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Note the large follicle (f) and enlarged left oviduct (arrows) indicative of a reproductively active hen discount cleocin gel master card. The optic tectum (a bony plate that covers the large optic the ovaries are frequently bilateral generic cleocin gel 20gm without prescription. The juvenile left lobes) may present a problem in removing the brain ovary appears yellow and granular cleocin gel 20gm line, resembling a from psittacine birds safe cleocin gel 20gm. The halves of the calvarium may be fixed The yellow color is imparted by variable quantities of in toto or one-half of the calvarium may be retained yolk. Vertebral Column The adrenal glands are identified as small, round, If neurologic disease involves spinal cord or nerve yellow structures to the left and right of the midline roots, appropriate sections of the vertebral column or at the cranial pole of the kidneys. Adrenal gland synsacrum may be identified, removed en bloc and enlargement may be observed in chronically stressed fixed in formalin solution. These tissue sections can be processed and Specimens of skin, feather follicles and feathers may examined microscopically to evaluate nervoustissue, be taken for histopathology if they have not already bone and attached soft tissues. The parathyroid case, hydropericardium was associated glands are present at the caudal pole of the with avian viral serositis in a Blue and Gold thyroid gland but are normally minuscule. The parasites were identified as a vessels were partially calcified and the his- new species of filariid worms,Chandlerella tologic diagnosis was atherosclerosis. The bird the left and right hepatic peritoneal mem- was provided cuttlebone that was seldom branes (open arrows). The bird flew into a wall and caudal thoracic air sac is also clearly visible sustained multiple fractures. Radiographs through the transparent, contiguous wall of the indicated metabolic bone disease and egg- cranial thoracic and caudal thoracic air sacs. A mature Moluccan Cockatoo was pre- The normal syringeal muscles (s), trachea sented for an acute onset of lethargy, dysp- (t), thyroid (th) and thoracic esophagus (e) nea and weakness. Note how the thoracic large quantity of blood was noted in the esophagus passes dorsally to the syrinx at right axillary and neck region. The Pericarditis can be caused by many bacte- pale heart is shown resting in an increased rial, fungal or viral pathogens. The hemorrhage can be an indication of septice- bird died shortly after presentation. His- Note the syringeal bulla (arrows) that is an topathologic changes included extension of the trachea found in some male atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis. Auditory evoke poten- Lobules of normal thymic tissue (arrows) tials indicated a centralized inflammatory within fascial planes adjacent to the cervi- disease. Necropsy indicated an internal cal musculature in a young cockatoo (cour- and external bacterial ear infection with tesy of Ken Latimer). The nematode burrows into cutaneous tissue (open arrow) associated the koilin layer of the ventriculus, causing with the area where the bird had been vac- hypertrophy (arrows). These “turkish towel”- there is no accumulation of fluid (courtesy type lesions can be caused by candidiasis or of Kenneth Latimer). Severe con- sues in the small intestines of a duck with gestion and hemorrhage in the brain were duck virus enteritis (courtesy of John H. Brachial Plexus severe nephritis or renal neoplasia where compres- The brachial plexus lies lateral to the thyroid gland sion or infiltration of the nerve occurs. Although the plexus commonly is inspected Ischiatic (Sciatic) Nerve at necropsy, dissection and collection of tissues is In instances of pelvic limb paresis or paralysis, the limited except in cases of suspected neurologic dam- ischiatic nerve should be examined grossly and his- age from penetrating wounds, inflammation, neo- tologically. The ischiatic nerve can be found beneath plasia or trauma resulting in avulsion of the plexus. The sacral nerve plexus should be examined care- Removal of the Eyes fully in instances where pelvic limb paresis or paraly- If intraocular disease is present, the eye(s) should be sis has been noted (see Anatomy Overlay). The eyeball is in the midportion of the kidney just anterior to the removed by sharp and blunt dissection of orbital soft ischiatic artery (Figure 14. Collection of Bone and Bone Marrow Detailed examination of portions of the skeletal sys- tem may be necessary in instances of fractures, me- tabolic bone disease, osteomyelitis, arthritis or synovitis and anemia or blood cell dyscrasia. Collec- tion of various skeletal tissues ultimately may be essential for a definitive diagnosis. In the case of fractures, osteomyelitis and arthritis or synovitis, the tissues of interest may be localized with the assistance of survey radiographs. Callus formation, if present, should be noted and specimens for culture or cytology can be taken after the site is exposed by dissection. Cytology preparations will be useful to characterize inflamma- tory infiltrates, identify pathogens or identify urate crystals. Articular surfaces should be examined for erosions of cartilage, eburnation of sub- chondral bone, tags of fibrin or the presence of exudates or hemorrhage. Rongeurs or a small dove- tail saw can be used to excise portions of bone en bloc for histopathologic examination. The sacral plexus and lumbosacral spinal gross necropsy examination (pale liver and kidneys column should be submitted for histopathology in these cases as well as those with clinical changes suggestive of neuropathic gas- suggest anemia) or has a blood cell dyscrasia, bone tric dilatation. The right kidney (k) row examination is necessary, it should be collected and ureter (double arrow) are in their normal anatomic locations lateral to the spine (s). Because many bones of the bird are pneumatized (including those of Other Cranial and Skeletal Tissues the thoracic girdle, humerus, sternum, sternal ribs The nares, cere, beak, choanal slit, infraorbital sinus and occasionally femur), the tibiotarsus or vertebral and ears should be examined. Articular surfaces should be off-white, tibiotarsal marrow, the integument over the tibiotar- smooth and glistening. If exudates are present, ap- sus is plucked and the skin is incised and reflected. The cortex is cracked and urate crystals can be confirmed by microscopic ex- small amounts of marrow are teased or gently amination of cytologic preparations (under polarized squeezed from the marrow cavity. Urate crystals will appear as re- preparations of bone marrow are made for cytologic fractile needles. The cortex should be cracked to promote rapid penetration of fixative into the tissues. Skin (including Crop Pancreas feathers, follicles) Proventriculus Ovary and oviduct Trachea Ventriculus (female) Lung Small intestine Testis (male) Whole Carcass Submission Air sac Large intestine Pectoral muscle Heart Ceca (if present) Bone marrow In instances where the entire carcass is extremely Kidneys Cloaca Cloacal bursa small, such as embryos, nestlings or very small adult Thyroid glands Spleen Thymus Parathyroid glands Liver Brain birds, the entire carcass may be submitted for his- Adrenal glands Gall bladder Ischiatic (sciatic) tologic examination. This is best accomplished by Esophagus (if present) nerve opening the thoracoabdominal cavity, gently separat- Selection of additional tissues will depend upon gross lesions observed at ing the viscera and fixing the entire carcass in for- necropsy. Exces- sively thick (one cm thickness) tissue slices or tissues that float (gas-filled intestine, fatty liver, lung) when immersed in formalin solution often do not fix and Specimen Collection become autolytic. Representative tissue specimens from all organ systems should be collected (Table for Ancillary Testing 14. When specific lesions are observed at necropsy, the tissue specimen collected should include a small margin of normal tissue adjacent to the lesion. Ancillary testing often is essential to confirm or es- Specimens should be shipped to the laboratory in tablish a definitive diagnosis. To de- should be collected routinely for histopathologic crease shipping weight, tissues that have been fixed evaluation; however, additional specimens (eg, swabs in formalin solution for at least 24 hours can be for bacterial culture, fresh tissues for bacterial cul- wrapped in a formalin-soaked gauze square that is ture and virus isolation, crop contents for toxicologic placed into a sealable plastic bag for shipment. In the analysis) are obtained as necessary based upon his- authors’ experience, a complete set of necropsy tis- torical, clinical and necropsy findings. Because specimens can be submitted along with the formalin- cost is often a consideration when submitting his- fixed tissues if the need for additional laboratory topathologic specimens to the laboratory, the practi- testing is obvious or they may be held under appro- tioner should consult a veterinary pathologist con- priate conditions for later submission if required. It cerning the tissues to be submitted in a particular is better to have taken specimens for ancillary testing case. The remaining fixed tissues can be held for and not need them, than to need the specimens and additional study if needed. The following information is designed to expedite specimen procurement and han- Hematologic and Cytologic Specimens dling to maximize the results obtained. A telephone call to the diagnostic laboratory prior to performing Preparation of blood and cytology specimens for mi- the necropsy is a prudent measure to ensure correct croscopic examination is detailed in Chapters 9 and specimen collection, preparation and handling. Tissue Histopathology scrapings may be smeared onto a clean glass slide, or squash preparations may be made if particles of Tissue specimens for histopathology should be pre- tissue are present. Tissue imprints are prepared by served in neutral-buffered ten percent formalin solu- blotting the tissue specimen on an absorbent surface tion. Buffered formalin is necessary to prevent acid (filter paper or paper towel) to remove excess blood hematin formation, which can obscure microscopic and tissue fluid. Furthermore, adequate preservation of touched to a clean glass slide several times or vice tissues requires rapid and complete penetration of versa.
Features of nuclear radiation and its interaction 10th week: with absorbing material purchase cleocin gel 20gm on line. Resting potential best buy cleocin gel, action potential buy cheap cleocin gel 20 gm online, and Radiation biophysics: target theory order cleocin gel 20 gm without prescription, direct and indirect electrical excitability. Biophysics of respiration Seminar: Material related to lectures 17 and 18 Seminar: Material related to lectures 23 and 24. Modern microscopic techniques, near field, Seminar: Material related to lectures 19 and 20. Requirements Aim of the course: To provide the necessary theoretical and practical background for the understanding the physical principles applied in biology and medicine, and for the description of the physical processes in living organisms. To introduce the biophysical techniques in order to (1) understand the pathomechanism of diseases (2) develop of novel therapeutic approaches (3) develop of novel diagnostic tools: e. Short description of the course: Students will be introduced to the quantitative description of the physical basis of selected topics in biology and medicine. All material covered in lectures is an integral part of the subject and therefore included in the self-control tests and the final exam. Some new concepts and ideas are discussed in the lectures only and are not present in the textbook. Seminars Attendance to seminars is compulsory, however, a student may miss maximum 7 (seven) seminars. In the seminars, students are encouraged to ask questions related to the topic of the lectures discussed (see timetable of lectures and seminars). Besides, students may prepare short presentations (7-15 minutes) about the topic of the seminars (max. The topic list for short presentations is posted to the web page of the Department. Students obtaining less than 3 points for the presentation may prepare an additional one (in the student’s own group) given that spots are still available. In this case the better score is considered for bonus points (the two presentations are not cumulative). To get the maximum 3 points for the presentation the followings must be fulfilled: • keeping the allocated time (min. The presenting student must show up at the beginning of the class to allow time for file uploading and technical arrangements; students arriving late may be denied of the chance to present their work. For the practicals a separate logbook should be prepared which is graded at the end of the lab on a scale between 0-3. Detailed requirements of the labs (reading for the labs, instructions for logbook preparation, details of the grading system, etc. Practical exam (week 13 or 14): Students can take a lab exam during their regular lab class on week 13 or 14. The duration of the exam is approximately 30 minutes and students have to perform an experiment based on the semester work, assigned randomly. The examiner checks the record of the experiment and also may ask questions from the labs. For students who were exempted from attending the practicals, but have to take the lab exam, the exam is evaluated as a pass or fail. Exemptions In order to get full exemption from the biophysics course the student has to write an application to the Educational Office. Applications for exemptions from part of the courses are handled by the department. An application is rejected, accepted, or in most cases students applying for an exemption will be examined by the Biophysics Chairman before granting an exemption. The result of a successful practical exam is valid for further exam chances (B- or C-chances). Minimum requirement questions and the answers thereto are provided on the website of the Department (biophys. It consists of essays, fill-in-the-missing-phrase type questions, relation analysis and various simple test and multiple-choice questions etc. Sharing calculators during tests is not allowed, and the test proctor will not provide a calculator. Point 7 applies fully, exemptions earned during the semester preceding the exam course (Part I. Introduction, random variables, qualitative Seminar: Material related to lecture 4. Counting techniques (permutations 6th week: and combination), set theory, definition and properties of Lecture: 7. Statistical tests (z, t and F tests) distribution, cumulative frequency distribution, histogram Seminar: Material related to lecture 6. Clinical implications of conditional probability 3rd week: (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive Lecture: 4. In addition to providing a solid theoretical foundation the course will also introduce the students to the art and science of performing the simplest calculations. Short description of the course Brief introduction to the most basic concepts of calculus (slop, fitting, area under the curve); counting techniques; descriptive statistics; algebra of events; probability; random variables; statistical distributions and their properties; binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; sampling techniques and characterization of samples; statistical test (z, t, F and chi2 tests) Attendance Conditions for signing the lecture book Signing of the lecture book is denied if there are more than 2 absences from group-wise seminars. Self control test Students will write a grade-offering course test between weeks 12-14. Daniel: Bio-statistics, A foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences, John Wiley&Sons Exemptions Requests for exemptions from the bio-statistics course have to be turned in to the Credit Transfer Committee. Such requests cannot be directly turned in to the Bio- mathematics Division or the Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology. Information for repeaters Credits achieved in a semester cannot be transferred to other semesters. Therefore, students repeating the course are subject to the same rules and requirements as those taking the course for the first time. Sharing calculators during tests is not allowed, and the test proctor will not provide a calculator. Evaluation: Based on a written final test (80 %) + class participation + daily word quizzes (20 %). Passing the oral exam is a minimal requirement for the successful completion of the Hungarian Crash Course. The oral exam consists of a role-play randomly chosen from 7 situations announced in the beginning of the course. Further minimal requirement is the knowledge of 200 words announced at the beginning of the course. Year, Semester: 1 year/1 semesterst st Number of teaching hours: Practical: 24 1st week: 4th week: Practical: Revision. The maximum percentage of allowable absences is 10 % which is a total of 2 out of the 15 weekly classes. Maximally, two language classes may be made up with another group and students have to ask for written permission (via e-mail) 24 hours in advance from the teacher whose class they would like to attend for a makeup because of the limited seats available. If the number of absences is more than two, the final signature is refused and the student must repeat the course. Students are required to bring the textbook or other study material given out for the course with them to each language class. If students’ behavior or conduct does not meet the requirements of active participation, the teacher may evaluate their participation with a "minus" (-). If a student has 5 minuses, the signature may be refused due to the lack of active participation in classes. Testing, evaluation In each Hungarian language course, students must sit for 2 written language tests and a short minimal oral exam. A further minimum requirement is the knowledge of 200 words per semester announced on the first week. There is a (written or oral) word quiz in the first 5-10 minutes of the class, every week. If a student has 5 or more failed or missed word quizzes he/she has to take a vocabulary exam that includes all 200 words along with the oral exam. The oral exam consists of a role-play randomly chosen from a list of situations announced in the beginning of the course. The result of the oral exam is added to the average of the mid-term and end-term tests. Based on the final score the grades are given according to the following table: Final score Grade 0 - 59 fail (1) 60-69 pass (2) 70-79 satisfactory (3) 80-89 good (4) 90-100 excellent (5) If the final score is below 60, the student once can take an oral remedial exam covering the whole semester’s material. Consultation classes: In each language course once a week students may attend a consultation class with one of the teachers of that subject in which they can ask their questions and ask for further explanations of the material covered in that week.