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The authors also noted that conidia buy 200 mg danazol with visa, blastospores and yeast-like cells of Wve isolates of B order 200 mg danazol visa. In another study buy 100 mg danazol with amex, Simova and Draganova (2003) evaluated the virulence of four isolates of B buy discount danazol 100 mg on line. Recently, new taxa of fungi were described as Exobasidiomycetidae of the class Ustilag- inomycetes (Basidiomycota) (Boekhout et al. Their pathogenicity was evaluated in the laboratory against herbivorous mites including T. They also observed that depending on the exudate dosage, mites partially recovered within 3 and 6 days post-treatment, but produced fewer eggs. Further studies are needed to identify metabolites and quantify exudate concentration. Isolates causing more than 70% mortality were subjected to dose-response bio- assays. Field and glasshouse assessment of fungi for mite management Relatively few Weld trials have been undertaken to evaluate entomopathogenic fungi against T. They also observed that with four fungal sprays within 14 days, mite density was reduced from 1. The authors also observed an eVect of strawberry varieties on the pathogen performance, with the varieties Campinas and Princesa Isabel having the lowest mite densities. Strategic options in the use of entomopathogenic fungi for spider mite control Research eVorts intended to develop entomopathogenic fungi as mycoinsecticides in general, and acaricides in particular, have markedly increased in recent years (Faria and Wraight 2007). Although entomopathogenic fungi can be used in classical, conservation and augmentative biological control, emphasis has been placed on their development as inunda- tive augmentative control agents (Goettel and Hajek 2001). Classical biological control Classical biological control aims at the permanent establishment of an exotic agent in a new area. Pathogens used for classical biological control are extremely host speciWc and have great potential to persist in the environment and cause epizootics. While examples of the use of parasitoids and predators in classical biological control abound in literature, there are only few reported examples about entomopathogenic fungi (Hajek et al. Nineteen species of entomopathogenic fungi have been used in 57 classical biological control pro- grams, but only three mite species were targets for the classical approach. Infection after release was high but persistence is unknown and the project was discontinued (Hajek et al. Indeed, preliminary surveys conducted in the semi-arid region of North-eastern Brazil have identiWed N. Inundative augmentative biological control Use of fungi as biopesticides is considered an attractive strategy in inundation biological control, not only in the control of mites but also for the control of several agricultural pests, because the eVect on the targets with this strategy is relatively fast. From a commercial Diseases of Mites and Ticks 265 point of view, this strategy is similar to a chemical approach where the fungal inoculum is applied directly to the crop or the target pest and control is achieved exclusively by the released propagules themselves (Eilenberg et al. A major disadvantage of using fungi in this strategy is the dependence of most species on high relative humidity and success may only be guaranteed therefore where optimum humidity conditions are met. However, the fact that dry and hot conditions normally favour development of spider mites may compromise control eYciency, but this could be overcome by high relative humidity during night, favouring fungal sporulation and germination. Moreover, since epizootic development is density dependent and high mite density is common on crops, this makes fungi good candidates for spider mite control. Because of the high strain variability and wide host range of Hypocreales, most mem- bers of this group have the potential to be developed as mycoinsecticides and mycoacari- cides. Strain selection is consid- ered an essential starting point in their successful development (Soper and Ward 1981). Consequently, many isolates of entomopathogenic fungi have been screened against T. A recent review (Faria and de Wraight 2007) provides a table showing the list of the mycoacaricides, of which 17 formulations were developed to control mites of the fam- ily Tetranychidae. Entomophthoralean fungi, on the other hand, possess very few characteristics that can Wt them into the inundation biological control paradigm. A strong positive attribute of this group is their general high virulence, an attribute that makes them desirable for the inun- dation strategy. However, the major drawback of this group is that their infective stages are rather short-lived, making their development and use far more diYcult. Recent attempts suggest that entomophthoralean fungi have high prospects in inundative strategy under greenhouse conditions (Shah et al. The use of entomophthoralean fungi under greenhouse conditions has another advantage over alternative control agents in that eYcient horizontal transmission, which relies on avail- ability of susceptible hosts, may be increased and repetitive application may be unneces- sary. However, reliance on horizontal transmission implies that these fungi are dependent on host population density for survival and dispersal, which means that their eYcacy may be compromised at low host densities (Fuxa 1987). Xoridana is associated with the mite life stages, size and behaviour, as well as age (Elliot et al. Host death caused by these fungi normally occurs at night, when relative humidity is high, favorable for sporulation (Hajek and St Leger 1994). Another limitation in the use of fungal pathogens to control spider mites is the lack of appropriate formulation and application strategies for the target host. While progress has been made in the formulation of Hyphomycetes fungi, whose aerial spores can be produced 266 J. Wekesa easily on common media, little progress has been made with the Entomophthorales whose members include major pathogens of spider mites. Formulation of fungal pathogens can extend shelf life, facilitate handling and application, aid in persistence due to protection from harmful environmental factors and enhance eYcacy by increasing contact with the target pests (Jones and Burges 1998). The fragility of the hyphal bodies and protoplasts from members of the Entomophtho- rales has made formulation diYcult. Dried mycelia of Zoophthora radicans (Brefeld) Batko were formulated with sugar coating as a method for their long-term storage (McCabe and Soper 1985) and algination of mycelia of Erynia neoaphidis Remaudire & Hennebert has been demonstrated as a promising method for formulating conidia (Shah et al. Sugar coating of dry mycelia and algination of the hyphal matrix was facilitated by the in vitro culturing of the fungal species. Diseases of Mites and Ticks 267 Conservation biological control Conservation biological control involves modiWcation of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance natural enemies to reduce the eVect of pests (Eilenberg et al. It does not rely on the addition of natural enemies but rather on identifying strategies to promote those natural enemies already present within crop ecosys- tems, based on a thorough understanding of their biology, ecology and behaviour (Gurr et al. Despite the important role played by Entomoph- thorales in the natural regulation of arthropod pests, little consideration has been given to understanding their ecology and function in crop ecosystems (Pell 2007). Because of their ability to persist in the target pest populations, entomophthoralean fungi may Wt well in these cropping systems. The success of this approach largely depends on the presence of a succession of diVerent pest and non-pest insects feeding on non-crop plants in the Weld boundaries that provide suYcient host densities for continuous infection transmission and dispersal of inoculum into the crop. Future studies should consider these practices and their inXuence on the biological control of T. It is therefore essential to be aware of the adverse eVects that chemical pesticides may have on the eYcacy of fungal biological control agents, or the adverse eVects the entomopathogenic fungi can have on other natural enemies, especially on predatory mites. Interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and pesticides Several studies showed negative or positive interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and pesticides used in the same environment for controlling mite populations. While studying the eVects of four concentrations of the insecticide imidacloprid (50, 100, 200 and 500 ppm) on two spider mite pathogens, N. In contrast, the same insecticide, at a concentration of 100 ppm and above, increased conidial germination in H. Other fungicides, such as chlorothalonil, manco- zeb and maneb also reduced the infection level of N. Klingen and Westrum (2007) compared the eVect of diVerent pesti- cides (fungicides, insecticides, acaricides and molluscicides) used in strawberry plantation on N. Although their negative eVects varied with fungicide, all fungicides tested (tolylXuanid, fenhexamid, cyprodinil + Xudioxonil) were harmful to N. Xoridana and could potentially reduce its survival and eYcacy, while the acaricide/insecticide/molluscicide, methiocarb, appeared to have a stimulating eVect on the fungus. This may be due to the concentration of the pesticide used in the Weld or to applying the pesti- cide in a manner that minimizes contact with the fungus. Interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and other natural enemies Pathogens may contribute to the suppression of spider mite populations in combination with other arthropod natural enemies. However, because natural enemies of spider mites have Diseases of Mites and Ticks 269 evolved and function in a multitrophic context, it is important to assess interactions within complexes of natural enemies if they are to be exploited eVectively in pest management (Ferguson and Stiling 1996; Roy and Pell 2000). Only a few reports are available on the interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and other spider mite natural enemies. Ludwig and Oetting (2001) studied the susceptibility of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) to B.

The relative abundance of hibernating females compared to non-hibernating females increased from 38 discount danazol amex. Numbers of hibernating females increased from 20 (January 30) to 80 (February 5) when the substrate for collecting mites was changed from green leaf samples to plant debris from the ground buy 200mg danazol overnight delivery. Both non-hibernating and hibernating females were found at all sampling dates order danazol from india, while nymphs and males were not observed at the last three dates when the plant debris method was used (Fig effective 200mg danazol. Climatic conditions at weather station and below cover The temperature below the cover was generally higher than at the weather station, and the mean difference measured for the collection period was 3. Temperatures recorded at the weather station, when sporulating cadavers were found, were -6. Mites were obtained from green strawberry leaves until January 30, after this date mites were obtained from plant debris from the ground surrounding the strawberry plants. Discussion Prevalence of hyphal bodies in hibernating females found in this study was high. The hyphal bodies were viable and not a dead end for the pathogen, and a 30% sporulation of 240 J. Neozygites oridana transfers its inoculum from one season to another efciently by overwintering as hyphal bodies inside live mites. The pathogen remains dormant and protected inside its host during the winter and is ready to infect other mites as soon as conditions are favourable. The adapted use of pesticides, especially fungicides (Klingen and Westrum 2007) might therefore be very important at this time of the year. Further, the climatic conditions for sporulation and dissemination need to be suitable for the fungus. A sporulating cadaver in this study was found as late as November 2 and December 6. However, to obtain precise knowledge on the minimum temperature requirement for sporulation of this isolate, a controlled laboratory study is needed. Climatic observations below the cover in our study showed that the cover probably enhanced the temperature with on average about 3. The presence of snow is known to modify temperature uc- tuations, and normally the temperature below uffy snow is higher than above the snow during periods of the winter when air temperature is below 0 C (Helen K. In the area of Norway where this study was conducted, an unstable snow cover is quite common, but years with earlier and more stable snow cover may also occur. Further, hyphal bodies of other fungal species (Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shima zu & spoer and E. Day length, temperature, host age/stage and fungal isolate are factors known to affect the production of resting spores (Hajek 1997; Thomsen et al. Hence, the state of the host may play an important role for the induction of resting spores. Our study was started too late to observe a potential increase in resting spore formation during autumn, but it suggests that resting spore formation is terminated in early November. In that part of the season both hours of light and temperature are still falling and the hours of light is about 8 (Brahde 1970). Diseases of Mites and Ticks 241 Cadavers lled with resting spores were only found until January 22. Overwintering in the form of resting spores is a strategy which enables the fungus to maintain itself outside a living host (Hajek 1997), and in our studies we found leaves with disintegrated cadavers leaving just a mass of resting spores on the leaf surface (Fig. Hence, resting spores later in the season would probably only have been obtained by recovering them from plant debris or from the soil as described for the entomophthoralean fungi E. The cadaver lled with resting spores found in our study was not easily broken probably because of the strong cuticle that hibernating females have. Rhizoids with disk-like holdfasts were also observed on a resting spore cadaver in our study. Nemoto and Aoki (1975) also reported a few observations where both resting spores and the last stage of conidial formation were present in the same individual. Minimum winter temperature in North Carolina is about -2 C (in January), and hence much higher than in our study. We also suggest, however, that the protection of the fungus inside the cold temperature tolerant hibernating females found in our study (Fig. Further, it is not affected by low temperature as long as it is above the freezing point for the hibernating female. The relative abundance of hibernating compared to non-hibernating females increased throughout our study period (October 12 February 2). This suggests that the induction of hiber- nating females at our location started already in the end of July (Brahde 1970). According to Stenseth (1976), however, hibernating females are produced in the beginning of August at these latitudes in Norway. Further, Veerman (1985) stated that local climatic conditions are the most important factors determining the date of entry into diapause and temperatures later in the season may have played an important role in the induction of hibernating 242 J. Stenseth (1976) conducted a strawberry eld study at As in southeastern Norway (59 420 N, 10 440 E) on the relative abundance of hibernating compared to non-hiber- nating females from August to October. The highest relative abundance of hibernating females was found at 40% in September in the rst year of the study (1973). In the second year of his study (1974), more than 30% of the females found were hibernating. These numbers are similar to what we found in our study at the same time of the year. Numbers of hibernating females increased when collecting plant debris on the ground instead of leaves on the plant in our study. This was probably due to the fact that more hibernating females are found in the plant debris since hibernating females move away from the host plant in search of dark hibernation sites (Stenseth 1976, Veerman 1985). The reason we still chose to use the green leaf sampling method as long as possible was because we were concerned that the light and heat in the Berlese funnel method used for plant debris would affect the diapause of hibernating females. This may indicate that the major overwintering strategy is hyphal bodies in hibernating females and that resting spores are produced mainly for sexual recombination. On the other hand, a higher pro- portion of mites with resting spores might have occurred earlier in the season at dates that were not included in this study. To obtain the tools that may help us to manipulate the system in a way that would enhance early season control of T. To understand the role of resting spores in this system there is also a need to conduct studies on how and when resting spores are able to infect healthy mites in the spring and how prevalent they are on plant debris and in the soil. Further there is a need to know when resting spore production is induced and terminated and whether they need a dormant period before germination. Acknowledgements We thank Erling Flistad for editing the pictures, ystein Kjos for technical assis- tance, Jo Engen for providing a strawberry eld, and Halvard Hole for providing weather data. Nina Trandem, Arne Stensvand, and Richard Meadow for their comments on this paper. Can J Bot 75:1739 1747 Helle W (1962) Genetics of resistance to organophosphorus compounds and its relation to diapause in Tetranychus urticae (Koch (Avari: Tetranychidae). Sydowia 43:39 122 Klingen I, Westrum K (2007) The effect of pesticides used in strawberries on the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its fungal natural enemy Neozygites oridana (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). J Invertebr Pathol 87:70 73 Nordengen I, Klingen I (2006) Comparison of methods for estimating the prevalence of Neozygites oridana in Tetranychus urticae populations infesting strawberries. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp 303 320 Stenseth C (1965) Cold hardiness in the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Entomol Exp Appl 8:33 38 Stenseth C (1976) Overvintring av veksthusspinnmidd (Tetranychus urticae) i jordbrfelt. Gartneryrket 66:374 376 (In Norwegian) Thomsen L, Brescani J, Eilenberg J (2001) Formation and germination of resting spores from different strains from the Entomophthora muscae complex produced in Musca domestica. J Invertebr Pathol 55:202 206 Veerman A (1977a) Aspects of the induction of diapause in a laboratory strain of the mite Tetranychus urticae. J Insect Physiol 23:703 711 Veerman A (1977b) Photoperiodic termination of diapause in spider mites. All the sprayed eggs on the leaves were directly exposed to the diVerent regimes for hatch after 24 h maintenance in covered Petri dishes. Generally, hatched proportions increased over post-spray days and decreased with the elevated fungal concentrations; no more eggs hatched from day 9 or 10 onwards. Based on the counts of the hatched/non-hatched eggs in the diVerent regimes, the Wnal egg mortalities were 15. The results highlight ovicidal activities of the emulsiWable formulation against the mite species at the tested regimes and its potential use in spider mite control. Keywords Beauveria bassiana Tetranychus urticae Fungal formulation Ovicidal activity Environmental eVect Spider mite control W.

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The patient is allowed to grow with the systemic to pulmonary arterial shunt until big enough to tolerate Fontan repair discount 100 mg danazol mastercard. If there are ventriculo-coronary connections best order danazol, but no evidence of stenosis or interruptions generic danazol 100mg line, which would suggest right ventricle dependent coronary circulation buy 100mg danazol with amex, surgical valvotomy would be done and transannular patch placed in addition to systemic to pulmonary arterial shunt placement. However, if there are stenotic or interrupted coronaries, valvotomy should not be done, as flow through these coronaries is dependent on elevated right ventricular pressure. A systemic to pulmonary arterial shunt is placed and Fontan is done at a later date or, in severe cases of right ventricle dependent coronary circulation, heart transplant may be required. Obstetrical ultrasound at 20 weeks of gestation revealed abnormal heart structures. This was followed by a fetal echocardiogram which demonstrated a hypoplastic right ventricle and no foreword flow across the pulmonary valve and reverse flow of blood across a small tortuous patent ductus arteriosus from the aorta to small pulmonary arteries. Parents were counseled prenatally that there appeared to be pulmonary atresia and that the anatomy of the coronary arteries were not well demonstrated by fetal echocardiography. The child developed cyanosis soon after birth with oxygen saturation of 75% while breathing room air. First heart sound was normal, second heart sound was single; no significant murmurs were audible soon after birth. In many similar cases, the concept of differential diagnosis is no longer appli- cable as diagnosis is already made through in utero investigative studies. It is important to repeat echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structures soon after birth to confirm diagnosis and obtain further details. At few hours of life, the oxy- gen saturation increased to 88% while on prostaglandin infusion and breathing room air. The child was breathing spontaneously; however, he was intubated and mechanically ventilated soon thereafter due to a period of apnea felt to be second- ary to prostaglandin infusion. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed diagnosis and right ventricle to coronary sinusoids were noted. The right ventricle was small with well developed inlet and outlet regions and hypoplastic apical region, pulmonary atresia were small, but not hypoplastic. In view of the coronary artery anomalies, cardiac catheterization was performed at 5 days of life. This demonstrated right ventricle to coronary sinusoid which appeared to be small with no evidence of stenosis or interruption of coronary arteries. The right ventricle was felt to be adequate to support biventricular circulation, therefore, the pulmonary valve was perforated and dilated with balloon catheters and the ductus arteriosus patency was maintained with stent placement. The prostaglandin infusion was discontinued and oxygen saturation remained around 85%. Case 2 A 1-day-old girl was noted to be tachypneic and mildly cyanotic while in the newborn nursery. Physical examination revealed mild depression of oxygen satura- tion (90%) while breathing room air. Auscultation was significant for a harsh holosystolic murmur and a mid-diastolic murmur. Differential diagnosis with this type of presentation includes tricuspid regurgitation associated with elevated right ventricular pressure such as what is noted with pul- monary hypertension secondary to persistent fetal circulation. Mitral regurgita- tion and ventricular septal defects result in holosystolic murmur; however, there should be no drop in oxygen saturation with the later two pathologies. Chest X-ray revealed severe cardiomegaly with reduced pulmonary vascular markings indicating reduced pulmonary blood flow. Cardiology consult was requested and echocardiogram revealed severely dilated right atrium and right ventricle with severe tricuspid regurgitation and pulmonary valve atresia. The ductus arteriosus was patent and shunting was left to right providing the only supply of blood to the pulmonary circulation. At 1 week of life, the child was taken to the operating room where surgical valvotomy was performed. Postoperative course demon- strated progressive reduction of tricuspid regurgitation and no residual pulmonary stenosis. Prostaglandin infusion was discontinued 3 days after surgical repair and forward flow across the pulmonary valve was adequate. In this child, the right ventricle was of adequate size to maintain biventricular repair. Coronary artery abnormalities are typically not noted in children with severe tricuspid valve regurgitation and dilated right ventricle. Alternatively, the pulmo- nary valve could have been opened through interventional cardiac catheterization measures without the need for surgical intervention. Flow through a patent ductus arteriosus allows for adequate pulmonary blood flow until tricuspid regurgitation lessens as the pulmonary vascular resistance drops favoring forward flow through the pulmonary valve. Although a clear genetic etiology has not been elucidated, there is a clear association with certain risk factors during pregnancy as well as with certain genetic syndromes. There is a higher risk for development of this lesion in fetuses of diabetic mothers and in those exposed to certain teratogens such as retinoic acid. At one end of the spectrum, the atresia is limited to the pulmonary valve resulting in an imperforate pulmonary valve (i. In this case, the main pulmonary artery and branch pulmonary arteries are usually normal in size. The other end of the spectrum includes atresia of the pulmonary valve and arteries with systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals providing blood flow to the lung parenchyma. More commonly, the pulmonary valve and proximal pulmonary artery are affected, with small branch and distal pulmonary arteries supplied with blood through a patent ductus arteriosus and systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals (Fig. These are vessels that arise from the aorta (usually the abdominal aorta) and connect to the pulmonary arteries at various levels. These collaterals can be minimal (in case of isolated membranous pulmonary valve atresia) or more typically multiple and very tortuous in the more 17 Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect 205 Fig. This is in contrast to tetralogy of Fallot, where systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals are extremely unusual. Hence, all blood supply to the pulmonary circulation has to be derived from the systemic circulation. This is provided by two main sources: the patent ductus arteriosus and systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals. Yosowitz pulmonary arterial collaterals are usually extensive and provide the sole blood supply to the lungs. These collaterals could be a more stable source of pulmonary blood supply early in life; however, they tend to develop multiple areas of stenosis later on and, therefore, compromise pulmonary blood flow. Pulmonary blood flow is determined by the size and number of systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals as well as the patent ductus arteriosus. Large and numerous systemic to pulmonary arterial collateral vessels will cause excessive pulmonary blood flow and as a result no significant cyanosis but significant pulmo- nary edema. On the other hand, limited or small systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals with hypoplastic pulmonary arteries will restrict blood flow to the lungs, resulting in significant cyanosis and no pulmonary edema. Most patients are born with adequate or excessive systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals resulting in mild cyanosis and significant pulmonary edema, however, as time passes, systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals become stenotic and pulmonary blood flow becomes inadequate resulting in less pulmonary edema and worsening cyanosis. Patients with ductus arteriosus which remains patent, or those with multiple and/or large systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals providing adequate or excessive pulmonary blood flow, will have near normal oxygen saturation. The latter subset of patients can even present in heart failure with tachypnea and minimal cyanosis due to the excessive pulmonary blood flow. However, within weeks or months these patients will outgrow their source of pulmonary blood flow as the collaterals develop stenosis resulting in progressive hypoxemia. On physical examination, the degree of cyanosis is inversely related to the extent of pulmonary blood flow. Therefore, these patients will present with shortness of breath and easy fatigability. The precordium in these patients is hyperactive with prominent right ventricular impulse. Patients with small systemic to pulmonary arterial collaterals will present pre- dominantly with cyanosis.

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This will cause an initial downward deflection in the right chest leads purchase 200 mg danazol mastercard, manifesting as a q-wave buy danazol online from canada. This is followed by a prominent R-wave reflecting right ventricular hypertrophy order danazol 50mg on line, thus resulting in a qR pattern in the right chest leads buy danazol pills in toronto. This qR pattern can be also seen in dextrocardia, ventricular inversion, and pectus excavatum, all due to abnormal location of ventricular septum within the chest wall (Fig. Left Ventricle The R-wave in left chest leads represents depolarization of the left ventricle. Left ventricular hypertrophy results in increased depolarization voltages and manifests as a tall R-wave in the left chest leads and a deep S-wave in the right chest leads (Fig. This is typically the result of ventricular hypertrophy or rarely, an abnormal coronary artery origin resulting in inadequate coronary perfusion and myocardial ischemia. Interestingly, the low oxygen saturation from the pulmonary artery blood (70 75%) does not lead to ischemia. It is the low pressure in the pul- monary artery (typically <1/3 systemic pressure) that causes poor perfusion of the anomalous coronary artery which leads to ischemia, followed by infarction. Patients subsequently develop a dilated cardiomyopathy due to the large areas of infarcted left ventricle. Events causing acute insufficiency of coronary blood flow due to mechanical changes not currently well understood lead to compression of the abnormally located left coro- nary artery resulting in stunning of the myocardium and manifesting as syncope or sudden death. Reid Thompson, Thea Yosowitz, and Stephen Stone Key Facts Echocardiography is noninvasive with no known harm to patients. Imaging and interpretation by specialists outside the field of pediatric cardiology is likely to lead to errors. Introduction Echocardiography has become the primary tool of the pediatric cardiologist for diagnosing structural heart disease. It is highly accurate when performed and inter- preted in an experienced laboratory, and in most cases is sufficient for understand- ing the anatomy and most of the hemodynamic consequences of the most W. As miniaturization of ultrasound technology and price points improve, it may eventually become feasible for noncardiologists to purchase portable ultrasound devices and incorporate imaging of the heart into their physical examination. However, due to the level of expertise involved in performing and interpreting a study to rule out congenital heart disease, screening for heart disease currently is still more appropriately done by a careful history and physical examination and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. Echocardiography in infants and children, performed to diagnose or follow con- genital or acquired heart disease that affects this age group, is technically very different from adult echocardiography and requires specific equipment and exper- tise usually not found in typical adult echocardiography laboratories. This has been recognized by accreditation agencies that have developed specific requirements for quality control of pediatric studies. The pediatrician is often faced with the question of when an echocardiogram should be ordered directly versus requesting a cardiologist consultation at first. There are many indications for echocardiography that are appropriately ordered directly by the generalist, and only if abnormalities are found, would a consultation with the cardiologist be important. In other cases, consultation as the first strategy is more efficient and usually leads to more appropriate testing (Tables 4. An extensive list of situations suitable for echocardiography is included in these guidelines. The following is an outline of situations in which echocardiogra- phy is a valuable and helpful tool to the practitioner. In the neonatal period, echocardiography is indicated in the evaluation of sus- pected patent ductus arteriosus (Fig. It should also be used for screening for cardiac defects in patient with known or suspected chromosomal or other genetic syndrome with cardiac involve- ment (Fig. In uncomplicated cases, an initial echocardiogram should be done at diagnosis, at 2 weeks, and at 6 8 weeks after onset of disease. If the echocardiogram is normal at 6 8 weeks, a follow-up study 1 year later is optional. If abnormalities are detected on any of the echocardiographic studies, additional studies will usually be ordered by the cardiologist, with frequency and length of Fig. Color Doppler echocardio- graphy: parasternal short axis view color Doppler shows direction of blood flow. Typically, the setting is such that red color indicates flow towards the probe, while blue is blood flow away from the probe. The illustration on the left hand shows cardiac anatomy, red and blue color- ing reflects well oxygenated and poorly oxygenated blood in different cardiac chambers. This coloring scheme should not be confused with the red and blue coloring of color Doppler follow-up determined by the severity of the abnormalities. It is important to note that it is difficult to obtain high quality coronary imaging on a fussy infant or young child, which may necessitate the use of sedatives to enable completion of echocardiography. In addition, for any infant or child with 5 days of fever and only 2 3 classic clinical criteria, or elevated inflammatory markers but <3 supplemental lab criteria, an echocardiogram can be used to help make the pre- sumptive diagnosis. In patients with systemic hypertension, the first echocardiogram should include a full anatomy study to rule out aortic coarctation, as well as an assessment of left ventricu- lar wall thickness and function. Subsequent yearly follow-up examinations should be done to look for abnormal increases in left ventricular mass or changes in function. The diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary hypertension includes the use of echocardiography. In cases of obstructive sleep apnea, the extent to which hypoventilation has affected the heart can be assessed through measurement of Fig. On the other hand, the motion of ventricular walls in the patient in (b) is flat reflecting limited ventricular wall motion 4 Pediatric Echocardiography 61 Fig. The illustration on the left hand shows cardiac anatomy, red and blue coloring reflects well oxygenated and poorly oxygenated blood in different heart chambers. This coloring scheme should not be confused with the red and blue coloring of color Doppler right ventricular pressure (using tricuspid valve Doppler or interventricular septal position), wall thickness, and function. Patients with sickle cell disease and increased pulmonary artery pressure as estimated by echocardiography have higher mortality. Cardiomegaly or other abnormal cardiovascular findings noted on X-ray, espe- cially if associated with other signs or symptoms of potential heart disease should prompt echocardiography. If possible, pericardial effusion is suspected, especially in the setting of hemodynamic compromise possibly representing cardiac tampon- ade, emergency echocardiography is indicated and may be used to assist in pericar- diocentesis (Fig. Patients suspected of having connective tissue disease such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers Danlos syndrome should have echocardiography. Specifically, echocar- diogram is used to evaluate the aortic root in individuals with suspected Marfan syndrome and to evaluate for Mitral Valve prolapse. Echocardiography is indicated for surveillance in various genetic disorders (Table 4. Patients diagnosed with Tuberous Sclerosis should undergo echocar- diography to evaluate for rhabdomyomas. Since this is an autosomal dominant disease with various organ involvements, echocardiography is useful in screening family members. Other appropriate indications for ordering an echocardiogram include workup of possible Rheumatic fever to look for evidence of carditis, infectious endocarditis to rule out vegetation, or valve lesions associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Saline contrast echocardiography should be requested in cases of stroke to rule out 62 W. Another rare indication for contrast echocardiography is in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, in which pulmonary arteriovenous malformations can be life- threatening. In patients exposed to potentially cardiotoxic agents, such as chemotherapy including anthracyclines, baseline and routine interval follow-up echocardiograms are used to follow left ventricular function. When to Request a Cardiac Consultation First In infants outside of the neonatal period, children, and adolescents with a possible pathologic murmur or other abnormal cardiac auscultation finding, it is usually most effective and efficient to start with the cardiologist s evaluation. In many cases the murmur or other finding may be determined to be innocent and echocardiogra- phy is not required. The workup of stridor and/or difficulty in swallowing should exclude a possible vascular ring, which can be definitively diagnosed by echocardiography, but can be difficult, especially in laboratories with little experience in aortic arch anomalies in small children. Chest pain is common in older children and adolescents and, unless associated with exertion, is usually not due to cardiac disease. Echocardiography is rarely needed, as careful history and physical examination, are usually all that is required to exclude heart disease. Likewise, syncope, unless during exercise, is usually not due to structural heart disease and often does not need echocardiography in the workup. An abnormal electrocardiogram should first be confirmed by a cardiologist prior to decisions about further testing such as echocardiography.

In other words cheap 100mg danazol overnight delivery, when your white blood cell count goes up generic danazol 50mg without a prescription, a threatened infection or disease is being prepared for trusted 200 mg danazol. Bircher-Benner purchase 50mg danazol visa, of Switzerland, discovered that eating raw food at a meal before cooked food prevented the formation of white cells in the intestines. Consider this: A major cause of indigestion is eating salads and other light food at the beginning of the meal, and waiting till partway through the meal to eat the protein foods. Many will be lost while hoping and desiring to be Christians; but they made no earnest effort to accept Christ and, in His strength, obey His will as given in the Bible. Abdominal Compress during the night, dry bandage during the day, and abdominal supporter when enteroptosis exists. The most important palliative measures are the Hot and Cold Trunk Pack; Fomentation over the abdomen, twice daily, followed by Heating Compress, to be worn during the interval between; Hot Enema; Hot Full Bath; general set of Tonic Friction treatments; Revulsive Douche to legs. New food allergies can begin, because large fragments of food pass through the gastro-intestinal tract undigested. Magnesium compounds lead to diarrhea, and sodium bicarbonate can result in gas and bloating. Avoid Cold Douche over stomach and spine opposite the stomach, and also Prolonged Cold Baths. Hot Douche or Fomentation over stomach and spine opposite the stomach, 3-4 times daily. Throughout the day give small amounts of water, fruit juices, or ice chips, to help restore lost fluid. These signs include drowsiness, rapid respiration, and dry skin and mucous membranes. If it is vomited up, give again immediately; it is more likely to be accepted and kept down the second time. Do this every 1-2 hours until improvement is seen, and he is able to take fluids by mouth. Coarse vegetables; fried foods; fats, except in a natural emulsified condition; large meals; tea; coffee; wines; and all liquors are to be avoided. Hot Leg Pack, followed by Heating Compress to the legs; Revulsive Douche to the legs; Hot Leg Bath, followed by Cold Friction to legs. Fomentation over stomach in evening, followed by Heating Compress, to be worn during the night. Massage for half an hour, 2 hours after eating, if local irritation or tenderness does not contraindicate. Abdominal massage; Hot Abdominal Pack; Cold fan Douche to abdomen for 20 seconds; Cold Rubbing Sitz Bath. Duodenal ulcers are peptic ulcers occurring in the top part of the small intestine. Although the walls of the stomach are protein, they are not normally disturbed by the fluid. These ulcers can occur in the esophagus, but generally occur in the stomach or small intestine. Gastric ulcers (peptic ulcers in the stomach) occur 2 times more often in men than in women, most frequently in the 40-55 age group. These ulcers are found in men 4 times as often as in women, and most frequently between 25 and 40 years of age. Boiling destroys this anti-ulcer factor, and wilted cabbage contains less vitamin U. If this makes the pain leave, you probably have too little stomach acid, not too much. Permanent damage to the pancreas can occur, because the constant inflammation can produce fibrosis in that organ. Other symptoms of pancreatitis include abdominal swelling and distension, hypertension, sweating, and abnormal fatty stools. The most frequent causes of pancreatitis are drinking alcohol, viral infection, and diseases of the bile ducts or gallbladder. Other causes include surgical procedures, diagnostic procedures, and a considerable variety of prescribed medications. To this list should be added abdominal injury, obesity, poor nutrition, and electric shock. Certain diseases can also induce it: hepatitis, mumps, and possibly anorexia nervosa. The pancreas produces two important hormones: insulin and glucagon; both of which regulate blood sugar levels and aid digestion. But some will continue to have chronic symptoms arising so often, for months or years. Food in the stomach triggers the pancreas to start working, and this you do not want just now. Cut the slippery elm bark into very small pieces, and put a large handful in 4 quarts of water. Indeed, it was medications which may have led to it; continuing to take them may only intensify the disease. It not only is the largest organ, it also performs more different functions than any other organ in your body. That relatively small structure (it only weighs four pounds) does literally thousands of different things; all of them are quite complicated, involving complex chemical changes. The liver has to work overtime in order to try to excrete these dangerous chemicals. It is true there are some poisonous herbs, but these will be readily found in the drugstore. Some poisons directly damage the liver (alcohol, oral contraceptives, caffeine, etc. When there is a backup in the large colon, toxins are reabsorbed into the system, and the liver labors to eliminate them. Meat eating is a major source of bacteria parasites, viruses, and various malignancies. When taking supplements, either chew them up well or take them with a glassful of water. Use celandine and silymarin (which is milk thistle extract) every day to help maintain good liver function. But if the liver is too far degenerated, the hoped-for solution may not be achieved. Skin rashes and itching may also occur; the latter is caused by excess bile salts under the skin. There are actually several main types of hepatitis: Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis): Transmitted by contaminated water, milk, or food, it has an incubation period of 15-45 days. The contagion is highest just before illness begins, so food workers can transmit the disease. It is easily spread by person-to-person contact and through contact with food, clothing, linens, etc. Eating shellfish is a good way to get it, even if the waters they live in pass national standards. It has an incubation period of 28-160 days (2-6 months), and recovery may require 6 months. In increasing numbers, cases are reverting to chronic active hepatitis, which can result in liver cirrhosis and death. Hepatitis E, hepatitis non-A, and hepatitis non-B also exist, but are of lesser significance in North America. Hepatitis E is found worldwide and is in epidemic proportions in Africa and Asia, and is becoming a serious problem in Mexico. The amount to which the liver was exposed to the poisonous chemicals, fumes, drug, etc. But the experts suspect that there are probably ten times that many which go unreported. The patient often has a poor appetite and does not feel like eating, even though he should. He should bathe frequently, and wash his hands with soap after every bowel movement. This is a yellow-brown substance which results from the breakdown of old red blood cells.

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Phialides narrowly conical order genuine danazol on line, thickest at the base discount danazol 50 mg otc, protruding perpendicularly discount 100 mg danazol amex, sometimes somewhat obliquely in the terminal parts of hyphae generic danazol 100 mg on-line. Up to this point they are covered with a thick light-brownish wall as in hyphae and never forking. Very seldom two such necks grow on one phialide, one of them almost always shorter. The formation of two normal phialospores on forked necks only very rarely observed. The plants were infested by aphids, coccids and tetranychid mites, which were never found to be infected by this fungus. Conclusions Fungal diseases of mites occurring on plants, under bark (in feeding galleries of cambio- xylophagous insects), and in decayed wood are widespread in (semi)natural habitats. The fungal pathogens of mites are closely related to most insect pathogenic fungi but only few species are capable to infect both insects and mites. Among ve reported repre- sentatives of the order of Entomophthorales only one pleophagous species, C. Alternatively, from the common and typically entomopathogenic anamorphs only two species of the genus Paecilomyces were found on single mites within this study. Other species are scattered singly in dendrograms, neighboring with the entomopathogenic (H. Currently Lecanicillium, Simplicillium and allied taxa are subjected to insect and mite pathogenicity bioassays, as well as morphological analysis including exact bio- metrics and successive nucleic acid sequencing. The majority of the recorded acaropathogenic fungi affecting mites on plants appear from about mid-summer, increasing in density till the rst frost. Fungal acaropathogens on plants appear characteristically in very small patches, dis- tributed randomly over the area of potential host distribution. In fresh subcortical insects feeding grounds, mycosed mites were seen only singly, and their density increases usually after 2 3 weeks of rearing. Diseases of Mites and Ticks 69 Acknowledgements The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to Profs. Mickiewicz University in Poznan), and Dariusz Gwiazdowicz (University of Life Sciences in Poznan) for identication of host mites. Mickiewicz University in Poznan) for preparing the Latin diagnoses and the English translation. Damian Jozefczyk (Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment in Poznan), for their help and assis- tance with preparation of gures. Nucleic Acids Res 25:3389 3402 Baazy S (2000) Zroznicowanie_ grup funkcjonalnych grzybow entomopatogenicznych (Diversity of func- tional groups of entomopathogenic fungi). Biotechnologia 3(50):11 32 (in Polish) Baazy S, Wrzosek M, Sosnowska D et al (2008) Laboratory trial to infect insects and nematodes by some acaropathogenic Hirsutella strains (Mycota: Clavicipitaceous anamorphs). J Invertebr Pathol 83:223 229 Mietkiewski R, Baazy S, Tkaczuk C (2000) Mycopathogens of mites in Poland a review. Biocontrol Sci Technol 10:459 465 Mietkiewski R, Baazy S, Tkaczuk C (2003) Mikozy szpecieli (Acari: Eriophyoidea) wystepujacych na trawach. In: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specic gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673 Tkaczuk C, Mietkiewski R, Baazy S (2003) Mycoses of phytophagous mites during the winter time. Biol Control 41(1):110 119 Zare R, Gams W (2001) A revision of Verticillium section Prostrata. Nova Hedwigia 73:1 50 Entomopathogenic fungi against South American tick species Everton Kort Kamp Fernandes Vania Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt Originally published in the journal Experimental and Applied Acarology, Volume 46, Nos 1 4, 71 93. Despite scientic advances, in South America the principal control method for ticks is the use of chemical acaricides. Indiscriminate use of these products causes environmental pollution, food contamination and development of tick resistance to aca- ricides. In vitro studies and eld trials have demonstrated that pathogenic fungal isolates not only cause mortality of many tick species, but also reduce subsequent generations due to effects on their reproductive efcacy. Accordingly, this review presents results of several studies which were conducted in South America. Furthermore, it outlines current information on fungal pathogens of ticks and discusses the need to develop and implement effective strategies for use of entomopathogenic fungi to control ticks in the near future. Keywords Fungal acaricides Biological control Beauveria bassiana Metarhizium anisopliae Anocentor nitens Amblyomma cajennense Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Rhipicephalus sanguineus Introduction Ticks are obligate blood-sucking Arachnids that feed on vertebrates. They are hard bodied, highly fecund, biologically diverse, and economically devastating. However, biological control is quickly becoming one of the more attractive approaches to tick management. Several entomopathogenic fungi are naturally associated with ticks and some have dem- onstrated high virulence under laboratory conditions. Of all the fungal genera and species that have been tested, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated the highest virulence; and therefore, these are the most investigated entomopathogenic fungi regarding their potential for the control of tick species worldwide. Several previous reviews describe generally tick biological control using various pathogens in various locations, as listed by Samish and Rehacek (1999) and Samish et al. This review, however, focuses on the use of entomopathogenic fungi to control important tick species from Southern America, and summarizes ndings and perspectives of several authors attempting to develop effective strategies for biological control of ticks under tropical environmental conditions. Laboratory assays and eld trials Laboratory assays using entomopathogenic fungi are commonly used in studies on bio- logical control of ticks. A laboratory assay is an important test to verify the virulence of a fungal pathogen. However, comparing assay results is difcult due to variations in methods and use of different fungal isolates. Many in vitro studies have used entomopathogenic fungi against eggs (Table 1), larvae (Table 2), nymphs, adults (Table 3) and engorged females (Table 4) of several tick species that occur in South America. The results indicate that certain fungal species are promising alternatives to chemical acaricides for tick control. In most eld trials, conidial suspensions are sprayed directly onto ticks or on pasture plants to control tick infestations (Table 5). As expected, the mortality levels in eld trials were lower than those observed under laboratory conditions. To circumvent these problems, appropriate formulations can be devised to protect the conidia, thereby enhancing their ability to germinate and initiate the cuticle penetration process (Bittencourt et al. When selecting isolates for tick control, in addition to considering virulence, high tolerance to environmental conditions should be also evaluated. Furthermore, solar radiation negatively affects Diseases of Mites and Ticks 75 Table 2 Tick larvae treated in vitro with conidial suspensions of entomopathogenic fungi Study Association between Results fungus and ticka Bittencourt Metarhizium anisopliae and (1) Increased mortality (29. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) 109 conidia ml-1, respectively) compared to control (1994b) microplus (6. Diseases of Mites and Ticks 77 Table 2 continued Study Association between Results fungus and ticka Fernandes B. Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from naturally infected ticks Studies have reported that several tick species are naturally infected by pathogenic fungi. The isolation of indigenous entomopathogenic fungi is important for developing isolates that avoid the introduction of new (exotic) fungal isolates for tick biological control in certain environments. Metarhizium anisopliae and (1) Increased mortality (32 45% at 105 108 conidia ml-1, unfed nymphs of A. Diseases of Mites and Ticks 79 Table 3 continued Study Association between fungus Results and ticka M. Studies are ordered according to year of publication a Fungus was applied as an aqueous conidial suspension, unless specied differently 80 J. Diseases of Mites and Ticks 81 Table 4 continued Study Association between Resultsb fungus and ticka Samish et al. Simplicillium (1) Conidial suspension with highest concentration (108 conidia lamellicola and R. Metarhizium anisopliae to (1) Decreased number of females parasitizing cattle: (1997) control Rhipicephalus 43.

Men and Sex Glasgow: HarperCollins buy danazol 200mg low cost, 1978 A widely-acclaimed introduction to men s thoughts and attitudes to sexuality and sexual problems Heimann J danazol 200 mg visa. Becoming Orgasmic London: Piatkus 1988 A sexual and personal growth programme for women recommended by Relate and the Family Planning Association Kaplan H purchase danazol paypal. The Illustrated Manual of Sex Therapy second edition New York: Brunner Mazel safe 200mg danazol, 1987 Essential and beautifully illustrated reading for therapists Bancroft J. Can you identify anything in particular about the situation or circumstances in which it arises (for example after a drink / late at night / when the children are being difficult)? Information about family and home background (for example young children / sharing accommodation / living with relatives) Information about pregnancies, childbirth, miscarriages/terminations History of past illness and operations Use of alcohol, drugs or medication Any history or psychiatric illness What sort of work do you do? Can you identify stresses arising from work or home situations, wide family relationships, current lifestyle? The provision of psychosexual services by genitourinary medicine physicians in the United Kingdom. Human sexuality and its problems (Second Edition): London: Churchill Livingstone 1989 6 Nelson-Jones R. Practical counselling and helping skills: Helping clients to help themselves (Second Edition): London: Cassell Educational Limited 1988 7 Hawton K. They can create conditions that allow autonomous decision-making through exploring ambivalence, alternatives and encompassing wider circumstances. This will shape the reproductive decision, whether that is to continue to term with the pregnancy and mother the child, consider adoption or to terminate the pregnancy. These are crucial frameworks for the practice of health advising which need to be set against other professional responsibilities and developments such as making reproductive choices. These guidelines are not prescriptive and do not determine that this is a definite responsibility for health advisers. But after the shock of the diagnosis of pregnancy comes the difficult area of making decisions. However, as unwanted pregnancy is often seen as an aspect of sexual ill-health it seems pertinent to consider it for professional development. The impact of unintended or unwanted pregnancy in adolescence, in particular, is serious for future life chances and warrants a joined-up working approach, rather than leaving it to other sexual health service providers. When pregnancy has been confirmed a woman may need and value support with the decision-making process, whether to continue with the pregnancy, terminate the pregnancy or proceed with adoption. An internalized sense of duty due to externally imposed obligations means she may try to live up to the expectations of others and keep up appearances. If the health adviser s response was to give immediate medical referral4 for termination of the pregnancy it implies the patient has completed her decision-making. It would be wise not to assume the patient will be offered some other counselling somewhere else along the line, unless they are specifically referred for that reason. Termination clinics are often very busy places and running to tight schedules that also assume the patient has been referred because she is sure of her decision. Research shows she will then experience difficulty disembarking from a medical roller-coaster and this could lead to regret later. It requires the recording of a sexual history, of contraception use and may call for further advice about reliable contraception methods. Pregnancy testing is often a task delegated to untrained workers or support staff, as it is perceived as a simple procedure. In particular, time constraints can lead to pressure in the consultation as well as the actual length of gestation at presentation and create a sense of having to come up with a quick solution. By creating the atmosphere that allows the woman to consider all aspects of her situation and not just on the reduction of the immediate distress, it will clarify ambiguity and reduce the threat of post-termination regret. Before commencing an in-depth intervention, assess the time necessary for quality support. The health adviser may need to negotiate with the patient that she returns outside of a busy session. If pregnancy has only just been diagnosed, after a brief exploration of thoughts and feelings the patient will benefit from at least a day to discuss her situation further with a partner or significant others, or to just assess her own situation. It is important to consult with colleagues if in doubt whether to continue with the process at the first consultation. There may not be a choice about who offers the intervention, but same-sex support may need to be considered by the team. How contraception methods are discussed and delivered will often determine how they are accepted and used. It is an issue for now if the pregnancy test is negative or for the near future if termination is the chosen route. The health adviser has a responsibility to decide their level of competency and the depth of the exploration. A health adviser with a nursing background may have Family Planning qualifications. Without this accreditation there would still be an expectation when employed by this speciality to have a broad understanding of methods available. More importantly there is a need to raise the awareness, and then directing the patient to a specialist service, preparing them with written information for future choices. Encourage them to take responsibility for contraception and consider their attitudes toward paternity. Offered the opportunity to discuss different methods and participate in contraceptive choices Assist appropriate decision making by considering following up an assessment of the contraceptive needs of clinic patients with a referral to a family planning professional. The World Health Organisation estimates 50 million pregnancies are therapeutically aborted every year. Since the Abortion Act was passed in 1967 there has been a gradual rise in the numbers each year, sometimes explained by demographic changes. Britain is seen to have a relatively low rate compared to other developed countries and this is thought to reflect the network of comprehensive contraceptive services. The termination will prevent serious, permanent illness to the physical or mental health of the pregnant woman. Gestation is no more than 24 weeks, and that continuing with the pregnancy involves a greater risk of injury to the physical or mental health of the pregnant woman, than if terminated. Gestation is no more than 24 weeks, and that continuing with pregnancy involves a greater risk of injury to the physical or mental health of the existing children of the family, than if terminated. There is substantial risk that at birth this child would suffer physical or mental abnormalities causing a serious handicap / or special need. The 1967 Abortion Act does not apply to Northern Ireland, where abortion is only legal to save the life of the mother. Therefore, it will be the two medical practitioners who ultimately sign to say that the legal requirements are fulfilled. Once the woman has completed decision-making a gynaecology referral needs to be made without delay. The incidence of complications of abortion is directly related to the period of gestation. Health advisers involved in this area of work will need to be aware of local provision, referral methods and waiting times. The health adviser will also need to be aware of the techniques available and most commonly used in their local area. The last decade has seen advances in safe and effective methods for termination in almost all stages of gestation. Within the first nine weeks of pregnancy, referred to as the first trimester, a medical abortion can be performed without the need for invasive instrumentation or general anaesthesia. This is followed 48 hrs later by a vaginal pessary, Gemeprost 1mg (a synthetic derivative of prostaglandin) causing the uterus to contract and expel the fetus, usually within 4 hours. Not all women are suitable candidates and patients with asthma, on steroids, or with adrenal insufficiency should not be given Mifepristone. Mid-trimester, after 14 weeks, termination becomes more difficult and has more complications. Many gynaecologists will only perform them for life-threatening conditions or th those unaware of congenital abnormalities before the 14 week. Again it is good practice to be aware of most commonly used local procedures so that the patient will be able to make informed choices. There is a very low incidence of complications, particularly for medical terminations.

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