By W. Dudley. Illinois Wesleyan University.
The risk of drug interactions and side effects is minimal purchase dipyridamole with amex, but consumers using antianxiety dipyridamole 100 mg with visa, antibiotic buy cheap dipyridamole 25mg on-line, or antidepressant medications discount dipyridamole, birth control pills, or diabetic and thyroid drugs should consult with the prescribing physician. Rhodiola is just becoming known in America, and is being popularized by experts like Brown, Gerbarg, Mischoulon, and Weil. Although much more study is needed, it appears to have a promising future in low-risk mental health treatment and self- care. Rhodiola rosea (hereinafter “rhodiola”) is widely distributed at high altitudes in the mountainous regions of Europe and Asia, where it is known as “golden root,” “arctic root,” “roseroot,” or “Aaron’s rod. The roots of the plant have been used for centuries in the traditional medicine of Asia, Scandinavia, and Eastern Europe as a health-enhancing supplement stimulating the nervous system, enhancing physical and mental performance, and alleviating fatigue, psychological stress, and depression. Its stimulating and adaptogenic properties are attributed to p-tyrosol, salidroside, rosavins, and additional phenolic compounds. Specific neurochemical mechanisms have been documented for some but not all of the bioactive compounds. Studies of uncertain methodological rigor found that rhodiola 2 “enhanced intellectual work capacity, abstract thinking, and reaction time. However, based on trials conducted in the former Soviet Union beginning in 1987 and their own clinical practice, they note that rhodiola also can be useful in the treatment of depression. A recent small open-label study showed promising results for the use of rhodiola for anxiety, but the size and open label study design preclude any conclusion at 4 this point except for the usual need for more study. The tests were performed before and after night duty during three two-week periods in a double-blind cross-over trial. A statistically significant improvement in fatigue and mental performance was observed in the treatment group during the first 2 weeks. Brown and Gerbarg add that the dosage used in this study was sub-therapeutic -- about half of the recommended dose. Subjects receiving rhodiola demonstrated significant improvements in physical fitness, mental fatigue, psychomotor performance and general well-being. They also reported improvement in sleep patterns, reduced need for sleep, greater mood stability, and a 7 greater motivation to study. More research is needed, but the use of rhodiola for cognitive disorders is certainly promising. This treatment cannot yet be treated as fully evidence-based, but, in light of a benign side-effect profile, it may be appropriate to use rhodiola for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment as the evidence is accumulated. Although qualified by the researchers as “modest but significant,” the results were impressive, with equivalent results at both doses: Group A (340 mg): from 24. The Natural Standard does not even mention use of rhodiola for stress or depression. Given the relatively small risk, people may reasonably decide to give rhodiola a try in the absence of conflicting information. Rhodiola has not been studied in bipolar depression, and Iovieno et al advise caution in patients with bipolar spectrum disorders because of its activating effect, which could increase the risk of “cycling. These studies suggest that when combined with tricyclic antidepressants, rhodiola use was associated with a marked reduction in medication side effects as well as an improvement in 13 depressive symptoms. Further studies of Rhodiola as an adjunct to all classes of antidepressants would be worthwhile. However, Brown and Gerbarg caution that in some people doses above 600 mg per day of rhodiola can affect platelet aggregation. Thus, when rhodiola is used with anti-coagulants, bleeding and clotting times should be tested and doses adjusted as needed. The Natural Standard cautions of a broader risk of additive effects, but the clinical data are not available to demonstrate a significant risk at this point. Brown and Gerbarg observe minimal hypoglycemic effects and suggest monitoring for people who are insulin dependent or unstable diabetics. Rhodiola may also normalize thyroid function and reduce the necessary dose of synthetic thyroid replacement medication. Side effects are uncommon and mild, and can include allergy, irritability, insomnia, fatigue (not seen by Brown and Gerbarg), and unpleasant sensations, especially at high doses. An increase in irritability and insomnia within several days has been reported in some individuals at doses of 1500 – 2000 mg per day of rhodiola extract, which would be an excessive dose. Bruising, increased blood pressure, heart palpitations and chest pain are cited by Brown et al. If adverse effects on sleep occur, a smaller dose with very gradual increases can be suggested. Brown and Gerbarg add that rhodiola shows anti-cancer effects in clinical practice, in studies of human cancers transplanted into animals and in a few small human pilot studies. Brown and Gerbarg have not observed drops in blood sugar, irregular heartbeats or increased salivation in their clinical practice. Brown and Gerbarg note that rhodiola has been used in small doses for children as young as 10 years of age without adverse effects but emphasize that dosages for children (8-12 years old) must be small and carefully titrated 17 to avoid overstimulation. Brown and Gerbarg add that maximum effectiveness in adults generally occurs on dosages of between 150 and 600 mg per day. Brown and Gerbarg state that here is no rationale for dosages in excess of 900 mg per day. Although consumer use of rhodiola has become common, American academic studies and literature have not kept pace. It is used extensively by prescription in Germany, where randomized studies have shown the proprietary Schwabe St. Mischoulon and Rosenbaum suggest that it may be a promising practice for severe depression. John’s wort as long-term treatment, there is little evidence of long-term safety or efficacy. All of the clinical studies have been short (24-26 weeks at the most), and most have been small. John’s wort also can be a useful treatment for somatoform disorder (somatization disorder and hypochondria) and seasonal affective disorder. John’s wort with psychotropic drugs, you should definitely consult with the prescribing physician. People with complex medical conditions should insist on careful monitoring while taking St. John’s wort has serious potential interactions with many prescription medications, including antidepressants, birth control medications and others. John’s wort is a commonly-taken and well-supported treatment for mild to moderate depression. Adjunctive use with antidepressants requires caution and strict coordination with the prescribing physician. John’s wort, hypericum, Klamath weed, or goat weed, is a perennial plant with yellow flowers whose medicinal uses were first recorded in ancient Greece. It is a common roadside plant throughout the United States, Europe and Asia and has a long history of folk use in many cultures. John’s wort apparently refers to John the Baptist, as the plant blooms around the time of the feast of St. Serotonin syndrome is a serious condition defined by muscle rigidity, fever, confusion, increased blood pressure and heart rate, and coma. John’s wort are used to prepare teas and tablets containing concentrated extracts. John’s wort, but Mischoulon and Rosenbaum report that most studies use a formula of 0. It is urgent that more testing be done and that a standardized non- proprietary extract be developed for further study. Berkeley Wellness cautions that formulas vary widely in the amount and bio-availability of hypericin or hyperforin and that contaminants can be a problem. John’s wort is used for severe depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders, though the available evidence supports only its use for mild to moderate depression. A few randomized controlled studies show beneficial effects of John’s wort for treatment of somatization disorder (similar to hypochondria, transferring emotional conditions to physical symptoms) and seasonal affective disorder. It has also been tested (unsuccessfully) for use to relieve irritable bowel syndrome. John’s wort to be an evidence-based treatment for mild to moderate depression, relying principally on a 1996 meta-analysis evaluating twenty- three randomized trials of St. John’s wort (of which twenty were double-blind) involving 1 1757 patients with mild to moderate depression.
Each chemical signal stimulates some specific part of the body dipyridamole 25 mg line, known as target tissues or target cells order dipyridamole with american express. The body needs a constant supply of hormonal signals to grow order discount dipyridamole online, maintain homeostasis cheap 100 mg dipyridamole with visa, reproduce, and conduct myriad processes. In this chapter, we go over which glands do what and where, as well as review the types of chemical signals that play various roles in the body. You also get to practice discerning what the endocrine system does, how it does it, and why the body responds like it does. No Bland Glands Technically, there are ten or so primary endocrine glands with various other hormone- secreting tissues scattered throughout the body. Unlike exocrine glands (such as mammary glands and sweat glands), endocrine glands have no ducts to convey their secretions. Instead, hormones move directly into extracellular spaces surrounding the gland and from there move into capillaries and the greater bloodstream. Although they spread throughout the body in the bloodstream, hormones are uniquely tagged by their chemical composition. Thus they have separate identities and stimulate specific receptors on target cells so that usually only the intended cells or tissues respond to their signals. All of the many hormones can be classified either as steroid (derived from cholesterol) or nonsteroid (derived from amino acids and other proteins). The steroid hormones — which include testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, and cortisol — are the ones most closely Part V: Mission Control: All Systems Go 266 associated with emotional outbursts and mood swings. Steroidal hormones, which are nonpolar (see Chapter 2 for details on cell diffusion), penetrate cell membranes easily and initiate protein production at the nucleus. Nonsteroid hormones are divided among four classifications: Some are derived from modified amino acids, including such things as epineph- rine and norepinephrine, as well as melatonin. Protein-based nonsteroid hormones include such crucial substances as insulin and growth hormone as well as prolactin and parathyroid hormone. Hormone functions include controlling the body’s internal environment by regulating its chemical composition and volume, activating responses to changes in environmen- tal conditions to help the body cope, influencing growth and development, enabling several key steps in reproduction, regulating components of the immune system, and regulating organic metabolism. Glands that secrete their product into the interstitial fluid, which flows into the blood, are a. Rickets cells Chapter 16: Raging Hormones: The Endocrine System 267 Mastering the Ringmasters The key glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary (also called the hypophy- sis), adrenal (also referred to as suprarenal), thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, pineal, islets of Langerhans (within the pancreas), and gonads (testes in the male and ovaries in the female). But of all these, it’s the pituitary working in concert with the hypothalamus in the brain that really keeps things rolling (see Figure 16-1). The hypothalamus is the unsung hero linking the body’s two primary control systems — the endocrine system and the nervous system. Part of the brain and part of the endocrine system, the hypothalamus is connected to the pituitary via a narrow stalk called the infundibulum that carries regular system status reports to the pituitary. In its supervisory role, the hypothalamus provides neurohormones to control the pituitary gland and influences food and fluid intake as well as weight control, body heat, and the sleep cycle. The hypothalamus sits just above the pituitary gland, which is nestled in the middle of the human head in a depression of the skull’s sphenoid bone called the sella turcica. The pituitary’s anterior lobe, also called the adenohypophysis or pars distalis, is some- times called the “master gland” because of its role in regulating and maintaining the other endocrine glands. Hormones that act on other endocrine glands are called tropic hormones; all the hormones produced in the anterior lobe are polypeptides. Two capil- lary beds connected by venules make up the hypophyseal portal system, which connect the anterior lobe with the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary gland Adrenocortico- tropic hormone Thyroid- stimulating hormone Figure 16-1: The working Level of thyroxin relationship has control over anterior Thyroid pituitary gland and of the hypo- gland hypothalamus thalamus and the pituitary gland. This is the only hormone secreted by the anterior lobe that has a general effect on nearly every cell in the body (also regarded as nonendocrine targets). For a review of the male and female reproductive systems, flip to Chapters 13 and 14. The posterior lobe, or neurohypophysis, of the pituitary gland stores and releases secre- tions produced by the hypothalamus. This lobe is connected to the hypothalamus by the hypophyseal tract, nerve axons with cell bodies lying in the hypothalamus. Whereas the adenohypophysis is made up of epithelial cells, the neurohypophysis is largely composed of modified nerve fibers and neuroglial cells called pituicytes. The hypothal- amus has special neurons called osmoreceptors that monitor the amount of solute in the blood. See how much of this information you’re absorbing: Chapter 16: Raging Hormones: The Endocrine System 269 Q. The gland that does the most to regulate and maintain the function of other glands is the a. Lying in various locations through- out the body, these glands secrete check-and-balance hormones that keep the body in tune. Topping off the kidneys: The adrenal glands Also called suprarenals, the adrenal glands lie atop each kidney. The central area of each is called the adrenal medulla, and the outer layers are called the adrenal cortex. The cells of the cortex produce over 30 steroids, including the hormones aldosterone, cortisone, and some sex hor- mones. The medullar cells secrete epinephrine (you may know it as adrenaline) and norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline). Made up of closely packed epithelial cells, the adrenal cortex is loaded with blood ves- sels. Each zone is com- posed of a different cellular arrangement and secretes different steroid hormones. The zona reticularis (inner zone) secretes small amounts of gonadocorticoids or sex hormones. The following are among the hormones produced by the cortex: Aldosterone, or mineralocorticoid, regulates electrolytes (sodium and potassium mineral salts) retained in the body. Cortisone, or cortisol, acts as an antagonist to insulin, causing more glucose to form and increasing blood sugar to maintain normal levels. Elevated levels of cortisone speed up protein breakdown and inhibit amino acid absorption. Androgens generally convey antifeminine effects, thus accelerating maleness, although in women adrenal androgens maintain the sexual drive. Too much androgen in females can cause virilism (male secondary sexual characteristics). The adrenal medulla is made of irregularly shaped chromaffin cells arranged in groups around blood vessels. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system con- trols these cells as they secrete adrenaline and noradrenaline. The adrenal cortex produces approximately 80 percent adrenaline and 20 percent noradrenaline. Adrenaline accel- erates the heartbeat, stimulates respiration, slows digestion, increases muscle effi- ciency, and helps muscles resist fatigue. Noreadrenaline does similar things but also raises blood pressure by stimulating contraction of muscular arteries. Chapter 16: Raging Hormones: The Endocrine System 271 The terms “adrenaline” and “noradrenaline” are interchangeable with the terms “epinephrine” and “norepinephrine. Thriving with the thyroid The largest of the endocrine glands, the thyroid is like a large butterfly with two lobes connected by a fleshy isthmus positioned in the front of the neck, just below the larynx and on either side of the trachea. A transport mechanism called the iodide pump moves the iodides from the bloodstream for use in creating its two primary hormones, thyroxin and triiodothyronine, which regulate the body’s metabolic rate. Extrafollicular cells (also called parafollicular or C cells) secrete calcitonin, a polypeptide hormone that helps regulate the concentration of calcium and phosphate ions by inhibiting the rate at which they leave the bones. Thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) regulate cellular metabolism throughout the body, but the thyroid needs iodine to manufacture those hormones. This large polypeptide regu- lates the balance of calcium levels in the blood and bones as well as controls the rate at which calcium is excreted into urine. Blood calcium ion homeostasis is critical to the conduction of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and blood clotting. Pinging the pineal gland The pineal gland, also called the epiphysis, is a small, oval gland thought to play a role in regulating the body’s biological clock.
Accordingly generic 25 mg dipyridamole free shipping, carotid bruit cannot be used to rule in or rule out surgically amenable carotid artery stenosis in symptomatic patients purchase dipyridamole 25mg otc. Asymptomatic preoperative bruits are not predictive of increased risk of perioperative stroke cheap dipyridamole 25mg visa. Lacunes develop over hours or at most margins of the insula) cheap dipyridamole 25mg mastercard, or lentiform nucleus and sul a few days; large artery ischemia may evolve over cal effacement. Patients ment, coagulopathy), clinical (rapidly improving benefit more if treated early (<90 min) but benefit strokesymptoms,minor/isolatedsymptoms,seizure extends out to 6 h. Major risk is symptomatic brain at onset of stroke with residual impairment second hemorrhage(3 5%). Speech (‘Ka Ka Ka’’), coughing, swallowing Reflex gag reflex X Nucleus ambiguous, Jugular foramen Sensory sensation of palate dorsal motor vagal, Motor uvula and palate movement. Peripherallesions include aneurysm, tumor, meningitis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, orbital lesions, and ischemic lesions (diabetes, hypertension). If all three divisions (V1 V3) get affected, the lesion is likely at the ganglion or sensory root level (trigeminal neuroma, meningioma). If only a single division is affected, the lesion is likely at the post ganglion level (e. Anadenomamaycompresstheopticchiasm inferiorly, causing superior bitemporal quadranopsia Related Topics and eventually complete bitemporal hemianopia Diplopia (p. Lacrimation intact but salivation and taste both affected if lesion distal to geniculate ganglion. Facial electroneurography) palsy, ear pain, and vesicles in external auditory mea tus may be present. Check with driving authority for drug induced etiologies include isoniazide, theophyl specific restrictions and legal requirements. If single line, oral hypoglycemic agents, carbon monoxide, unprovoked seizure, usually no driving restrictions and bupropion. Treat isoniazide seizure free interval before re instating driver’s induced seizures with pyridoxine; hypoglycemic sei license (varies with jurisdiction). Some places may zures with glucose Æ octreotide and glucagon; and also restrict driving for 6 months after antiepileptic carbon monoxide associated seizures with oxygen dose adjustments. Autonomic failure may be resulting in increased peripheral vascular resis assessed by heart rate variability testing tance and cardiac output. Medications include fludrocortisone syncope, weakness, fatigue, angina, orthostatic 0. Headaches may be classified as new headache, acute thunderclap headache, or chronic headache. Chronic headaches with high risk features above should be investigated with neuroimaging. Risk factors include acterize headaches (location, nature, intensity, radia obesity, history of frequent headache (>1 per week), tion, alleviation, and aggravation), precipitants caffeine consumption, and overuse of acute head (stress, food, physical activity), and any associated ache medications (analgesics, ergots, triptans). Neurological examination includ and chronic tension type headache ing visual fields and fundoscopy. Any 1 of N&V, photophobia, and phonophobia (>5x and up to 24Â per day) and are shorter 5. If can still hear (air conduction trating trauma), tumor (acoustic neuroma, menin >bone conduction), either normal or sensorineural gioma), infectious (viral cochleitis, meningitis, loss on that side. Individuals who per ceive the whispered voicerequire no further testing, while those unable to perceive the voice require audiometry. The ice test, sleep test, and response to anticholinesterase agents (especially the edrophonium test) are useful in confirming the diagnosis, and reduce the likelihood when results are negative. On examination, the diagnostic value of the classic combination of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia is limited. Anticho exercises linergics have limited activity but can help with tremor and dyskinesia. Combinedusewithentacaponecanleadto width, coordination, and stability (see table more sustained levodopa levels. Physical findings include rotation of neck toward affected side followed by hypertonia, hyperreflexia/clonus, positive Babinski, compressive force to the top of the head suggests Hoffmann’s (flexion and adduction of the thumb cervical radiculopathy and may facilitate localization. Poor epilepsy, demyelinating diseases, inflammatory and delineation should raise suspicion of cerebral infectious conditions (e. This increases the sensitivity and specifi and cisterns) difficulty with visualization of the basal city. Contrast may also provide physiologic and func cisternsmayindicateincreasedintracranialpressureand tional information in addition to lesion delineation possibly brain herniation. Risk Fasting [100 125 mg/ factors for heart disease (hyperlipidemia, hyperten Glucose dL] sion, smoking, family history of early cardiac events, Impaired 7. Oneunitofinsulinisequalto10mL ketones, creatinine, urea, HbA1C, fasting lipids, of drip). Recent evidence linking rosiglitazone with should be referred to an ophthalmologist at the increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovas time of diagnosis and then annually. Patients with cular death; thus the decision to prescribe rosiglita type 1 diabetes may have a baseline eye assess zone should be done after carefully balancing the risks ment 5 years after the diagnosis as long as they are and benefits of treatment. Amitriptyline, gabapentin, or include hypoglycemia pregabalin may be used for painful neuropathy. Causes dose dependent and glucose depen years, or if they have hypertension, proteinuria, dent insulin secretion, delays gastric emptying, pro reducedpulsesorvascularbruits. Long repeated every 2 years in patients of high car term adverse effects are unknown. The bed given before breakfast, lunch, and supper as rapid or time basal insulin would have to be decreased. Only give once the ditis or factitious hyperthyroidism thyroid levels have been stabilized. With = 6 10%; <1% suggests thyroiditis, 1 6% sug hold if severe ophthalmopathy, smoking, or severe gests iodine exposure, >10% suggests Graves’, thyrotoxicosis as may make eye disease worse or toxic nodule, or toxic multinodular goiter lead to thyroid storm. Thyroiditis typi synthesis; for Graves’, multinodular goiter and cally leads to hyperthyroidism initially as the thyroid toxic adenoma only. If benign, no treatment necessary with Cold nodules in the setting of Graves’ disease also clinical follow up only! Failure to sup ate; otherwise, bilateral adrenalectomy and keto press cortisol to <50 nmol/L is a positive test conazole may be considered which may be a false positive or true Cushing’s syndrome. If bilateral adrenal surgery or adrenocortico tisol, and 24 h urine cortisol and creatinine for 2 days. Medical drome clinically, but rarely associated with derma therapy relatively ineffective. Vitamin D deficiency has also been postulated weeks for most causes; repeat for another 8 weeks to be associated with chronic diseases such as if 25 hydroxyvitamin D still low. T score is the Physical number of standard deviations above/below the Weight <51 kg 7. Patients who are at high risk of having a osteoporosis or spinal fracture without further test fracture in the next 10 years should be started on ing. Bisphosphonates should be taken including low body weight (<51 kg [<112 lb]), in with water >60 min before first meal, and remain ability to place the back of the head against a wall upright Â30 min. Duration of therapy is controversial significantly increase the likelihood of osteoporosis (e. In advanced (‘‘burnt out’’) disease, bones are fect bone repair, leading to bone expansion and widened and heterogeneously ossified softening! Bisphosphonates can provide pain control, Bony deformity may lead to difficulties with improve skeletal scintigraphy, and sometimes heal weight bearing (femur, tibia), headaches and hear osteolytic lesions. Bone scan and plain X rays can be involved and likely to progress), and elective sur diagnostic. Also assess for hir suggests ovarian failure or outflow tract sutism, acne, striae, acanthosis nigricans, vitiligo, obstruction and signs of hypothyroidism. Neck and flexural prominence burning lesions found on lower limbs of older in adults and children.