By D. Ramon. Arkansas State University.
Even if the technology were cheaper buy 50mg nitrofurantoin visa, it is unclear that it would be practical in the markets most hurt by falsi- fed drugs discount nitrofurantoin 50 mg free shipping. Chapter 3 explains that the burden of falsifed medicines is borne mostly by the poor generic nitrofurantoin 50mg with amex, especially the poor in low- and middle-income countries purchase cheapest nitrofurantoin, who buy drugs at unlicensed drug stores and unregulated street markets. Mobile phone verifcation, an ingenious form of mass serialization, can fll in for an electronic pedigree at a drug’s last step to the consumer. Mobile verifcation companies such as Sproxil take subscriptions from drug companies and wholesalers. Sproxil provides labels to their clients; each label is marked with a visible serial number and secret code hidden under the scratch-off surface. When the label is attached to the fnal package, the manufacturer enters the visible serial number in the Sproxil database through a secure web portal. The visible serial number links the product manufacturer, batch number, manufacture, and expiry dates to the secret scratch-off code. At the point of purchase, the consumer sends a text message or, in some systems, an e-mail to the verifcation company, the company that makes the scratch-off labels and manages the linked database. An immediate text message response confrms if the secret code number is registered with the manufacturer, or if it is from a shipment reported to have left the legitimate supply chain. Mobile verifcation of pharmaceuticals is gaining users in 17 sub-Saharan African countries and India (Mukherjee, 2012; Sproxil, 2012; Versel, 2012). An elegant system for assigning unique product numbers, mobile verifcation empowers consumers to act for their own safety. Mobile verifcation cannot prevent fraud, nor is it a substitute for phar- macovigilance and postmarket surveillance. A product could be substan- dard at the factory but still gain a valid mobile verifcation label. Mobile verifcation, however, appeals to good-quality manufacturers, who see the service as an investment in their brand or as a way for consumers to have Sproxil standard labels with visible serial number and scratch-of covering the secret code number. A more likely problem would be a wholesaler assigning a legitimate label to a falsifed drug. Also, the verifcation service only confrms a product’s identity at the end of the distribution chain, at purchase. These systems cannot track the chain of custody or monitor if the product has been stored and transported properly. A reliable system for tracking and tracing drugs through the distribu- tion chain would greatly reduce the likelihood of falsifed and substandard medicines reaching patients. Recent technological advances, such as the use of radio frequency identifcation and the expansion of mobile phones in de- veloping countries, hold promise for supply chain security. The committee believes that manufacturers and governments should use these technologies to integrate all records of a drug’s chain of custody. A mandatory track-and-trace system for drugs is the best way to moni- tor the chain of custody and protect patients from unsafe drugs. A full track-and-trace system would allow all parties in the drug distribution chain to see a complete record of the product’s path from the manufacturer to the patient (Rappeport and Jack, 2012). Track-and-trace systems place unique demands on drug manufacturers, retailers, and wholesalers. Some may see the imposition of a drug pedigree system as a matter of pharmacy practice, and therefore under the jurisdiction of state boards of pharmacy, the state health department, or another state authority. This authority should accompany an increase in funding to allow the agency, which has received many unfunded mandates in recent years, the staffng and technical upgrades necessary to monitor compliance (McCain, 2011; Palmer, 2010). A track-and-trace system would allow pharmacists to identify suspi- cious drugs before dispensing them and would facilitate more effcient product recalls (Buynak, 2011; DeCardenas, 2007). Companies tag drug pallets or other bulk packages with radio frequency tags, for example, but use barcodes or other identifers on smaller units (Lefebvre et al. Nevertheless, consumers and governments have demanded a stronger chain of custody (DeCardenas, 2007). This problem has been lingering for years and should be addressed promptly (Palmer, 2012). Without a clear federal mandate on the problem, companies and state governments work in a state of uncertainty, not knowing where and how to make the neces- sary investments that track-and-trace will require. If Congress does not set a mandatory requirement, then the competing demands of state track- and-trace systems will create an unmanageable burden for manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers. Stakeholder comments on the workshop mentioned the importance of track-and-trace and “the need for one standard, without variations imposed, for example, by individual states” (Ducca, 2011). Any track-and-trace system will be an expense to manufacturers and industry, but the expense can be contained by making one national requirement. An increased track-and-trace requirement will put a fnancial burden on these companies, even if the added cost is low. This can help control the burden an inevitable shift to drug tracking will put on these businesses. Tracking primary packages through the drug distribution chain with unique serial numbers is a good defense against criminal infltration (Ludwig, 2012; Pellek, 2009; Power, 2008). A method of tracking medi- cines from the factory to the consumer could greatly reduce the chances of a dangerous product being sold at a reputable pharmacy. These solutions are of limited value in the vast pharmaceutical gray markets, however. Ig- norance, convenience, and desperation, or some combination thereof, drive patients to unlicensed pharmacies in street bazaars and on the internet. Medicines retail, the last leg of the drug distribution system, is often the most chaotic. The risk increases as drugs move farther from the manufacturer en route to the vendor. Licensed pharmacies and dispensaries can control the quality of their stock, at least insomuch as they can trust their wholesalers. They may approach medicines dispensing as any other sales job and not want a customer to leave without making a purchase. In general, these vendors exploit the chaos inherent to street markets and dry goods shops in low- and middle-income countries and to online drug stores in middle- and high-income ones. Their stock is poor because the stockists are either unable or unwilling to judge quality. Their customers are similarly ill-equipped to evaluate the dangers of buying medicine outside of controlled chains. Unlicensed medicine vendors fll a need, especially in poor countries, when time, expense, and distance impede access to registered pharmacies. Internet pharmacies can fll a simi- lar void, appealing to customers eager to save time and money or to pur- chase discretely. Both types of market are dangerous and more similar than they may appear at frst glance. A Chinese military pharmacist described the appeal of unlicensed medicine shops: “There are people who choose to seek medical help from these places, possibly because of lower prices or privacy concerns, which may increase their chances of getting counterfeit products” (Quingyun, 2012). The observation is true of all unregulated Key Findings and Conclusions • There are few high-quality, licensed drug shops in developing coun- tries, especially outside of cities. Task shifting and vocational training in medicines retail can alleviate the shortage of pharmacists. Only 7 percent of countries have a system for verifying legitimate online drug stores. The committee believes some changes to medicines retail could improve the world’s vast and disorganized pharmaceutical bazaars. Unregistered Pharmacies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries The packaging of falsifed drugs contains clues that are lost in un- regulated pharmacies (Dondorp et al. Epidemiological research suggests that falsifed medicines are often sold without packaging (Basco, 2004), by street vendors (Tipke et al. The dangers of these vendors are clear: Some sell loose pills from large plastic bags or cut apart and subdivide blister packs; none has training in the proper storage, buying, or dispensing of medicines. Even when packaged medicines happen into these markets, their customers are not often sophisticated enough to analyze packages for irregularities. Illiteracy is a known predictor of buying falsifed and substandard drugs (Erhun et al. As David Peters and Gerald Bloom observed, “The wealthiest people in developing Medicine for sale in a Côte d’Ivoire street market. Shortage of Quality-Assured Drug Shops A simple lack of alternatives pushes the poorest consumers to buy medicine at unregulated shops. High taxes and overhead costs make a diff- cult business environment for pharmacists; there are few incentives to work in underserved areas (McCabe, 2009).
Pruemer January 2002 Preface to the Fourth Edition Although the fourth edition of Concepts in Clinical Pharmacokinetics continues to provide basic pharmacokinetic concepts and procedures that are useful in pharmacy purchase nitrofurantoin overnight, medicine order 50mg nitrofurantoin fast delivery, and other health professions cheap nitrofurantoin amex, this new edition has been revised to be buy nitrofurantoin 50mg overnight delivery, we anticipate, even more instructive and user- friendly for the reader. All of the chapters are revised, with many new clinical correlates and some new figures. All similar equations are cross-referenced throughout the book to allow the student to compare the various equations. A new appendix, Basic and Drug-Specific Pharmacokinetic Equations, summarizes and lists all equations needed to dose selected drugs (aminoglycoside, vancomycin, theophylline, digoxin, and phenytoin). In addition, more in-depth answers and feedback for incorrect responses are provided for the short-answer questions. All features are designated with specific design elements for easy navigation throughout the chapters. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider for continuing pharmacy education. Identify factors that cause interpatient variability in drug disposition and drug response. Describe situations in which routine clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring would be advantageous. Use both one- and two-compartment models and list the assumptions made about drug distribution patterns in each. Represent graphically the typical natural log of plasma drug concentration versus time curve for a one-compartment model after an intravenous dose. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic principles to the safe and effective therapeutic management of drugs in an individual patient. The development of strong correlations between drug concentrations and their pharmacologic responses has enabled clinicians to apply pharmacokinetic principles to actual patient situations. Receptor sites of drugs are generally inaccessible to our observations or are widely distributed in the body, and therefore direct measurement of drug concentrations at these sites is not practical. For example, the receptor sites for digoxin are believed to be within the myocardium, and we cannot directly sample drug concentration in this tissue. However, we can measure drug concentration in the blood or plasma, urine, saliva, and other easily sampled fluids (Figure 1-1). Kinetic homogeneity describes the predictable relationship between plasma drug concentration and concentration at the receptor site (Figure 1-2). Changes in the plasma drug concentration reflect changes in drug concentrations in other tissues. As the concentration of drug in plasma increases, the concentration of drug in most tissues will increase proportionally. Similarly, if the plasma concentration of a drug is decreasing, the concentration in tissues will also decrease. Figure 1-3 is a simplified plot of the drug concentration versus time profile after an intravenous drug dose and illustrates the property of kinetic homogeneity. The property of kinetic homogeneity is important for the assumptions made in clinical pharmacokinetics. It is the foundation on which all therapeutic and toxic plasma drug concentrations are established. That is, when studying concentrations of a drug in plasma, we assume that these plasma concentrations directly relate to concentrations in tissues where the disease process is to be modified by the drug (e. Clinical Correlate Drugs concentrate in some tissues because of physical or chemical properties. Examples include digoxin, which concentrates in the myocardium, and lipid-soluble drugs, such as benzodiazepines, which concentrate in fat. Receptors may be present on neurons in the central nervous system to depress pain sensation, on cardiac muscle to affect the intensity of contraction, or even within bacteria to disrupt maintenance of the bacterial cell wall. This multilevel regulation of drug effect results in variation of sensitivity to drug effect from one individual to another and also determines enhancement of or tolerance to drug effects. In the simplest examples of drug effect, there is a relationship between the concentration of drug at the receptor site and the pharmacologic effect. If enough concentrations are tested, a maximum effect (Emax) can be determined (Figure 1-5). When the logarithm of concentration is plotted versus effect (Figure 1-5), one can see that there is a concentration below which no effect is observed and a concentration above which no greater effect is achieved. One way of comparing drug potency is by the concentration at which 50% of the maximum effect is achieved. This means that a lesser amount of a more potent drug is needed to achieve the same effect as a less potent drug. Duration of effect is determined by a complex set of factors, including the time that a drug is engaged on the receptor as well as intracellular signaling and gene regulation. Tolerance may be caused by pharmacokinetic factors, such as increased drug metabolism, that decrease the concentrations achieved with a dose. There can also be pharmacodynamic tolerance, which occurs when the same concentration at the receptor site results in a reduced effect with repeated exposure. Tolerance can be described in terms of the dose-response curve, as shown in Figure 1-6. To assess the effect that a drug regimen is likely to have, the clinician should consider pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors. One example is the hemodynamic tolerance that occurs with continued use of organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin. For this drug, tolerance can be reversed by interspersing drug-free intervals with chronic drug use. For some patients with diabetes mellitus there is a reduction in the number of insulin receptors on the surface of cells using glucose. These patients then become relatively insensitive to insulin and require higher doses. Therefore, the pharmacologic response for one person can be quite different from another, even with the same insulin concentrations at the receptor site. Relationship of drug concentration at the receptor site to effect (as a percentage of maximal effect). For certain drugs, studies in patients have provided information on the plasma concentration range that is safe and effective in treating specific diseasesthe therapeutic range (Figure 1-7). Below it, there is greater probability that the therapeutic benefits are not realized; above it, toxic effects may occur. No absolute boundaries divide subtherapeutic, therapeutic, and toxic drug concentrations. A gray area usually exists for most drugs in which these concentrations overlap due to variability in individual patient response. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic factors contribute to this variability in patient response. Although this course focuses on pharmacokinetics, it is important to remember the fundamental relationship between drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic response. The pharmacokinetics of a drug determine the blood concentration achieved from a prescribed dosing regimen. Theophylline is an excellent example of a drug whose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are fairly well understood. When theophylline is administered at a fixed dosage to numerous patients, the blood concentrations achieved vary greatly. That is, wide interpatient variability exists in the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. This is important for theophylline because subtle changes in the blood concentration may result in significant changes in drug response. Figure 1-8 shows the relationship between theophylline concentration (x-axis, on a logarithmic scale) and its pharmacologic effect, (changes in pulmonary function [y-axis]). Figure 1-8 illustrates that as the concentration of theophylline increases, so does the intensity of the response for some patients. Theophylline concentrations below 5 mg/L are generally considered inadequate for a desired therapeutic effect, and side effects (tachycardia, nausea and vomiting, and nervousness) are more likely to occur at concentrations above 20 mg/L. Drugs like theophylline possess a narrow therapeutic index because the concentrations that may produce toxic effects are close to those required for therapeutic effects. The importance of considering both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is clear. As can be seen in this table, most drug concentrations are expressed as a unit of mass per volume (e.
However purchase nitrofurantoin with visa, the word менеджер (manager) is absolutely unique order discount nitrofurantoin on-line, and there is no substitute for it order 50 mg nitrofurantoin with mastercard. Thus cheap 50 mg nitrofurantoin with amex, contemporary texts, the names of professions, shops, cafes, restaurants, firms and etc. Will all these words included into Russian language or not, time will tell, and at this stage we can make only assumptions. There are many terms in Latin language, which name persons, who are engaged in education and tuition. The initial meanings of this word were the ruler, the boss, the manager and the supervisor. This word is related with the words magnus - large, magis – more, which have root mag. Later it began to used to designate the notion of the teacher, often in combination with the word ludus - school: magister ludi, magister ludi librarii, primus magister. Next term litterator comes from the word littera - the letter, because the main litterator`s task was to teach children the alphabet, to read and to write.. Reading and writing teacher has been called librarius or magister libraries, came from the word liber – a book. Teens from the rich Roman families have been patronized by the cultural Greek slaves, who have been called paedagogus. He followed boy`s education, taught the Greek language and accompanied the boy to school, so he was called pedisequus – somebody, who accompanies or comes, custos – the guardian. Rhetor, orator or eloquence teacher, prepared students for the judicial and political work and directed the third stage of the Roman School. Besides the Greek word rhetor, synonyms orator, scholasticus, graecus have been used. Frequently it has been used to name a teacher of rhetoric, grammar, philosophy, scientist. This term has been used for the teacher of scientific disciplines: rhetoric, philology, science, philosophy, law, medicine. In conclusion, some terms, denoting persons engaged in teaching, got over the Roman Empire and became the part of the educational and scientific vocabulary in many modern European countries. There were periods in the history of mankind when Latin was a part of fashion and out of it. However, it always remained a unique phenomenon of human culture to conquer space and time. Despite this even after its death, the Latin language lives in new – Romanic – languages, Catholic liturgy, terminology systems of modern science. To identify the significance of the role of the Latin language in the contemporary world. Review of the literature on the topic, searching information on the Internet, the collection of the material, comparative analysis. The movement for the use of Latin in the modern life th appeared in the early 20 century. It was an attempt of a cultural revival based on rich ancient traditions and in the course of tendencies seeking to achieve the more integrated Europe. In Germany there was formed a society of ―Societas Latina‖ which issued the ―Vox Latina‖ magazine. Modern literature in the Latin language is represented by such well-known writers and poets as Arrius Nurus, Geneviève Immi, Alanus Divutius, Anna Elissa Radke, Ianus Novak, Thomas Pekkanen etc. In medicine and pharmacy the Latin language has traditionally remained the main international source for the formation of a new terminology in natural science, medicine and pharmacy in modern languages. We cannot state that Latin may eventually regain the position as the international language of science and culture. However, there are no doubts that the Latin language will live and develop in accordance with the needs of our time. By this I mean real modern slavery, where people get in trap trying to find better life. Those people have to work hard, it‘s forbidden for them to leave their place of work and living by their so-called ―employers‖. Moreover, ―slaves‖ can‘t communicate with their relatives or seek help from government. And the worst pert is that you can‘t break this system from inside, so it‘s in our interests to prevent these crimes against human rights. From moral point we can‘t say that it‘s not our problem, because it can happen to anyone: you, your family or friends. I believe that the main reason of modern slavery is language ―border‖, because there is no point to cry for help if no one will understand you. Today government try to integrate English into our lives, but it seems that none of it‘s methods work. Eventually this brings us to another statistical result, according to the English Language Resources less then 4 percents of people can speak English in Ukraine. Just because riding a bike seems really cool in childhood, and it‘s known that children learn everything much better and faster than adults. You might think that we have already English schools for our beloved kids, that we even have English classes in pre-school. The problem is that in schools teachers always say that the main subjects are math and Russian or Ukrainian languages. Even if you want your kid to learn English in English schools, you‘ll have to spend a lot of money. By just accepting this fact as life we are guilty for making English some kind of luxury! By achieving this we‘ll get a country that has 3 national languages, imagine our culture in 100 years after this victory. A country of culture, business and all kinds of opportunities, a country of diversity and peace. Finally to sum up all my words into single thought I want to say that difference is not makes us hate to each other, but misunderstanding is. We start conflicts with one word that was given us by God to find comprehension in each other. It all seems such a childish mistake, because we all want to help one another, that‘s our nature. This world has room for everyone and our Earth is rich, it can provide it‘s treasures for everyone. Without this qualities life will be violent and all of us will lose everything we love. The given work deals with the description of innovations in the lexical sphere in the Russian language of the modern period. The appearance of such innovations is caused by the essential changes of socio-political and economic character. Logos word) - a new word, linguistic innovation (figure of speech), the grammatical feature, which appears in the language. The increased interest to the neology problem is due to the important role of neologisms as a mirror of language development, which reflects the language adaptation to the changing under the influence of external factors, the conditions of its operation. The starting point is the practice of lexical innovation, because cultural and historical, social and political conditions of life and work of the speech community affect the lexical and nominative activity. The material of the research are neologisms, which are often found in the speech of young people - Russian native speakers and the material of student of the blogosphere. The study is a description of the material, based on the study and synthesis of the major achievements of modern linguistics and lexicography theory, their basic concepts. The main methods are: the method of observation, description and method of the survey informants - native speakers. Along with the aging process of certain words much more intensively flows replenishment process of the lexical composition of the language. The last 10 years - a period of historic change in Ukraine and Russia, which have a direct impact on the vocabulary of the state. It emerged in this period, neologisms, are primarily education, which previously did not have, not only in the literary language, but also in other branches of the Russian language (social and regional dialects, functional styles). We distributed the modern Russian neologisms in groups you found: 1) transport (бусик, тачка), 2) Internet / Media Communication (гуглить, чатиться), 3) family (life, home furnishings, etc. Strong innovations represented at the lexical-semantic level (neologisms-borrowings, morphological and syntax neologisms) are analyzed in our work.
Quite apart from the financial pressure to provide minimalist services discount nitrofurantoin american express, re-tendering in itself risks compromising the quality and continuity of treatment 50 mg nitrofurantoin amex. As reported by Ball and Ross discount nitrofurantoin 50mg on-line,7 more effective programmes are characterised by stable management purchase nitrofurantoin 50 mg with mastercard, and frequent restructuring of services may compromise effectiveness. Clinical leadership, with well- understood, protocol-driven treatment and support and supervision for staff, are important ingredients of treatment. Summary • Medical management of drug dependence is more difficult and challenging than for other chronic disorders. Many users who present for treatment are socially marginalised, lead chaotic lifestyles and have little to motivate them towards recovery. This attenuates the symptoms of withdrawal from heroin and allows the user to gain control over other aspects of their life, thereby creating the necessary preconditions to cease drug seeking and use. There is substantial evidence that good-quality staff interactions are of benefit for recovery. Some people who use drugs report experiencing disapproval and frustration in their interaction with healthcare services,1 and this can be a significant barrier to accessing healthcare. As discussed in Chapter 8, health professionals who adopt a non- judgemental, non-stigmatising empathic stance are most likely to be effective in delivering healthcare for these patients. There is consistent evidence that in primary care settings, in hospitals, and in mental health settings, doctors frequently do not address alcohol and drug use. The medical frame of reference is a useful one in which to approach drug use – non-judgemental, factual, professional, accurate diagnosis and provision of information and referral, monitoring the response. Contrary to pessimism and reluctance to address drug use as a health issue, there is evidence that, in relation to the legal drugs alcohol and tobacco, medical management can have significant impact,6-9 but it is unclear how far this can be extrapolated to illicit drugs. Opportunistic identification of drug use, and provision of brief health advice, may be useful in triggering individuals to reflect on, and sometimes to modify, their use of drugs. The appropriate response may involve provision of information about health risks and harms, or referral for management. Screening and brief advice from physicians can affect the motivation for change among patients, including those with substance dependence. The doctor must also consider the impact the drug use may be having on children and young people. Relevant information will include family risk factors, such as drug and alcohol misuse, or previous instances of abuse or neglect, but you should not usually share complete records. This section looks at strategies to reduce use in those who are already using drugs. McCambridge and Strang tested brief interventions in young people,16 and found that a single session of motivational interviewing (including discussing illicit drug use) led successfully to reduction in use of these drugs among young people. The intervention took place across 10 further education colleges across inner London, with 200 young people aged 16-20 years who were currently using illegal drugs. Those randomised to motivational interviewing reduced their use of cannabis (and cigarettes and alcohol). Those most at risk benefited the most: for cannabis, the effect was greater among heavier users. The effect of reduction in cannabis use was also greater among youth usually considered vulnerable or high risk according to other criteria – for example young male individuals who smoked cannabis the most frequently, were in receipt of benefits, and had a prior history of selling drugs. In the group that received additional counselling, there was half the rate of drug injection at 6-month follow-up, four times the likelihood of abstinence (confirmed by urinalysis), and significantly lower arrest rates. It requires medical management of the drug use and its sequelae, but also includes referring to other disciplines, such as social services, that can help with the wider aspects of improving quality of life. Medical management of dependent drug use focuses directly on treating physical and mental health issues and may involve prescribing. This section presents some of the safety issues that are important in this context. It considers the appropriate and safe prescribing of drugs of dependence and ways to minimise the risks of diversion, misuse and iatrogenic dependence. Misuse of, and dependence on, prescribed drugs (in particular opioids and benzodiazepines) is a rapidly growing public health problem in many jurisdictions internationally. In addition to minimising misuse, diversion and iatrogenic dependence, the medical professional must consider the physical safety of the prescribed drugs, as is the case in all prescribing. The impact of injudicious prescribing is illustrated in a study from Melbourne, Australia, where researchers investigated the medical attendances of young people who had died of opioid overdoses. Such withdrawal is characterised by autonomic overactivity (tachycardia, hypertension, tremor and sweating), cognitive changes (confusion, agitation, sometimes psychosis) and perceptual disturbances (formication – a tactile hallucination of insects crawling on or in the skin, illusions, visual hallucinations). One role of therapeutic detoxification from illicit drugs is management of a clinical emergency, stabilising the individual and slowing the rate of change to allow their physiology to adapt. A second role is to decrease the distressing or uncomfortable symptoms of withdrawal, and, through this, a third role is to enhance engagement and increase the likelihood of continued abstinence. It is also essential that the medical professional promotes continued engagement and continues to provide support after the detoxification process is complete. This is relevant in considering illicit drug use, as it is usual for people who become dependent on illicit drugs to misuse a range of drugs, including alcohol and benzodiazepines. Where withdrawal from most illicit drugs is not associated with severe morbidity, withdrawal from benzodiazepines often poses a greater risk. Withdrawal symptoms come on within two to three half-lives of the particular benzodiazepine (eg 2-3 days after short- and medium-acting compounds and 7-10 days after long- acting compounds) and usually subside within a few weeks. Others can be managed by specialists, with high-dose diazepam and baclofen, titrated against withdrawal severity in ambulatory settings, but this needs to be backed up with access to inpatient treatment if required, because of the possible severity of the withdrawal symptoms. Methadone or buprenorphine are offered as the first-line treatment in opioid detoxification. Following successful opioid detoxification, patients should be offered and engaged in continued support and monitoring designed to maintain abstinence. The medical professional must also educate the patient regarding the loss of opioid tolerance following detoxification, and the ensuing increased risk of overdose and death if opioids are used again during this period. While the two syndromes are distinct, they share symptoms, including dysphoric mood, fatigue, vivid or unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, increased appetite and psychomotor agitation or retardation. The medical professional should also be aware of the possible responses of patients aiming to reduce their withdrawal symptoms, including relapsing42 and self-medication with other substances. There was a strong, significant correlation between distress experienced during withdrawals and the use of other substances to relieve the distress. The medical professional must also address relapse prevention strategies with those undergoing detoxification. Its use requires significant motivation for compliance and thus its use as an effective therapeutic strategy is limited. A Cochrane review addressing the use of psychostimulants to maintain abstinence from cocaine use found studies in this area to be currently inconclusive. Individuals with cocaine and/or opioid dependence and who are in close contact with a non-drug-using partner benefit from behavioural couples therapy, both during treatment and at follow-up. The earlier members of this population are able to access treatment services, the better the outcome will be for their general physical health, the pregnancy and the neonate. A sensitive, non-judgemental approach is essential in engaging this population and optimising treatment effectiveness. Medical professionals have a role to play not only in portraying this through their own clinical care and manner, but in leading their clinical teams to be approachable, non-judgemental and patient centred in this situation. This will include attention not only to physical healthcare and management of drug use, but sensitive attention to the coexistent psychological difficulties and social concerns that the patient may be experiencing. The medical professional and the full multidisciplinary team will need to address the woman’s fears about the involvement of children’s services; anxiety and guilt about the potential impact of their drug use on their baby;62 and concerns the patient may have about finances, support networks, and coping strategies during pregnancy and their forthcoming parenthood. They also recommend that a variety of methods (eg text messaging) should be used to maintain contact and engagement, and to remind women of upcoming and missed appointments. Multiagency team work is also essential, working with social care professionals and ensuring seamless communication between general practice and the specialist services involved in the patient’s antenatal care, including obstetrics, specialist drug services and any other specialist healthcare services. Multiagency case conferences, with prospective parents invited as participating attendees, will facilitate good inter-team communication and optimise clinical care. Her family were very strict and she was not allowed to have friends outside the community. Between the ages of 10 and 13 she was subjected to regular sexual abuse by an uncle who lived with the family. She once told her mother about the abuse but was told to keep it quiet and not tell anyone, as it would bring shame on the family. She did well at school and started work in a local estate agent’s office when she left school.
Responsibility for as- hand-washing facility before starting suring compliance by all personnel work purchase on line nitrofurantoin, after each absence from the work with all requirements of this part shall station buy nitrofurantoin american express, and at any other time when be clearly assigned to competent super- the hands may have become soiled or visory personnel generic nitrofurantoin 50mg with visa. If subject to this part: Establishments such hand jewelry cannot be removed buy nitrofurantoin 50mg with visa, engaged solely in the harvesting, stor- it may be covered by material which age, or distribution of one or more can be maintained in an intact, clean, "raw agricultural commodities," as de- and sanitary condition and which effec- fined in section 201(r) of the act, which tively protects against the contamina- are ordinarily cleaned, prepared, treat- tion by these objects of the food, food- ed, or otherwise processed before being contact surfaces, or food-packaging marketed to the consuming public. The gloves should be of an impermeable Subpart B—Buildings and Facilities material. Personnel may contribute contamination to food responsible for identifying sanitation by seepage, foot-borne filth, or pro- failures or food contamination should viding a breeding place for pests. The po- quate screening or other protection tential for contamination may be re- against pests. Buildings, to occur, by one or more of the fol- fixtures, and other physical facilities lowing means: location, time, parti- of the plant shall be maintained in a tion, air flow, enclosed systems, or sanitary condition and shall be kept in other effective means. Cleaning and sanitizing bulk fermentation vessels by any effec- of utensils and equipment shall be con- tive means, including: ducted in a manner that protects (i) Using protective coverings. Cleaning compounds and sanitizing (iv) Skimming the fermentation ves- agents used in cleaning and sanitizing sels, as necessary. Compliance with this requirement kept in good repair; that drip or con- may be verified by any effective means densate from fixtures, ducts and pipes including purchase of these substances does not contaminate food, food-con- under a supplier’s guarantee or certifi- tact surfaces, or food-packaging mate- cation, or examination of these sub- rials; and that aisles or working spaces stances for contamination. I (4–1–10 Edition) (i) Those required to maintain clean production operation, the utensils and and sanitary conditions; food-contact surfaces of the equipment (ii) Those necessary for use in labora- shall be cleaned and sanitized as nec- tory testing procedures; essary. All rel- disposed of in a manner that protects evant regulations promulgated by against contamination of food or food- other Federal, State, and local govern- contact surfaces. No pests shall be al- acceptable for cleaning and sanitizing lowed in any area of a food plant. Cleaned and to protect against the contamina- and sanitized portable equipment with tion of food on the premises by pests. The water supply manufacturing or holding low-moisture shall be sufficient for the operations food shall be in a dry, sanitary condi- intended and shall be derived from an tion at the time of use. Any water that con- faces are wet-cleaned, they shall, when tacts food or food-contact surfaces necessary, be sanitized and thoroughly shall be safe and of adequate sanitary dried before subsequent use. Running water at a suitable (2) In wet processing, when cleaning temperature, and under pressure as is necessary to protect against the in- needed, shall be provided in all areas troduction of microorganisms into where required for the processing of food, all food-contact surfaces shall be food, for the cleaning of equipment, cleaned and sanitized before use and utensils, and food-packaging materials, after any interruption during which or for employee sanitary facilities. These signs flooding-type cleaning or where normal may be posted in the processing operations release or discharge water room(s) and in all other areas where or other liquid waste on the floor. Rubbish shall be made into an adequate sewer- and any offal shall be so conveyed, age system or disposed of through stored, and disposed of as to minimize other adequate means. Each plant shall potential for the waste becoming an at- provide its employees with adequate, tractant and harborage or breeding readily accessible toilet facilities. Hand- shall preclude the adulteration of food washing facilities shall be adequate with lubricants, fuel, metal fragments, and convenient and be furnished with contaminated water, or any other con- running water at a suitable tempera- taminants. Compliance with this require- installed and maintained as to facili- ment may be accomplished by pro- tate the cleaning of the equipment and viding: of all adjacent spaces. Food-contact (1) Hand-washing and, where appro- surfaces shall be corrosion-resistant priate, hand-sanitizing facilities at when in contact with food. They shall each location in the plant where good be made of nontoxic materials and de- sanitary practices require employees signed to withstand the environment of to wash and/or sanitize their hands. Food- (3) Sanitary towel service or suitable contact surfaces shall be maintained to drying devices. Appropriate quality control shall be smoothly bonded or main- operations shall be employed to ensure tained so as to minimize accumulation that food is suitable for human con- of food particles, dirt, and organic mat- sumption and that food-packaging ma- ter and thus minimize the opportunity terials are safe and suitable. All reasonable food shall be so constructed that it can precautions shall be taken to ensure be kept in a clean condition. Chemical, microbial, or extra- pneumatic, closed, and automated sys- neous-material testing procedures tems, shall be of a design and construc- shall be used where necessary to iden- tion that enables them to be main- tify sanitation failures or possible food tained in an appropriate sanitary con- dition. All food that has be- (e) Each freezer and cold storage come contaminated to the extent that compartment used to store and hold it is adulterated within the meaning of food capable of supporting growth of the act shall be rejected, or if permis- microorganisms shall be fitted with an sible, treated or processed to eliminate indicating thermometer, temperature- the contamination. Raw (f) Instruments and controls used for materials shall be washed or cleaned as measuring, regulating, or recording necessary to remove soil or other con- temperatures, pH, acidity, water activ- tamination. Water used for washing, ity, or other conditions that control or rinsing, or conveying food shall be safe prevent the growth of undesirable and of adequate sanitary quality. Containers and carriers of (g) Compressed air or other gases me- raw materials should be inspected on chanically introduced into food or used receipt to ensure that their condition to clean food-contact surfaces or equip- has not contributed to the contamina- ment shall be treated in such a way tion or deterioration of food. Compliance with this require- specting, transporting, segregating, ment may be verified by any effective preparing, manufacturing, packaging, means, including purchasing raw mate- and storing of food shall be conducted rials and other ingredients under a sup- in accordance with adequate sanitation plier’s guarantee or certification. One way to comply with this re- ment may be accomplished by pur- quirement is careful monitoring of chasing raw materials and other ingre- physical factors such as time, tempera- dients under a supplier’s guarantee or ture, humidity, aw, pH, pressure, flow certification, or may be verified by rate, and manufacturing operations analyzing these materials and ingredi- such as freezing, dehydration, heat ents for aflatoxins and other natural processing, acidification, and refrigera- toxins. Compliance with this requirement cluding purchasing the materials under may be accomplished by any effective a supplier’s guarantee or certification, means, including: or examination of these materials for (i) Maintaining refrigerated foods at contamination. If erating, controlling pH or controlling thawing is required prior to use, it aw that are taken to destroy or prevent shall be done in a manner that pre- the growth of undesirable microorga- vents the raw materials and other in- nisms, particularly those of public gredients from becoming adulterated health significance, shall be adequate within the meaning of the act. I (4–1–10 Edition) other ingredients, or refuse are unpro- passing it to subsequent manufacturing tected, they shall not be handled si- without delay. Thermophilic growth multaneously in a receiving, loading, and contamination in blanchers should or shipping area if that handling could be minimized by the use of adequate result in contaminated food. Food operating temperatures and by periodic transported by conveyor shall be pro- cleaning. Where the blanched food is tected against contamination as nec- washed prior to filling, water used essary. Com- (10) Mechanical manufacturing steps pliance with this requirement may be such as washing, peeling, trimming, accomplished by any effective means, cutting, sorting and inspecting, mash- including: ing, dewatering, cooling, shredding, ex- (i) Use of a quality control operation truding, drying, whipping, defatting, in which the critical control points are and forming shall be performed so as to identified and controlled during manu- protect food against contamination. Compliance with this requirement may (ii) Adequate cleaning and sanitizing be accomplished by providing adequate of all food-contact surfaces and food physical protection of food from con- containers. Protection may be tainers and food- packaging materials provided by adequate cleaning and that are safe and suitable, as defined in sanitizing of all food-contact surfaces, §130. The Food and (iii) Protecting finished food from Drug Administration establishes max- moisture pickup, by use of a moisture imum levels for these defects in foods barrier or by other means, so that the produced under current good manufac- aw of the food does not increase to an turing practice and uses these levels in unsafe level. These lev- microorganisms shall be monitored and els are subject to change upon the de- maintained at a pH of 4. Evidence indicating is safe and of adequate sanitary qual- that such a violation exists causes the ity, and shall be used only if it has food to be adulterated within the been manufactured in accordance with meaning of the act, even though the current good manufacturing practice amounts of natural or unavoidable de- as outlined in this part. The equipment used for manufacturing manufacturer, distributor, and holder human food should not be used to man- of food shall at all times utilize quality ufacture nonhuman food-grade animal control operations that reduce natural feed or inedible products, unless there or unavoidable defects to the lowest is no reasonable possibility for the con- level currently feasible. Subpart G—Production and Process Con- Subpart K—Production and Process Control trol System: Requirements for Compo- System: Requirements for Manufac- nents, Packaging, and Labels and for turing Operations Product That You Receive for Pack- 111. Subpart M—Holding and Distributing Subpart I—Production and Process Control System: Requirements for the Batch 111. Component means any substance in- Subpart A—General Provisions tended for use in the manufacture of a dietary supplement, including those §111. Com- (a) Except as provided by paragraph ponent includes dietary ingredients (as (b) of this section, you are subject to described in section 201(ff) of the act) this part if you manufacture, package, and other ingredients. Examples of con- of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of tact surfaces include containers, uten- Puerto Rico. An ingredient in- retail establishment does not include a cludes, but is not necessarily limited warehouse or other storage facility for to, a dietary ingredient as defined in section 201(ff) of the act. This defini- Representative sample means a sample tion includes species that: that consists of an adequate number of (1) May have public health signifi- units that are drawn based on rational cance; criteria, such as random sampling, and (2) May cause a component or dietary that are intended to ensure that the supplement to decompose; sample accurately portrays the mate- (3) Indicate that the component or di- rial being sampled. Reserve sample means a representa- Physical plant means all or any part tive sample of product that is held for of a building or facility used for or in a designated period of time. Examples of product versely affecting the product or its complaints are: Foul odor, off taste, ill- safety for the consumer. I (4–1–10 Edition) the water vapor pressure of the sub- could result in microbial contamina- stance divided by the vapor pressure of tion of any components, dietary sup- pure water at the same temperature. In addition to this part, you must These hygienic practices include the comply with other applicable statutory following: provisions and regulations under the (1) Wearing outer garments in a man- act related to dietary supplements. If of any material, including components, hand jewelry cannot be removed, it dietary supplements, and contact sur- must be covered by material that is faces used in the manufacture, pack- maintained in an intact, clean, and aging, labeling, or holding of a dietary sanitary condition and that effectively supplement. Such measures include the protects against contamination of following: components, dietary supplements, or (1) Excluding from working in any contact surfaces; operations that may result in contami- (5) Maintaining gloves used in han- nation any person who, by medical ex- dling components or dietary supple- amination, the person’s acknowledge- ments in an intact, clean, and sanitary ment, or supervisory observation, is condition.
Wingrove order nitrofurantoin cheap online, ‘An Introduction to Modern Experimental Organic Chemistry’ cheap 50mg nitrofurantoin with amex, New York generic nitrofurantoin 50mg online, Holt buy 50 mg nitrofurantoin amex, Rienhart and Winsten, 1985. Moody, ‘Experimental Organic Chemistry’, London, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1989. But unquestionably the most important of these is the one proposed by Karl Fischer (1935), which is considered to be relatively specific for water*. It essentially makes use of the Karl Fischer reagent which is composed of iodine, sulphur dioxide, pyridine and methanol. It is pertinent to mention here that in the presence of a large excess of pyridine (C5H5N), all reactants as well as the resulting products of reaction mostly exist as complexes as evident from Eqs. Stability of the Reagent : The stability of the original Karl Fischer reagent initially prepared with an excess of methanol was found to be fairly poor and hence, evidently needed frequent standardization. However, it was estabtished subsequently that the stability could be improved significantly by replacing the methanol by 2-methoxyethanol. It has been observed that the titer of the Karl Fischer reagent, which stands at 3. Hence, the following precautions must be observed rigidly using the Karl Fischer reagent, namely : (a) Always prepare the reagent a day or two before it is to be used, (b) Great care must be taken to prevent and check any possible contamination either of the reagent or the sample by atmospheric moisture, (c) All glassware(s) must be thoroughly dried before use, (d) Standard solution should be stored out of contact with air, and (e) Essential to minimise contact between the atmosphere and the solution during the course of titration. End-point Detection : The end-point of the Karl Fischer titration may be determined quite easily by adopting the electrometric technique employing the dead-stop end-point method. A situation will soon arise when practically all the traces of iodine have reacted completely thereby setting the current to almost zero or very close to zero or attain the end-point. The titration vessel is fitted with a pair of identical platinum electrodes, a mechanical stirrer with adjustable speed, and a burette. It will be observed that absolutely little or no current may flow unless and until the solution is totally free from any polarizing substances ; this could perhaps be due to the absorbed layers of oxygen and hydrogen on the anode and cathode respectively. The Karl Fischer reagent is pumped into the burette by means of hand bellows, the eccess of moisture is usually prevented by employing an appropriate arrangement of desiccant tubes. Alternatively, the stirring may also be accomplished either by using a magnetic stirrer or by means of a suitably dried nitrogen passed gently through the solution during the course of titration. The end-point is achieved by employing an eiectrical circuit comprising of a microammeter (A), platinum electrodes, together with a 1. First of all the resistance is adjusted in such a manner that an initial current passes through the platinum electrodes in series with a microammeter (A). After each addition of reagent, the pointer of the microammeter gets deflected but quickly returns to its original position. At the end of the reaction a deflection is obtained which persists for 10-15 seconds. Quite a few such devices are armed with microprocessors that will perform the requisite operations sequentially in a programmed manner automatically ; and may also dish out a print-out of the desired results including the percentage moisture content. Therefore, the generation of iodine is automatically stopped when an excess of it is detected by the indicator electrode. It is noteworthy that one may determine the amounts of water ranging between 10 mcg and 10 mg in solid as well as liquid samples. Procedure : Add about 20 ml of anhydrous methanol to the titration vessel and titrate to the amperometric end-point with the Karl Fischer reagent. The difference between the two titrations gives the volume (v) of Karl Fischer reagent consumed by the sample. Hence, the percentage of water w/w in the given sample may be calculated by the following expression : v × 3. How would you explain the presence of water in an ‘anlyte’ usually reacts with Karl Fischer reagent in a two- stage process? How would you assay the following medicinal compounds : (i) Prednisolone sodium phosphate (ii) Rifamycin sodium (iii) Sodium methyl hydroxybenzoate (iv) Triamcinolone acetonide. Thus, it is possible to carry out the assay of a number of formulations that contain corticosteroids by using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The said reaction is usually performed in an alkaline medium (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) between a temperature ranging between 30° to 35°C for a duration of 1 to 2 hours. The absorbance of the resulting formazan derivative producing a red product is usually measured around 484 nm. However, it is pertinent to mention here that certain steroids esterified at C-21 position, such as : hydrocortisone acetate, methylprednisolone acetate are duly hydrolyzed in the alkaline medium to give rise to the corresponding free C-21 hydroxy steroids and hence, may also be assayed by adopting the same procedure. Precautions : All these assays are to be carried out strictly in the absence of light and atmospheric oxygen to get optimum results. Describe the assay of the following steroidal drugs : (i) Hydrocortisone acetate (ii) Hydrocortisone (iii) Prednisolone (iv) Prednisone. Thus, most electrochemical cells invariably comprise of two electrodes, namely : (a) an Indicator Electrode—the voltage of which solely depends on the thermodynamic activity (i. Placing together of these two electrodes in a solution obviously gives rise to an electrochemical cell ; and consequently the voltage thus generated across the electrodes may be determined by connecting it either to a potentiometer or a millivoltmeter that has a sensitivity to measure ± 0. Under these experimental parameters when an extremely feeble current, of the order of less than 5 pA, is drawn from the electrodes, the e. In usual practice, the loss of electrons or reduction occurs from the prevailing chemical system at the cathode ; whereas the gain of electrons or oxidation takes place at the anode. Direct Potentiometry : The procedure adopted of employing a single measurement of electrode potential to determine the concentration of an ionic species in a solution is usually termed as direct potentiometry. Disadvantages : Direct potentiometry has the following two serious disadvantages namely : (a) From the Nernst Eq. Therefore, for an ion M+ (monovalent) a ten-time change in the electrode potential E by approximately 60 millivolts (mV) ; whereas for an ion M2+ (bivalent) a change in identical magnitude of activity shall bring forth alternation of E by about 30 mV. Hence, it is evident that to attain a desired accuracy and precision to the extent of 1% in the estimated value for the direct concentration using the technique of direct potentiometry, for M+ ion—the E should be measurable correctly within 0. Remedial Measures : There are two ways to eliminate the above anomaly, namely : (i) to replace the reference electrode with a concentration-cell i. As the name suggests, it is indeed a titrimetric method whereby a series of potentiometric measurements are recorded so as to locate the end-point as correctly as possible. In this procedure, it is particularly of more interest to know the exact changes in the observed electrode potential after each addition of the titrant, rather than a precise and accurate electrode potential often brought about by a given solution. Thus, in a way the impact due to liquid-junction-potential (E ) has been eliminated completely. It is pertinentj to mention here that in a potentiometric titration procedure the apparent change in cell e. The general principles which govern the above different types of reactions will be discussed briefly in the sections that follow : 16. Neutralization Reactions The accuracy and precision with which the end-point can be determined potentiometrically solely depends upon the quantum of change in the observed e. In this case, the first-break in the titration curve signifies that the stronger of the two acids i. In order to get fruitful and reproducible results it is quite necessary that the strengths between either the two acids or bases in question must vary by at least 105 to 1. Demerits of the Method : The neutralization reactions often found to be giving unsatisfactory results in the following two instances. They are : (a) when both the acid and the base are appreciably weak, and (b) when either the acid or the base is very weak (i. Choice of Electrodes : Indicator Electrodes : Hydrogen, Glass or Antimony electrodes ; Reference Electrode : Calomel electrode. Redox Reactions In this particular case the ratio of the concentrations of the oxidized and reduced forms of ionic species establishes the determining factor. In other words, the potential of the immersed indicator electrode is solely controlled and monitored by the ratio of the ionic concentrations in Eq. Furthermore, in the course of either reduction of an oxidizing agent or vice-versa i. Precipitation Reactions In this the determining factor mainly rests on the solubility product of the resulting nearly insoluble material generated in the course of a precipitation reaction and its ionic concentration at the equivalence point. It is, however, pertinent to mention here that the indicator electrode must readily come into equilib- rium with one of the ions.
Contraindications: Anuria purchase nitrofurantoin overnight, hypersensitivity to thiazides or sul- fonamide-derived drugs discount nitrofurantoin online visa. Editorial comments • Chlorpheniramine has antiserotonergic as well as antihista- minic properties nitrofurantoin 50mg discount. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: car- diovascular buy nitrofurantoin 50 mg low price, liver, kidney disease, glaucoma, chronic respiratory disorders, exposure to extreme heat, organophosphate insecti- cides or atropine-type drugs. Because this syndrome is potentially irreversible, close monitoring for drug-induced movement dis- orders is mandatory for all patients. Management includes drug discon- tinuation, close monitoring, and symptom-directed therapy including administration of dantrolene. Suicide attempts by drug overdose may occur even when patient’s symptoms appear to be improving. This dye can cause a severe allergic reaction, even an asthmatic attack, in susceptible patients, particularly those who are aller- gic to aspirin. Advice to patient • Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known. If this occurs, use extra blankets only, not a hot water bottle, heating pad, or electric blanket. Symptoms of this condition include red, dry skin, dyspnea, strong pulse, body temperature >105°F (40. In the event of heat stroke, treatment includes body ice packs and antihypertensive drugs to rapidly lower body temperature. Other symptoms of withdrawal include abdominal discom- fort, dizziness, headache, tachycardia, insomnia. Patient should remain in recumbent position for at least 30 minutes following injection. At first indication of tardive dyskine- sia—vermicular movements of tongue—withdraw drug imme- diately. Tardive dyskinesia generally develops several months after treatment with a phenothiazine. Patient should be moni- tored every 6 months for possible development of tardive dysk- inesia. Adverse ocular reactions include: increased intraocular pres- sure; particle deposition in the cornea and lens which may lead to venticular opacities; blurred vision; photophobia; ptosis. Editorial comments: Phenothiazines have been a mainstay of treatment for psychosis. Because of prominent anticholinergic effects, extrapyramidal symptoms are less frequent than for high-potency dopaminergic blocking agents such as haloperidol. Dose is best administered before breakfast or, if taken twice a day, before the evening meal. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to chlorpropamide diabetes complicated by ketoacidosis. Editorial comments • Adisulfirsam-like reaction may occur when chlorpropamide is combined with alcohol. Because of the long half-life, pro- longed hypoglycemia is an important potential adverse effect of chlorpropamide. Mechanism of action: Inhibits sodium resorption in distal tubule, resulting in increased urinary excretion of sodium, potasssium, and water. Onset of Action Peak Effect Duration Diuretic: 2 h 2–6 h 24–48 h Food: Should be taken with food. Contraindications: Anuria, hypersensitivity to thiazides or sulfonamide-derived drugs. May cause decreased absorption of fat- soluble vitamins with potential adverse fetal effects. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: con- stipation, phenylketonuria (Prevalite contains phenylalanine). Clinically important drug interactions Cholestyramine decreases effects/toxicity of following drugs: acetaminophen, amiodarone, cardiac glycosides, furosemide, cor- ticosteroids, thyroid preparations, propranolol, estrogens, metho- trexate, oral anticoagulants, penicillin G, phenobarbital, thiazide diuretics. Parameters to monitor • Levels of digitalis and other drugs to ensure appropriate drug levels. Editorial comments • Cholestyramine has procarcinogenic effects in laboratory ani- mals, but this effect has not been demonstrated in humans. Mechanism of action: Competitively blocks H2 receptors on parietal cells, thereby blocking gastric acid secretion. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney: Creatinine clearance <30 mL/min: use half recom- mended dose. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in the elderly, patients with hepatic or liver disease, immunocompromised patients. Advice to patient • Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known. Parameters to monitor • Presence of Helicobacter pylori: This is a standard approach in patients with peptic ulcer disease. Editorial comments • Current management of peptic ulcer disease includes diagno- sis and treatment of H. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance >30 mL/min: usual dosages; creatinine clearance 5–29 mL/min: 200–400 q18–24h. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolone antibi- otics or quinolone antibiotics, eg, cinoxacin, nalidixic acid. Advice to patient • Limit intake of caffeinated products including coffee, tea and colas. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of fluoroquinolones: cyclo- sporine, probenecid. Parameters to monitor • Renal, hepatic, and hemopoietic systems should be monitored periodically during prolonged therapy. As with quino-lones, ciprofloxacin is not appropriate monotherapy for community- acquired pneumonia because of poor activity against Strepto- coccus pneumoniae. Mechanism of action: Releases acetycholine within myenteric plexus; agonist at serotonin receptors. Onset of Action Duration 30–60 min No data Food: Generally taken 15 minutes to 1 hour before meals and at bedtime. Advice to patient • Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of cisapride and are con- traindicated in combination: ketoconazole, fluconazole, itra- conazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, troleandomycin, protease inhibitors, nefazodone. Parameters to monitor • Relief of heartburn, relief of gastroporesis, ie, reduction of nausea and vomiting. Editorial comments • Use of cisapride has been markedly restricted due to cardiac toxicity and is now only available in very special circum- stances. See Clinically Important Drug Interactions for drugs that should not be administered with cisapride. Dose is dependent on creati- nine clearance, body surface area; laboratory parameters required prior to subsequent treatment (see Parameters to Monitor). Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance 10–50 mL/min: 50% of dose; creatinine clearance <10 mL/min: do not use. Warnings/precautions • Patient must be well hydrated prior to and for 24 hours after treatment. It may be necessary to administer a diuretic to ensure good urine output (>100 mL/h), eg, mannitol or furosemide. Advice to patient: Use two forms of birth control including hor- monal and barrier methods. Adverse reactions • Common: hyperuricemia, tinnitus (9%), nausea and vomiting (76–100%) (antiemetics should always be administered with cisplatin). Clinically important drug interactions: • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of cisplatin: aminoglyco- sides, loop diuretics. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: dia- betes mellitus, seizures, liver, kidney disease.