns. Later such For better understanding of these mechanisms a enlargement of cortical representations was also main strategy for recovery in such patients seems to be demonstrated in humans. In an illustrative many different areas may also indicate a less successful longitudinal study , a small group of stroke or failed reorganization in chronic stroke patients: the patients with comparable circumscribed M1 higher the involvement of the ipsilesional motor net- lesions (similar to experimental lesions in animal work, the better the recovery. In this respect interaction models) affecting the motor control of the between lesional and contralesional hemispheres may contralateral hand were assessed over several also play an important role . In the first follow-up, ipsi- and Basic underlying mechanisms of these findings contralateral activation patterns were noted. After include both different functional use of existing several months, activation was again ipsilesional networks and synapses, but also to a certain extent and closer to the former representation and more structural changes. In the early course of ischemic dorsal for the function of finger-extension as stroke, pathophysiological mechanisms in the 284 compared to controls, reflecting functional perilesional region are initiated, which include Chapter 20: Neurorehabilitation upregulation of plasticity-related proteins, brain- Neuroplasticity is the dynamic potential of the derived neurotrophic factor, synapsin I and certain brain to reorganize itself during ontogeny, learning, neurotransmitters. Sprouting of neurons after damage of the neuron Inducing neuroplasticity itself is well known in the peripheral nervous There are many parallels between postlesional neuro- system, where axons may re-grow after Wallerian plasticity (re-learning) and normal learning in the degeneration. In the central nervous system of the development of human individuals leading to changes adult, however, this mechanism is reduced (but not of behavior by repetitive interactions with the social excluded) for several reasons, including the lack of environment. In clinical neurorehabilitation the main Schwann cells (functioning as a leading structure effect of the multidisciplinary teamwork and applied for sprouting in the peripheral nerve system), bar- therapies is to create a stimulating learning atmosphere riers of gliosis produced by glia cells, incomplete that matches the patient’s individual needs and def- remyelinization by oligodendrocytes, production of icits. Sprouting of dendrites is techniques and enhancement by use of medications much more common than the limited sprouting are under evaluation. Collateral sprouting can lead to a change of function Supporting neuroplasticity by peripheral in a damaged neuron by receiving new synaptic input from dendrites of non-lesioned sprouting neurons. Furthermore an enriched environment must also The main theory behind influencing cortical activ- be mentioned in terms of neuroplasticity [7, 16], as ity is the hypothesis of contralesional hemisphere has been demonstrated in animal models: rats with an overexcitability, but also involved are effects of locally ischemic lesion due to middle cerebral artery occlu- disturbed function on other areas described as vicar- sion showed much better recovery when held in an iation and changes of cortical representation (see enriched environment with free access to physical above). The main approaches to brain stimulation 285 activity and social interactions . Higher frequencies of more than 5 Hz increase cortical excitability and can be applied to stimulate the cortex on the ipsilesional hemisphere. No single medication evaluated for its beneficial effect With the application of these newer treatment by modulating plasticity in the human motor cortex methods in stroke patients, recent findings suggest a in stroke patients has reached class I evidence so far. Levodopa, d-amphetamine, tical stimulation appears to be a safe and promising methylphenidate, donepezil and fluoxetine are found intervention for stroke patients; however, more trials to be beneficial in trials evaluating motor recovery are needed to assess the long-term benefit and to after stroke, but in one study d-amphetamine was optimize protocols [16, 26, 27]. Negative effects on outcome On the other hand peripheral techniques indirectly were noted for benzodiazepines, haloperidol, prazo- influencing cortical activity are under evaluation. Reduction of sensori-motor input from the intact However, larger controlled trials are needed hand was shown to lead to improved performance before such treatments can be generally recom- of the paretic hand in stroke patients using mended.
Each of these diseases manifests characteristic signs on pinhole images that are comparable to radiographic signs discount femara. Granulocytes avidly accumulate in acute infective foci while lymphocytes accumulate primarily in chronic foci buy femara american express. Gallium-67 scans are non-specific cheap femara 2.5 mg otc, accumulating in both inflammatory and neoplastic lesions femara 2.5mg amex. In contrast, pinhole scintigraphy precisely localizes tracer uptake to the synovia, which cover the femoral head and acetabular fossa. Such uptake is due to an increase in blood flow through the anastomotic vascular channels in the inflamed synovium. The tracer uptake may be prominent in the active stage but rapidly returns to normal with rest and conservative treatment. It is to be noted that in the early stage with large synovial effusion, tracer uptake may become reduced due to ischaemia of the femoral head created by capsular distension. However, bone scintigraphy reveals an increased blood flow and blood pool in septic joints, and intense tracer uptake in the subchondral bone on static images in the early stages. The intensity of subchondral tracer uptake in acute pyogenic arthritis has been described as roughly paral- lelling the intensity of infection. Dual head pinhole scintigraphy produces a pair of either the anterior and posterior, or the medial and lateral, images, permitting a three dimensional analysis of the disease. Histologically, it is characterized by the derangement and eventual destruction of the cartilage and subchondral bone without obvious inflammation. Bone scintigraphs may show discrete unifocal or multifocal tracer uptake in subchondral bones, and can be spotty, patchy or segmental in type. Whole body bone scans are the only way to portray symmetric polyarthritis panoramically; spot views can depict characteristic changes in both large and small joints in great detail. Pinhole scintigraphy is useful in delineating many scintigraphic signs of rheumatoid arthritis. Nuclear angiography provides information on lesional vascularity and on the activity of the pathological process. Ankylosing spondylitis is a non- specific inflammatory disease of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. The disease primarily involves the synovial components of the sacroiliac joints and the cartilaginous discovertebral junctions as well as the apophyseal, costovertebral and neurocentral joints of the vertebrae. Planar bone scintigraphy reveals symmetric intense tracer uptake in the sacroiliac joints and/or spine. Pinhole scintigraphy can portray the characteristic ribbon-like tracer uptake in the synovial joints of the spine, producing a ‘bamboo spine’ appearance. In the late stage, tracer uptake becomes reduced, reflecting a quiescent metabolic state. The disease mechanism is still obscure, but an interaction between several different infective organisms and a specific genetic background is currently being given serious consideration. Pathologically, the main alterations are present in the enthesis, which is the site of insertion of a tendon, ligament or articular capsule into the bone, creating characteristic inflammatory enthesopathy. Conspicuous involvement of entheses in this syndrome sharply contrasts with the dominant involvement of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. The whole body scan can panoramically reveal characteristic asymmetrical pauciarticular involvement of the spine and appen- dicular bones and joints. Pinhole scintigraphy often detects characteristic enthesopathy in the pre-radiographic stage, especially in the heel and knee. In addition, pinhole scintigraphy can show specific signs of Reiter’s syndrome, namely the ‘knuckle bone’ sign of the sausage digit, the ‘teardrop’ sign of paravertebral enthesopathy and the ‘whisker’ sign of periarticular hyperostosis. It is a rheumatic disorder of clinical importance and academic interest, often related to previous trauma. The pathogenesis has not yet been clarified, although the theory of the internuncial pool is widely accepted. The identification of the ‘sympathetic vasoactive intestinal peptide-containing nerve fibres’ at the cortical bone and the bone–periosteal junction has provided a biochemical basis for the theory. Three phase scintigraphy is useful, revealing increased blood flow and blood pooling, which denotes hyperperfusion. Involvement of periarticular structures of one or more joints of a limb is characteristic. The common causes include trauma, embolism, thrombosis, elevated bone marrow pressure, irradiation and vasculitis. Scintigraphically, avascular necrosis presents as a hot area on the planar image, especially in small bones. However, when magnified using pinhole scintigraphy, a photopenic area can be detected within the hot area. Typical examples are avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head and of the internal femoral condile of the knee. Common clinical features include a predilection for actively growing bone, chronic exposure to trauma and local pain, and tenderness. Osteochondroses affect the capital femoral epiphysis (Legg–Calvé– Perthes disease), the tarsal navicular bone (Koehler’s disease), the metatarsal head (Freiberg’s disease), the medial clavicular end (Friedrich’s disease), the secondary ossification centres of the vertebrae (Scheuermann’s disease) and the tibial tubercle (Osgood–Schlatter’s disease). Large avascular osteonecrosis produces cold areas, whereas microfractures or bone infraction are represented by hot lesions. Scintigraphy can provide information regarding the size, shape, location, texture and osteochondral junction pattern, frequently leading to specific diagnosis. In elderly patients, it is useful for the study of contusion and fracture in osteoporotic ribs and spine. Bone scintigraphy is valuable for the detection and differential diagnosis of shin splints and stress fractures. It can be used for the classification of stress fractures, showing the characteristic tracer uptake in the absence of radiographic alteration. Usually, a planar whole body scan and spot images are sufficient for the diagnosis of a fracture. Occasionally, however, magnification is needed for accurate locali- zation of the fracture, differential diagnosis between bruise and fracture, and detection of an occult fracture. Bone scintigraphy reinforced with pinhole magnification can portray tracer accumulation in sites specific to the individual diseases. For example, in Achilles tendinitis the tracer accumulates in the upper retrocalcaneal surface. Bone scintigraphy is useful for the demon- stration of bone tracer accumulation in denatured or calcified muscle fibres and musculotendinous units. Bone scintigraphy aided by pinhole magnification is useful to delineate the individual structures affected. This presentation describes involutional osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets and renal osteodys- trophy, all of which can be diagnosed by scintigraphy. In post-menopausal osteoporosis, trabecular bone mass is disproportionately reduced in comparison with cortical bone mass. On the other hand, senile osteoporosis is characterized by the propor- tionate loss of cortical and trabecular bone. Other common fracture sites are the femoral neck, proximal humerus, tibia and pelvis. The aetiology has not been established, but a generalized decrease in metabolism may be responsible. Pinhole scintigraphy reveals character- istic thinning of the cortices of the long bones or sparse end-plates of the vertebrae. When porotic vertebral end-plates are fractured they display an intense concentration of tracer. Scintigraphically, diffusely increased tracer uptake can be observed in the calvarium, mandible, sternum and shoulder bones. In the calvarium, pinhole scintigraphy shows a ‘salt and pepper’ pattern of diffusely increased tracer uptake. The bone scintigraphic features of renal osteodys- trophy include the ‘tie sternum’ sign, ‘striped tie’ sign and costochondral beading or ‘rosary’ sign. The so-called ‘hot patella’ sign is not specific for metabolic bone diseases since it is also observed in chondromalacia patellae, metastases and disuse osteoporosis or as a normal variant. Pinhole scintigraphy is useful in the study and documentation of stimulated bone turnover, either focally in Looser’s infraction or diffusely in the malacic skeleton. It can also be used for the detection of subperiosteal bone resorption, cystic change and osteosclerosis in renal osteodystrophy. The basic difference between the two conditions is that the former disease occurs in actively growing bones and the latter in mature bones.
The severest cases involve the complete cortex with associated severe intellectual disability cheap femara amex, paralysis order online femara, seizures order femara uk, and cortical blindness buy cheap femara 2.5mg on-line. Mild cases involve small areas of cortex and may account for a significant proportion of childhood epilepsy. Another form of lissencephaly is X-linked , usually sporadic, sometimes familial, mainly affecting males (mild in females), with an inverted cortical neuronal 797 lamination. Necrosis is a response to noxae that kill adjacent tissues via inflammation and cicatrisation. Tau protein in Alzheimer’s disease is abnormally phosphorylated by protein kinases, less soluble than normal, and unable to bind to microtubules. Many affected 800 neurones die and disappear in the latter stages of Alzheimer’s disease, leaving ghost/tombstone tangles. Periventricular nodular heterotopia consists of groups of cells in the wrong part of the correct tissue, in this case in the periventricular and subcortical white matter. Pick bodies are rounded, perinuclear condensations of straight (contrasting with helical Alzheimer) filaments found in cortical neurones. They contain cytoskeletal elements that bind polyclonal antibodies against neurotubles and a monoclonal antibody against neurofilaments. Pick cells are cortical neurones that have been expanded and enlarged (ballooned) by argyrophilic bundles of neurofilaments. Non-genetic causes include congenital cytomegalovirus infection, hypoxia, or reduced perfusion of the brain. Senile (neuritic) plaques: a group of abnormal argyrophilic neuritic processes together with reactive microglia and astrocytes arranged in roughly spherical formation, with (mature plaque) or without 793 Pachygyria = broad, simple gyri; agyria = no gyri. Immunostaining (using antibodies against important abnormal proteins) is the more modern approach. It is hypothesised that amyloid β-protein deposition leads to tau phosphorylation, tangle formation and cell death: the so-called ‘amyloid cascade’. It has also been suggested that amyloid precursor protein gene mutations alone can account for all pathology found in Alzheimer’s disease. Prescribing during pregnancy and breast-feeding (O’Shea, 2001; Burt ea, 2001; Kohen, 2004; Yonkers, 2007) ‘There is rarely a valid reason to stop essential drug treatment during pregnancy’. This type of research does not say why this should be so: genes (and their interaction with environment), diet, smoking, alcohol, drugs (including medication), antenatal care issues, etc? King-Hele ea (2008) looked at live births and stillbirths over a 25-year period in Denmark. The offspring of mothers who had been admitted to hospital for mental illness at any time before the birth were at considerable risk of stillbirth and neonatal death; mothers with alcohol or substance dependence had an increased risk of stillbirth due to delivery complications; and women with affective disorders were more likely than comparison subjects to have stillborn babies with congenital abnormalities. Pregnant women in Taiwan with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for delivering low birth weight babies, preterm infants, and offspring who are ‘small-for-dates’ when compared with subjects who have no history of mental disorder. The untreated mentally disordered pregnant woman may neglect her diet, smoke, drink alcohol, abuse illicit substances, neglect personal and domestic hygiene, rarely take exercise, miss antenatal appointments, self-harm, and otherwise put herself and her unborn child at risk. Hepatic function and plasma protein binding are relatively low in the foetus, whereas cardiac output and blood-brain barrier permeability are relatively high. Adverse effects on fetus 803 q21; By way of contrast the genes for presenilins 1 and 2 are on chromosomes 14 [q24] and 1 [q31-42] respectively; like amyloid precursor protein, these are associated with early onseazheimer’s disease. On the other hand, metoclopramide may be safe during the first trimester of pregnancy. Females with schizophrenia are more likely to get married than males with the disorder, but, once married, males may have more offspring than their female co-sufferers, thus ensuring transmission of the disorder. Older studies of reproduction rates showed decreased reproduction rates in schizophrenic patients, but these rates appear to have increased over time, perhaps in part due to communitisation and lack of contraceptive advice. Also, atypical antipsychotics are less likely to induce hyperprolactinaemia and are associated with improved social functioning, thereby increasing the probability of conceiving. Clinicians will see pregnancies where at least one of the parents has schizophrenia. The classic teratogenic period occurs during weeks 3 to 8 post-conception, during organogenesis. We have no large clinical trials to guide our prescribing habits during pregnancy. Such studies that are available are retrospective involving, for example, chart reviews or prescription monitoring. A Norwegian study (Moster ea, 2008) followed up survivors of preterm birth to adulthood. Gestational age at birth among those lacking medical disabilities was associated education level, 808 About 12,000 children with limb deformities due to thalidomide were born. This raises the problem of sudden cessation of medication with attendant risks of abstinence symptoms and relapse of the syndrome being treated. Earlier studies suggested that the latter could cause lip, palatal, and cardiac defects but these have not been upheld. Large doses can cause drowsy, floppy babies with hypotonia, respiratory problems, suckling difficulties, agitation, and hypothermia. High-dose abuse throughout pregnancy has been associated with 816 foetal alcohol-like syndrome , but confounding by alcohol abuse is a factor to consider. Beta-blockers have been associated with initial growth retardation, the baby catching up after birth. Antipsychotic drugs: There have been a few reports of neonatal Parkinsonism when the mother had been on 818 oral or depot neuroleptics. The newborn may develop dystonic reactions , tremors, be flat and slow to 819 suckle, jaundice, and have a low Apgar score. Very little neuroleptic actually enters breast milk: in one report (Gardiner ea, 2003) breast-fed infants were exposed to a calculated olanzapine dose of about only 1%. Generally, high potency typical agents are safe and low potency typicals may be associated with a small excess of congenital malformations, although this is disputed. Howland & Thase(2002) consider typical antipsychotic drugs to be generally safe during pregnancy. Clozapine has not yet been associated with such anomalies, and there is as yet insufficient information on risperidone and olanzapine. A report by Koren ea,(2002) however, raises the possibility of neural tube defects in the offspring of obese patients with low folate levels treated with atypical agents during pregnancy. However, Newham ea (2008) found that in utero exposure to atypical antipsychotics was associated with increased infant birth weight and size in relation to gestational age. But, these workers found that exposure to typical antipsychotics was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age-related size compared to a reference group! There has been concern about the anti-emetic agent prochlorperazine (Stemetil) being teratogenic when the foetus is exposed between weeks 6 to 10 of gestation. Clozapine could improve the chances of becoming pregnant by not increasing prolactin levels. These, together with a false pregnancy test (due to antipsychotics) may simulate pregnancy. Although follow up of infants whose mothers breast fed whilst on dothiepin found no problems, dothiepin has been associated with tachycardia. Doxepin (not available after November, 2006), passed in mother’s milk, can cause marked neonatal sedation and respiratory depression. Chambers ea (2006) reported an increase in 822 the rate of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn from 1 in 500 live births to 1 in 100. This can lead to neonatal agitation, insomnia, tremor, nausea, diarrhoea, rash and, rarely, convulsions. Similar effects have been reported with sertraline (although mean umbilical cord/maternal serum ratios may be lower for sertraline than for fluoxetine: Hendrick ea, 2003; Weissman ea, 2004). Paroxetine may be relatively safe during breast-feeding because the dose received by the baby is so low. GlaxoSmithKline issued a communiqué in May 2006 to the effect that paroxetine use during the first trimester of pregnancy is 824 associated in some epidemiological studies with a small increase in cardiovascular malformations. However, Einarson ea (2008) found no evidence to suggest that paroxetine in early pregnancy causes cardiovascular malformations. A prospective American study found no teratogenic effects for fluvoxamine, paroxetine or sertraline.
Essential or volatile oils are highly complex mix- 8 tures of monoterpenes (containing 10 carbon atoms) and other types of 9 compounds order 2.5mg femara visa. Their pharmacological prop- 43 erties are determined by those of their substituents buy discount femara 2.5mg. They additionally have anticonvulsant and diuretic effects and in- 47 crease the tolerance of cells to oxygen deficiency discount femara amex. Hence cheap femara 2.5mg otc, they 16 have anti-inflammatory, styptic, counterirritant, and weakly antibacterial 17 effects and prevent the excess secretion of mucus. They also stabilize cell walls and inhibit the 37 synthesis of mediators of inflammation. Hence, they should not be used to treat injuries or inflammations of the 7 digestive organs. Insoluble mucilages swell in the gas- 15 trointestinal tract and regulate the bowels. The goal is to obtain high-quality extracts from adefined 7 plant species with the highest possible concentrations of the active principles. The contents should be discard- 40 ed after the expiration date specified on the label. Hence, any extract pro- 19 duced by a special preparation technique is a unique active substance. These 23 extracts mainly contain water-soluble constituents and few lipid-soluble 24 components. At higher vol- 40 ume concentrations, it can also extract lipophilic drug constituents, such 41 as essential oils. Some studies by 8 Bauer, a leading authority on echinacea, and co-workers show the stability 9 of echinacea tincture under normal conditions to be 2 to 3 years with about 10 30% reduction in some important constituents per year. One part of fluid extract generally corresponds to one part of the par- 17 ent herb calculated on a dry-weight basis. A powdered extract contains generally 95% solids and 5% water resi- 23 due (moisture). A native extract or native dry extract contains only plant 24 extract material and is free of additives. Extracts that are adjusted to 5:1 (meaning 34 that 1 part of the finished extract is equivalent to all the desirable and 35 active constituents of 5 parts of the dried herb) are typical. Hence, the effects of the special 8 extract can no longer be compared with those of the raw materials. Best used under the guidance of an experienced health care profession- 13 al such as a naturopathic practitioner or herbalist. Many milder teas like gin- 14 ger, peppermint, and chamomile have some medicinal qualities, but are usu- 15 ally considered safe to use at home with care. The use and sale of many of these 16 herb teas fall under the food laws in North America; beverage teas, see p. Cutting or powdering of herbs often dras- 23 tically reduces their shelf life by allowing oxygen to reach and degrade ac- 24 tive constituents. Powdered 2 teas contain around 8–10% extractable plant constituents in addition to 3 fillers, carriers, flavor enhancers, and colorants (e. To prepare tea granules, liquid drug extracts are sprayed 5 onto a carrier and dried. Tea granules consist mainly of sugar, with plant 6 constituents comprising only 2–3% of the final product. Since 9 essential oils are lost during the comminution process, they are some- 10 times added at a later phase of the manufacturing process. Suitable for the preparation of delicate or finely chopped herbs 15 (leaves, flowers, seeds, bark, and roots) with volatile and thermolabile con- 16 stituents (e. Suitable for the preparation 19 of hard or very hard plant materials (woods, barks, roots) or herbs with 20 sparingly soluble constituents (e. Suitable for the prep- 23 aration of mucilage-containing herbs such as flaxseeds or psyllium seeds 24 whose high concentrations of starches and pectins would cause them to ge- 25 latinize if prepared with boiling water. Also used to prevent the extraction 26 of undesirable constituents that dissolve in hot water. This 6 is slowly changing, as more research-based evidence of the cost-effective- 7 ness of herbal remedies emerges. The most important terms and abbrevia- 34 tions used in written prescriptions are summarized in Table2. Consumption leading to vomiting was com- 16 mon as a means of cleansing the system. Many herb tea prescrip- 20 tions given for therapeutic use contain about 60–200 grams of dried herbs. For instance,Ginkgo bilobaleaves are extracted to produce a 50:1 con- 27 centrate. One part of the finished extract represents the active flavonoids and 28 terpenes from 50 parts of the leaves. In Germany 31 and Europe, mother tinctures made with an extract ratio of 1:10 are often 32 favored. This means that 10 parts of the finished tincture represent most of 33 the desirable and active constituents from only 1 part of the herb. If the recommended dose were 1–2 mL, 3 times/ 37 day, the patient would receive the equivalent of about 100–200 mg of dried 38 herb, 3 times/day, or up to 600 mg/day. By comparison, a common daily dose 39 of Chinese herbs can be up to 200 grams of herbs boiled and consumed as a 40 tea. While it has been argued that hydroalcoholic tinctures are more absorb- 41 able by the body and so have a stronger impact than teas, the difference would 42 be slight compared with the great difference in doses between the two cul- 43 tures. The recommended dose 49 listed on bottles of these tincture products tends to be 20 to 80 drops, several 50 times daily. This has to be determined on the 4 basis of a knowledge of the strength of the herb, the strength of the prepara- 5 tion, the quality and freshness of the herbs that went into the product, and of 6 course the size, weight, age, and needs of the patient. We recommend that you adjust the dose within this range of doses, again 9 based on the individual situation. Very young children usually need only a few drops to obtain a thera- 12 peutic response. Weak or sensitive individuals need (or can tolerate) a smaller 13 dose than a robust, healthy person. Use your best judgement, taking account of the situation, 15 and always adjust the dose rather than dispensing an herb in the same dose for 16 every situation and person. For long-term use the dose can often be half of the therapeu- 22 tic dose as a maintenance dose. John’s wort reducing plasma levels of antirejection and 23 antiretroviral drugs, the overall chance of most herbal preparations inter- 24 fering with the safety and efficacy of synthetic drugs is small, on the basis 25 of actual human reports. Many published comments about herb–drug 26 interactions in the literature and popular press involve theoretical inter- 27 actions only. A number of recent published studies involving thousands of patients 31 show that patient reports of adverse effects are close to those reported for 32 placebo. This is important because their 42 synthetic counterparts often have considerable side effects. Ideally, the patient will con- 9 sult a qualified health care professional such as a physician trained in herbal 10 medicine, trained herbalist, or naturopathic physician before initiating self- 11 treatment with any herbal remedy. The advice of a physician should also be 12 sought when herbal preparations are used together with pharmaceutical 13 drugs, and obviously with severe ailments. This may be because most medical doctors 16 are uninformed about some of the current research regarding the safety and 17 efficacy of herbal preparations. This is not surprising, since they rarely receive 18 training or continuing education in this area. Therefore, herbal rem- 33 edies should not be used for extended periods without the supervision of a 34 physician or other appropriately experienced health care provider. As a result, 13 the therapeutic range of an herbal drug will also differ in children and 14 adults. A herbal remedy suitable for use in children should 25 be selected and administered at the lowest dose possible.