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Defeatist behavior is also exemplified in overweight and obese Blacks who communicate disinterest in increasing physical activity to control weight (R buy olanzapine 5 mg free shipping. Obesity is 45 prevalent among Black women (51%) as compared to Mexican (43%) best olanzapine 20mg, and White (33%) women (Roger et al discount olanzapine 10mg fast delivery. Another factor that contributes to overweight and obese Blacks is the high dietary sodium and fat that remains a cultural practice indigenous to slavery for food preservation and making undesirable animal parts palatable (Martins & Norris olanzapine 7.5 mg generic, 2004). Cultural traditions for diet and food preparation unique to slavery are attributed to poor eating habits today. Further, the low socioeconomic status and limited income of many Blacks may contribute to the purchase of cheaper, nonnutritious, high fat, high caloric foods, rather than more costly nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and lean meats (Ewing, n. Likewise, the use of alternative treatments with foodstuff may be practiced to make medicinal remedies for various ailments. Many Blacks attribute the use of alternative therapies to a lack of finances and to decreased access to health care and appropriate medications, thus affecting adherence to the health care regimen. Spirituality has probably been the sustaining force that has provided comfort and hope for Blacks during years of slavery and oppression. Faith and reliance on God has allowed Blacks to persevere and overcome insurmountable odds of slavery and racial injustice (L. In an effort to combat health disparities for Blacks, researchers have begun to focus studies in the heart of the Black community, the church. However, strong evaluations, program effectiveness, and outcome measures are generally lacking in many of the church-based studies making it difficult to determine the contribution of these programs to improved health and quality of life in Black churches and communities (Campbell et al. Cultural influences that may result in risky health behaviors for Blacks are poorly understood. This is evidenced by the reluctance of many Blacks to practice health behaviors that are not costly and can be addressed through lifestyle changes to reverse the effects of physical inactivity, alcohol use, overweight/obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and smoking; all of these are modifiable risk factors. Jenkins (2009) asserts that nonadherence to modifiable risk factors may be attributed to lack of knowledge and effort for many Blacks. Conversely, Peters, Aroian, and Flack (2006) contend that individual Black behavior, attitudes, and beliefs cannot be understood independent of culture. Consequently, some cultural influences have proved detrimental to the health of Blacks, especially when resultant behaviors dictate non-participation in preventive care while sacrificing healthy behaviors for poor health. Previous health experiences are potential determinants of health-related behavior and current health state (Troumbley & Lenz, 1992). Numerous gene studies (epithelial sodium channels, the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, α- and β-adrenergic receptors, endothelin and endothelin receptors, kallikrein, natriuretic peptides and their receptors, 48 increased sodium absorption and salt sensitivity, transforming growth factor hyperexpression, and the nitric oxide pathway) have resulted in a dearth of information from primarily small case-control studies using nonrandom convenience samples (Ferdinand & Welch, 2007). Another recent discovery in animal research with mice identified corin, a transmembrane serine protease enzyme in the heart. All comorbidities must be stabilized and monitored at follow-up visits as prescribed (Chobanian et al. Results indicated that 25% of prescriptions for antihypertensive medication were not filled by clients and those ≤ 50 years of age had 42% lower odds of filling a prescription. Interestingly, prescriptions for clients with cardiovascular comorbidities were not more likely to filled, whereas clients with five or more noncardiovascular comorbidities were significantly more likely to fill prescriptions. Although medication cost was not a factor, these findings indicate the need to explore other issues that impact medication adherence and the necessity of developing interventions to maximize medication-taking benefits. The increased quantity of medications, better known as polypharmacy, can create a substantial cost burden, especially to the elderly client. In addition, polypharmacy could cause untoward side effects and compromise the health status of the client, especially if multiple comorbidities are present. As noted by West, Lefler, and Franks (2010), when side effects increase, medication adherence decreases. Moss and Crane (2010) investigated polypharmacy in elderly women who had experienced a myocardial infarction and found that participants took approximately seven medications daily. The study concluded that the elderly could suffer adverse effects from polypharmacy; therefore, health care providers should be aware of polypharmacy complications and cost considerations. Simplifying the medication regimen and using a multifactorial intervention approach may improve medication adherence (Chobanian et al. Polypharmacy could have detrimental effects on adherence due to financial issues and difficulty organizing medication time frequencies (Chobanian et al. Overweight and obesity are considered to be an epidemic in the United States (Flack et al. Black women (51%) have the highest prevalence rates of obesity when compared to Mexican (43%), and White women (33%) (Roger et al. Whereas, a waist 52 circumference greater than or equal to 88 cm in women and 100 cm in men is regarded as abdominal obesity (Mosca et al. Adequate environmental resources are relatively static and considered a major determining factor for personal health care, barriers to health care, and access to health care (Cox, 2003). In 2009, the median income for Blacks ($32,584) was lower than Hispanics ($36,039), and Whites ($54,461). Historical evidence has shown that socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of health outcomes with poverty as the leading cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality (Bierman & Dunn, 2006). James (1996) noted an inverse correlation between socioeconomic status and health; those with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to experience illness and premature death than those with higher socioeconomic status, thus adversely affecting Blacks, and other minority/ethnic groups. Thus, low income levels for Blacks and Whites may not result in the same health outcomes. In the United States most people had employee-based health insurance coverage in 2009 (55. In the same year, 30% were covered by government health programs such as Medicaid (15. The uninsured rate was less for Whites (12%) as compared to Blacks (21%) and greatest for Hispanics (32. Because health coverage in some of these programs may require a copay to 54 purchase medications, this is an important variable to measure when examining medication adherence, especially in those with low income levels. Dynamic Variables The second component of client singularity, dynamic variables, addresses psychological determinants of behavior that contribute to definitive predictions about health care behaviors (Cox, 1982). Subject to change over time, dynamic variables encompass internal processes that are formulated with background variables and contribute to the individual‘s nature. Dynamic variables of interest that are unique to study participants include intrinsic motivation, cognitive appraisal, and affective response. Important to the manifestation of overt behavior, intrinsic motivation is dependent on volitional control centered on meeting an individual need (DiNapoli, 2003). When prescribed a health care regimen, individual needs may be impacted by background variables such as age, sex, race, education, religion, family history, income, and insurance type that may contribute to how choices are made about subsequent health behaviors. However, Cox and Wachs (1985) assert that it is the individual‘s choices that will ultimately impact health outcomes and not the background variables. Thus, when individual needs are threatened or hindered by the health care regimen, intrinsic motivation may invoke an individual‘s 55 will to choose adherence or nonadherence to resolve conflicts among needs (Cox & Wachs, 1985). These health care demands may disrupt personal routines and restrict valued freedoms (Fogarty, 1997), while triggering the motivation to act to preserve those freedoms. Brehm‘s (1966) theory of psychological reactance was developed to depict the behavioral motivation to re-establish lost or threatened freedom. An awareness of reactant behaviors may assist healthcare providers in mediating adherence with behavioral tasks such as adhering to the medication regimen, ultimately affecting healthcare outcomes (Dowd et al. Brehm (1966) when he noted that as advice is given to another person, oftentimes the person acts contrary to the advice (S. Rather than exerting a positive influence, the advice seems to have a negative influence on the person: people do the opposite of what 56 they are told to do. Brehm (1966), the best description of this phenomenon is the desire for freedom to make a decision without outside interference. Freedom implies having the power to change a situation or control a potential outcome. When an individual feels their freedom is threatened or restricted, they are motivated to preserve that freedom (J. Thus, reactance is a motivational state to re-establish the perceived or actual threatened or eliminated freedom (J. First, when a free behavior is threatened or eliminated, a ―forbidden fruit effect‖ prevails where the individual‘s desire for the behavior increases (Christensen, 2004, p.
Furthermore trusted olanzapine 20mg, since the eye is located on the surface of the body generic olanzapine 10 mg without a prescription, it is also easily injured and infected generic olanzapine 20 mg without prescription. According to the location of diseases buy olanzapine online, ocular disorders are grouped as periocular and intraocular conditions. Periocular diseases include: Blepharitis An infection of the lid structures (usually by Staphylococcus aureus) with concomitant seborrhea, rosacea, a dry eye and abnormalities of the meibomein glands and their lipid secretions. Conjunctivitis The condition when redness of the eye and the presence of a foreignbody sensation are evident. There are many causes of conjunctivitis, but the great majority are the result of acute infection or allergy. Keratitis The condition in which patients have a decreased vision, ocular pain, red eye, and often a cloudy/opaque cornea. Trachoma This is caused by the organism Chalmydia trachomatis; it is the most common cause of blindness in North Africa and the Middle East. Dry eye If for any reason the composition of tears is changed, or an inadequate volume of tears is produced, the symptom of dry eye will result. Dry eye conditions are not just a cause for ocular discomfort, but can also result in corneal damage. Periocular diseases such as these are relatively easily treated using topical formulations. Intraocular conditions are more difficult to manage and include intraocular infections: i. Such infections carry a high risk for damage to the eye and also afford the possibility of spread of infection from the eye into the brain. A common intraocular disease is glaucoma, considered to be one of the major ophthalmic clinical problems in the world. Recently, physicians have become more familiar with the condition known as normotensive glaucoma. About 20% of glaucoma patients have near normal intraocular pressures and in these patients the disease may result from spasm of the arterial supply. The efficient clearance mechanisms at the front of the eye reduce the concentrations of drug able to diffuse to the back of the eye. Futhermore, many of these disorders are chronic conditions, requiring continuous therapy. There are three main routes commonly used for administration of drugs to the eye: topical, intraocular and systemic. The topical route is the most common method to administer a medication to the eye. Introducing the drug directly to the conjunctival sac localizes drug effects, facilitates drug entry that is otherwise hard to achieve with systemic delivery and avoids first-pass metabolism. The physiological factors affecting topical drug delivery and the approaches under development to optimize this type of delivery are described in detail below. Research, as described below, is concentrating on the development of intravitreal injections and the use of intraocular implants to improve delivery to this region. As regards the systemic route, several studies have shown that some drugs can distribute into ocular tissues following systemic administration. It has also been demonstrated that steroids and antibiotics can penetrate into the aqueous humor following systemic administration. Systemic drug treatment is often considered as a first option for posterior eye diseases involving the optic nerve, retina and uveal tract. This is because drug distribution to posterior ocular tissues is difficult via the topical route due to the anatomical restriction posed by the eye. However, the systemic route has the significant disadvantage that all the organs of the body are subjected to the action of the drug, when only a very small volume of tissue in the eye may need the treatment. In order to do this the eye must have constant dimensions, an unclouded optical pathway and the ability to focus light on the retina. These requirements and the need for protection of the globe determine the special structure of the eye and its associated apparatus. The epithelium The epithelium is built up of several layers of cells and makes up about 10% of the total corneal thickness in man, and a similar proportion in many other mammalian species. This is a hydrophobic tissue and contributes 90% of the barrier to hydrophilic drugs and 10% to hydrophobic drugs. The Bowman’s membrane This occurs in man as a thin homogenous sheet with a thickness of 8–14 μm. This layer is not considered to be a barrier to drug absorption across the cornea. The stroma This represents about 90% of the thickness of the cornea in most mammals and is composed of a modified connective tissue; 70–80% of the wet weight is water, and 20–25% of the dry weight is collagen, other proteins and mucopolysaccharides. The endothelium This is a single layer of flattened epithelial-like cells interlocked by alternating, twisting surfaces, which completely covers the posterior surface of the cornea. Gap junctions exist between adjacent cells allowing the permeation of various substances. The endothelium is not rate-determining as its permeability is 200 or more times greater than that of the epithelium. If the active pump breaks down or the bicarbonate efflux is attenuated by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, the stroma will absorb water, swell and become opaque, resulting in the thickening and clouding of the cornea. The change in corneal thickness affects the absorption of a drug by increase in path length. The tears have a pseudoplastic character with a yield value of about 32 cps at 33 °C. During a blink the lid moves at a high velocity and the film is submitted to a high rate of shear of about 10,000–40,000 12. The topical route is the most common method to administer a medication to the eye. Introducing the drug directly to the conjunctival sac localizes drug effects, facilitates drug entry that is otherwise hard to achieve with systemic delivery and avoids first-pass metabolism. In practice, topical application frequently fails to establish a therapeutic drug level for a desired length of time within the target ocular tissues and fluids. The major problem of this inefficient ocular treatment results from many factors, including the precorneal clearance mechanism, the highly selective corneal barrier, the unproductive drug loss by the conjunctival route and the difficulty that old people have in dosing eyedrops to the eye. In addition to the hydrophilic and lipophilic barriers presented by the tear film and cornea described above, various other factors affect topical drug absorption. Under normal conditions the human tear volume is about 7–9 μl and it is relatively constant. The maximum amount of fluid that can be held in the lower eyelid sack is 25–30 μl, but only 3 μl of a solution can be incorporated in the precorneal film without causing it to destabilize. When eyedrops are administered, the tear volume is suddenly increased which can cause rapid reflex blinking. Most of the eyedrop is pumped through the lacrimal drainage system into the nasolacrimal duct, and some is spilled on the cheeks and splashed on the eyelashes. The drainage rate of the solution is related to the instilled volume; the smaller the volume the slower the drainage rate. However, the typical volumes delivered by commercial eyedroppers are in the range of 35–56 μl. Formulations often disappear from the cul-de-sac within 5 to 10 minutes following instillation in rabbits and 1 to 2 minutes in humans. Severe systemic side-effects may be result from absorption of some drugs through the mucous membrane of the nasolacrimal duct. It is lowest on awakening as a result of acid by-products associated with relatively anaerobic conditions in prolonged lid closure and increases because of loss of carbon dioxide as the eyes open. The tears are more acid in contact-lens wearers due to the impediment of the efflux of carbon dioxide, and more alkaline in the case of diseases such as dry eye, severe ocular rosacea and lacrimal stenosis. When an ophthalmic solution is instilled onto the eye surface, it is mixed with the tears present in the conjunctival sac and with the precorneal tear film. Tears have a weak buffering capacity and therefore the pH of the mixture is mainly determined by the pH of the instilled solution. The exposure of the eye surface to an acid fluid may cause damage to the ocular tissues resulting from a reaction with cellular proteins, forming insoluble complexes. Alkalinization of the tear film tends to produce an interaction of the hydroxyl ions with the cell membranes. At a high pH the lipids in the cell membranes will be saponified causing disruption of the structural integrity of the cells. The damage is dependent on the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions and on the exposure time.
Surgery may become necessary if the patient demonstrates diminished testicular size or abnormal sperm parameters or if the patient complains of persistent pain quality 2.5 mg olanzapine. Surgery may be performed by high ligation of the spermatic veins in the abdomen or ligation of the branches of inferior veins in the spermatic cord purchase olanzapine 20 mg line. Testis Tumors Testis tumors commonly occur in young men between the ages of 20 and 40 years old order olanzapine with american express. There are two to three new cases of testis cancer per 100 purchase olanzapine online now,000 men in the United States per year. Testis tumors tend to occur in an age group of men who often do not have routine physical examinations. Nonsemino- matous tumors include embryonal carcinoma (20%), teratoma (5%), choriocarcinoma (<1%), and mixed teratocarcinoma (40%). It is made by syncytiotrophoblasts and can be used to follow the tumor’s response to therapy. It is found pri- marily in pure embryonal carcinoma, in mixed (teratocarcinoma), and in yolk sac tumors, but it is never elevated in seminoma or pure chorio- carcinoma. Lactic acid dehydrogenase is a less speciﬁc tumor marker that may be elevated in patients with metastatic disease. Delay in diag- nosis often occurs because young patients do not present immediately 39. Physical examination and scrotal ultrasonogra- phy are essential in order to make the diagnosis. For patients with indeterminate lesions, magnetic resonance imaging may assist in the evaluation. The spermatic artery and vein are clamped to avoid tumor spread, and the testis is removed along with the spermatic cord. Testis tumors on the right tend to metastasize to the interaortocaval area at the level of the renal hilum (following the drainage of the right spermatic vein) and on the left to the periaor- 702 R. Weiss tic area at the left renal hilum (following the drainage of the left sper- matic vein). Once the testis tumors metastasize to these “primary landing sites,” they tend to progress in a stepwise manner to other lymph nodes in the retroperitoneum. After the orchiectomy is performed, markers should decline and eventually normalize. Patients with no disease or minimal retroperitoneal disease are advised to have radiation to the retroperitoneum as prophylaxis or treatment. Patients with nonseminomatous tumors eventually should have normal serum markers after orchiectomy if there is no metastatic disease. Patients who have normal markers and no gross evidence of disease have an approxi- mately 25% to 40% possibility of relapse, depending on the pathology. Because of this, they are advised to undergo a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. This procedure requires an abdominal incision, and lymph nodes are removed below the renal hilum and along the vena cava or aorta, depending on the side of the testis tumor and the sus- pected landing site. Side effects of the surgery may include impairment of ejaculatory function (retrograde), which may result in infertility. Testis tumors are one of the few tumors for which long-term cures have been achieved with chemotherapy. The physician examined the patient and found a ﬁrm nodule on the testis that did not transilluminate. The patient will undergo a surgical retroperitoneal lymph node dissection to determine if he has metastatic disease in the retroperitoneum. Summary This chapter discussed the diagnosis and management of the unde- scended testis, and the evaluation and management of the acute scrotum. Testis torsion must be diagnosed promptly so that the proper surgery can be performed to salvage the testis. There are several benign etiologies for scrotal masses including hydroceles, varicoceles, and spermatoceles. Testis tumors occur in young men and must be diagnosed early for proper treatment. Ultra- sonography provides the best diagnostic test to differentiate benign from malignant lesions of the testis. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for the man- agement of clinical stage I non-seminoma. Critical analysis of the clinical presenta- tion of the acute scrotum: 9-year experience at a single institution. To discuss the impact of the source of the kidney donor in relationship to the outcome. Case A 27-year-old man presents with increasing serum creatinine 2 weeks after a renal allograft transplant. The patient is afebrile, with blood pressure at 155/85, pulse at 84, and respiration at 16. On physical exam, his wound is well healed, and the allograft is palpable and nontender in the right lower quadrant. These options are not mutually exclusive, and, in fact, most patients eventually are treated with all three. The combination of underlying medical conditions leading to renal failure and dialysis itself creates an inverse relationship between time on dialysis and success with a renal transplant. Unfortunately, patients often have to wait years before receiving a transplant and have to suffer the debilitating consequences of long-term dialysis. Prior to renal transplantation or to placement on a list for a cadav- eric renal transplant, the potential recipient undergoes a thorough history and a thorough physical exam. In women over 18, a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear from within the past year is required. Many patients undergo an echocardiogram, a cardiac stress test, a noninvasive vascular exam, and duplex ultrasound of the carotid arteries, since cardiovascular disease is pervasive through the renal failure population. The ﬁrst category is related to the general effect immunosuppressants have on infections and on cancer and to the patient’s ability to take these drugs. The second category relates to the patient’s overall medical condition, with a focus on cardiovascular status, and his or her ability to undergo a substantial operation. Patients steadily accumulate points for each year for which they wait for an organ, and therefore waiting time eventually serves as the driving force behind allocation. Patients cannot start accumulating waiting time until their glomerular ﬁltration rate is less than 20cc/min. The allocation scheme recognizes and rewards with points the fact that children on dialysis often have a difﬁcult time maintaining good nutrition, which in turn causes poor physical and mental development, and that children derive more beneﬁt from a transplant than adults. Special status and points are given to patients who have donated a kidney and who go into renal failure themselves. As opposed to liver, heart, and lung transplant allocation schemes, with kidney trans- plants there are no points allocated based on medical need. Kidneys are allocated ﬁrst locally, then regionally, and, last, nationally, with the exception of mandatory sharing of a zero mismatched kidney. Among siblings, there is a 25% chance of a six-antigen match, a 50% chance of a three-antigen match, and a 25% chance of no match at all. Parent to child donations or vice versa always are at a minimum of a three-antigen match. It is for this reason that recipients of a living, related allograft enjoy excellent long- term renal allograft function. After transplantation, these kidneys had a high incidence of acute tubular necrosis. J Neurosurg 1971;35:211; Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to examine the deﬁnition of brain death. Data from Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Deﬁnition of Brain Death. Individuals who have severe, nonrecoverable neurologica injuries can donate their organs as well, although this type of donation is somewhat controversial. This less common form of donation usually is determined by the family, and the organ procurement organization is contacted.
Thomas’ contrasting of his former olanzapine 10 mg lowest price, pre-medication time of life (“difficult” buy discount olanzapine 20mg online, “very cheap olanzapine 10 mg free shipping, very hard”) with his adherent years (“a piece of cake”) functions to emphasise the positive impact that medication treatment and adherence have had on his life buy 20 mg olanzapine with amex. Ryan also emphasizes how difficult his life was before medication treatment by emphasizing his inability to function and describing himself as “insane”. Ryan and Thomas attribute their current adherence to learning from their experiences pre-treatment and post-treatment. Specifically, in the context of being asked what motivates him to remain adherent currently, Ryan explicitly states that he “look(s) back and think(s) how bad (he) was, how bad (his) mental health was prior to getting treatment and then getting the treatment and then looking at how (he) was before and how (he is) now”. Thomas’ past experiences are constructed as influencing his current adherence through the statement that he “wouldn’t be prepared to take the chance” to return to a pre-medication state, implying that he does not want to become non-adherent due to the associated risk of experiencing instability of his mental health and debilitating illness symptoms that he experienced in the past. Although not dissimilar to the idea of being influenced by pre- medication treatment experiences, this sub-code varies slightly from the previous one in that consumers referred to more recent, post-diagnosis experiences of non-adherence which typically followed periods of adherence and stability. Many interviewees stated that their experiences of becoming non-adherent and then relapsing provided incentive for them to remain adherent, as they had learned the association between non-adherence and symptom relapse and gained insight into the need for ongoing medication treatment. Indeed, many interviewees who described having learned from experiences of non-adherence had become advocates for adherence amongst other consumers. In the following extracts, interviewees attribute their adherence to learning that maintenance medication is necessary for their stability from a past episode of non-adherence, whereby their symptoms flared up. Gary, 31/07/2008 L: So, what would you say motivates you to stay on your medication then now, because you’ve been…I know you’ve had a couple of times when you’ve stopped, but why do you keep taking your medication now? G: Ya know, not better, so I might as well stay on the medication and be better all the time 116 Ryan L: And so that’s what motivates you to keep going then? R: Well, I did like, I guess I never were a guy for medication in ‘94, ‘95 and so on, but I kept saying that when I did try Abilify, and I went off clozapine in 2004, um, I just got unwell in a quick space of time and realised that hey, you know, the illness is, it just occurred to me after nine years of being well that uh, the illness is still there, so you just need to take them. Travis, 19/02/2009 T: Um, but I think you know, with my progress, it’s been a lot of years and a lot of bad experiences that have pushed me through, you know. In the first extract, Gary directly posits his “past history” as his reason for taking his medication, elaborating that he has learned that when he discontinues his medication, his symptoms exacerbate. Reflection on this negative experience for Gary enabled him to also learn of the relative benefits of remaining adherent (“so I might as well stay on the medication and be better all the time”). He relays, however, that an experience of non- adherence - which lead to a relapse after nine years of stability whilst adherent - led to a gain in insight about the chronicity of his mental illness and, thus, influenced his current beliefs about the need for medication 117 (“realised that hey, you know, the illness is, it just occurred to me after nine years of being well that uh, the illness is still there, so you just need to take them. Consistently, Travis, a peer worker who was adherent and stable at the time of interview, attributes his “progress” to time and “a lot of bad experiences”. Travis concurs that he learned from negative experiences, which “pushed him through”, despite acknowledging that they were “never nice”. In line with the above extracts, below Steve and Thomas explicitly state that they have learned not to stop taking their medication as a result of the experiences of the consequences of non-adherence. The experiences described in the following extracts represent secondary consequences of symptom relapse for these interviewees; hospitalization and imprisonment: Steve, 4/02/2009 L: Yep. Is that sort of a disincentive, does that sort of make you want to stop taking it? S: Um, nah I’ve stopped taking my medications in the past, I have, but as soon-, I ended up back in hospital and learned my lesson not to get off ‘em. Because that was my huge mistake in my 20s when I had my first bad episode, terrible. After being put in jail, I knew then that if I didn’t follow what the doctors said and take my pills then I would have very little life to call my own. In the first extract, even when being asked a leading question as to whether the side effect of weight gain influences Steve’s adherence, he declines and justifies his adherence in spite of this side effect by associating past non-adherence with hospitalisation. It is implied that the disadvantage of adherence - namely, weight gain - is overtaken by the negative consequences of non-adherence - specifically, hospitalization. Steve then directly reinforces his current position on adherence in spite of side effects and eludes to the trial and error process involved in adherence by stating that he “learned (his) lesson not to get off ‘em” from this past experience of hospitalisation. In the second extract, Thomas explicitly constructs non- adherence early in his illness as a “huge mistake” and his experience of going to jail after a bout of non-adherence as a learning curve in his life by labelling it a “turning point”. Thomas constructs his experience of being jailed as teaching him of the serious life impact that non-adherence can exert and thus influencing his present adherence. In both of the above extracts, adherence is implicitly framed as a means of avoiding the negative consequences of non- adherence that can result from relapse. In the below extract, Thomas more explicitly frames adherence as a means of avoiding risks associated with non- adherence: Thomas, 19/02/2009 119 L: So um, we’ve talked about your experiences then with antipsychotic medications. Um, what would be your beliefs generally about antipsychotic medications and taking them? T: Oh well, whoa, I mean you asked me when I was in Canberra what I thought about it then… I knew it had to be. Such a long way to get back after the first time and then it’s a long way to get back on the second one and then that’s a catastrophe. In the above extract, Thomas refers back to a past period of time when he was non-adherent and his illness was at its peak severity. Thomas attributes his adherence to learning from this past experience of non- adherence and associated relapse. This attribution is indicated by his response to the question about his medication beliefs, whereby he refers to his episode in Canberra and states, “I knew it (adherence) had to be. I wasn’t prepared to risk that happening again” which implies that associations were made between non-adherence and relapse; adherence and stability. Thomas also elaborates to construct his experiences of the difficultly and the time it takes to return to stability post-relapse, which he describes as increasing in line with the number of relapses, as influencing his present adherence. Below, Ryan talks about learning from experiences of the consequences of missing doses of medication for varying amounts of time: Ryan, 26/09/2009 L: Um, so do you always, have you always remembered to take your medication? And if I notice I am missing on one day, or maybe a few days is acceptable but it’s unacceptable if it’s 5 days or something like that, then I notice a downturn in my mental health. In the above extract, Ryan states that he remembers to take his medication for the most part, however occasionally misses one or several daily doses. The notion of adherence as always taking medication is challenged by Ryan, who constructs missing a few doses as “acceptable” but around five days or more as “unacceptable”. He indicates that he has learned from his experiences of being non-adherent for varying periods of time how long he is able to be non-adherent without experiencing relapse. Therefore, his actions, including not addressing missed doses immediately, are influenced by past experiences of the consequences, or lack thereof, of non- adherence (or partial adherence). In this sub-code, however, positive past adherence experiences are framed as influencing future adherence. Surprisingly, the incidence of this sub-code was rare, as 121 adherence was typically constructed as a means of avoiding some negative consequence, such as relapse. By contrast, in the following extracts, interviewees talk about, or recommend that other consumers think back to, how well they feel/have felt on medication. Just think about how well you were with them on it, and if you wanna be like that, just keep takin’ it man. You know, even though that you feel like you don’t need it, just take it for the hell of it! Then you learn and you wanna take your tablets because you’re feeling better and better. Above, the benefit of feeling well on medication is constructed as positive reinforcement for adherence. In the context of recommending other consumers to take their medication, Oliver suggests that consumers reflect on how “well” they felt when taking medication and emphasises the association between sustained well-being and adherence (“Just think about how well you were with them on it, and if you wanna be like that, just keep takin’ it man”). In the latter extract, Travis explicitly states that consumers “learn” to be adherent from experiencing the positive effects of medication on symptoms. The types of observations described confer with those discussed in previous extracts, such as the consequences of non-adherence, for example. Whilst all interviewees would have had personal pre-treatment experiences or their own experiences of non-adherence to draw from, it is possible that some referred to the experiences of other consumers to distance themselves from currently undesirable adherence behaviours in the context of the interview, or made general ‘they’ statements about consumers to distinguish themselves. It could be argued that observing and reflecting on adherence behaviours and associated outcomes of other consumers may be useful in assisting adherence amongst consumers who lack insight into their own illness and the need for medication. In the extracts below, taken from the same interview, Brodie comments on a peer’s adherence behaviour and consumers generally, based on his observations: Brodie, 21/08/2008 B: They decide not to take it then they realise that it was not the right thing to do then they end up in hospital. Brodie, 21/08/2008 123 L: Can you think of any strategies that could be useful to encourage people with schizophrenia to take their medication?