By A. Ketil. New England Conservatory of Music.
Cuts are made no less than 51% of the way through the tendon order venlor 75 mg free shipping, and the tendon ends are distracted away from one another buy venlor 75 mg amex, allowing the central fibers to slide past one another buy venlor 75mg otc. Phase Conversion Muscles are divided into two phases depending on their use: swing phase and stance phase buy generic venlor from india. Types of Transfers Adductor Tendon Transfer The adductor tendon is transected at its attachment to the lateral sesamoid and the lateral base of the proximal phalanx and rerouted over the metatarsal head and attached to the medial capsule. Kirk modification passes tendon from top to bottom (dorsal to plantar); this technique requires less tendon. It involves rolling up a tendon graft from end to end like an anchovy and inserting it into a damaged or resected joint. A convex reamer can be used to create two opposing concave surfaces to better hold the anchovy. A percutaneous K-wire may be placed across the joint and through the graft for 6 weeks to hold the “anchovy in place. Usually performed with an extensor hallucis longus lengthening Keller Metatarsal head is remodeled, and 1/2 to 1/3 of the proximal phalanx is resected. Stone Oblique resection of the metatarsal head The weight-bearing portion of the head articulating with the sesamoids is left intact. Hiss Similar to a McBride bunionectomy with dorsal transfer, and advancement of the abductor hallucis tendon in an attempt to reestablish joint medial balance 602 Regnauld (Mexican hat procedure) Similar to a peg-in-hole procedure Indicated in hallux limitus Fowler Medial cuneiform opening wedge Bone graft is inserted into the opening wedge. Structural Functional Hallux Limitus Hallux dorsiflexion decreases only when the forefoot is loaded. Responds well to orthotics by keeping the foot in neutral position and allowing the hallux to dorsiflex Structural Hallux Limitus Hallux dorsiflexion decreases whether forefoot is loaded or unloaded. Tibial sesamoidectomy (if 30% to 50% of the tibial sesamoid is exposed medially) 4. This causes “jamming” of the joint and usually results in hallux limitus or hallux rigidus. Traditional method The angle between the bisection of the 4th metatarsal and the bisection of the 5th metatarsal Average normal value is 7°; higher values (8° to 10°) indicate an abnormality. Fallat and Buckholz The angle between the bisection of the 4th metatarsal and the medial cortical margin of the proximal portion of the 5th metatarsal Average normal value is 7°; higher values (8° to 10°) indicate an abnormality. Because the 5th metatarsal is often rotated medially, the lateral plantar condyle is often the most lateral structure, thus making the procedure the same as the 617 Davis. Amberry Same as Davis plus removal of the laterally prominent base of the 618 proximal phalanx Arthroplasties Head Resection To prevent a callus beneath the stump of the metatarsal, make the cut 619 oblique from distal/medial/dorsal to proximal/lateral/plantar. Modifications to Prevent Toe Retraction Addonte and Petrich and Dull Recommended a Silastic interpositional sphere (Calnan-Nicole implant) to prevent retraction. Kelikian Recommended syndactylizing the 4th and 5th toes to prevent retraction 620 McKeever Resection of ½ to ⅔ of the 5th metatarsal 621 Brown Resection of the entire 5th ray and toe 622 Osteotomies Hohmann 623 Simple transverse osteotomy in neck Sponsel or Keating Reverse Wilson 624 Oblique osteotomy in neck Shortens metatarsal Yu Distal oblique closing wedge 625 Intermedullary tension band K-wire fixation Mann Proximal oblique osteotomy 626 Haber and Kraft Distal crescentic osteotomy 627 Throckmorton and Bradless or Campbell or Johnson Reverse Austin 628 Leach and Igou Reverse Mitchell 629 Thomasen Peg in hole 630 Leventen Metatarsal head is staked on the shaft. It is not an indicator of long-term outcome, but rather an indicator of immediate needs. Splints and braces are best used on positional abnormalities, which are soft tissue problems (i. Splints and braces should be worn as much as possible at night, during naps, and as much as tolerated during the day. If splints follow serial plaster immobilization, wear splint for twice as long as total casting time. Counter Rotation System (Langer) Designed to correct torsional abnormalities of the leg Functionally the same as the Denis-Browne bar, but several hinges allow greater freedom of motion Best tolerated splint; allows unencumbered crawling 639 Bebax Shoe Used to treat forefoot to rearfoot abnormalities such as metatarsus adductus Recommended for use after serial casting of metatarsus adductus, but not for primary correction Also available is the Clubax, a device designed for rearfoot or leg deformities specifically clubfoot. The knee is fixed at 90°, preventing twisting of the femur or hip and allowing isolated unilateral treatment of tibial torsion. Infantile Type Occurs before age 6 years Caused by early walking and obesity Adolescent Type Occurs at 8 to 15 years Caused by trauma and infection Freiberg Infraction Osteochondrosis of the metatarsal head. The 2nd metatarsal head is most frequently involved followed by the 3rd, 4th, and then 5th. The condition is more common in girls and usually occurs between ages 10 and 18 years. Radiographic evaluation reveals sclerosis and fragmentation of the metatarsal head with flattening of the articular surface. Symptoms Often asymptomatic but may present with pain and swelling Navicular becomes sclerotic and flattened (coin on edge, or silver dollar sign). Legg–Calvé–Perthes Disease Osteochondrosis of the femoral head occurring primarily in males (5:1) between ages 3 and 12 years. Ten percent of cases are bilateral, and a history of trauma precedes 30% of cases. Legg–Calvé–Perthes is the most common form of osteochondrosis; the younger the child; the better the prognosis. Symptoms Insidious in onset Limping Generalized groin pain Referred pain to the knee is common. Sever Disease Osteochondrosis of the calcaneus (apophysis) caused by excessive traction of the Achilles tendon Occurs between ages 6 and 12 years and is more common in patients with equinus. Radiographic diagnosis is difficult because the normal epiphysis can have multiple ossification centers and irregular borders and is often sclerotic. First born Classical signs in older children include limited abduction, asymmetric thigh folds, relative femoral shortening, a limp, positive Trendelenburg test, externally rotated foot, waddling gait. When a dislocation occurs, the femoral head is usually posterior and superior to the acetabulum. It is commonly associated with oligohydramnios, torticollis, metatarsus adductus, and calcaneal valgus. Postnatal (carrying babies with hips adducted and extended) Clinical Diagnostic Studies Ortolani Sign With the baby supine, hips and knees are flexed to 90°. The hips are examined one at a time by grasping the baby’s thigh with the middle finger over the greater trochanter and lifting and abducting the thigh while stabilizing the pelvis and opposite leg with the other hand. The test is positive when a palpable click is felt as the femoral head is made to enter the acetabulum. With the thumb on the lesser trochanter in the groin and the middle finger of the same hand on the greater trochanter laterally, gently apply pressure down on the knee while simultaneously applying lateral pressure with the thumb. The dislocatable hip then becomes displaced with a palpable clunk as the head slips over the posterior aspect of the acetabulum. While the hips and knees are flexed, a dislocated hip results in a lower knee position on the affected side. An imaginary line is drawn connecting the anterior iliac spine and the tuberosity of the ischium. If the tip of the greater trochanter is palpable distal to this line, the hip is 652 dislocated. Radiographic Diagnostic Studies Hilgenreiner line (Y line): A line connecting the most inferior portion of the acetabulum on both sides Ombrédanne line (Perkins vertical line): Draw a line perpendicular to Hilgenreiner line at the outer most aspect of the acetabulum Quadrant System After drawing the Hilgenreiner and Ombrédanne lines, the normal position of the developing femoral head should be in the lower medial quadrant. A dislocated hip will show at least part of the femoral head in the outer upper quadrant. Acetabular Index Draw a line extending through the most medial and lateral aspect of the acetabulum. The angle created between this line and Hilgenreiner line is the acetabular index. Shenton Curved Line (Menard Curved Line) Draw a line up the medial side of the femoral neck to continue up into the obturator foramen. This should be a continuous arc; with a hip dislocation, the obturator foramen is too low. In a normal hip, this line should extend through the lateral corner of the acetabulum. Von Rosen Method Draw the Hilgenreiner line and then draw a parallel line passing through the upper margin of the pubic symphysis. Draw a line connecting the center of the femoral head (C) with the lateral most aspect of the acetabulum (E). With early detection, this may be accomplished by specific pillow arrangement in the crib, double or triple diapering, a Pavlik harness, or a Spica cast. If undiagnosed by age 6 or 7, open reduction and eventually a hip implant may be required due to permanent arthritic changes. The lateral malleolus becomes displaced posteriorly off its articular talar facet, leading to a decrease in the bimalleolar axis.
Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis showed the rate to be 95% at 5 years purchase discount venlor online, 80% at 10 years order genuine venlor on-line, 65% at 15 years generic 75mg venlor amex, and 46% at 20 years cheap venlor 75mg with mastercard. Weight- bearing pain in the involved region with or without loose body symptoms may be present. As the knee is slowly extended, catching symptoms are felt at about 30° of fexion as the tibial spine abuts the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle. If the patient only has symptoms with higher-level activities, then they can be allowed to walk on the lesion if not symptomatic with these activities. Portals/Exposure • Standard arthroscopic anteromedial and anterolateral portals are used for the initial diagnostic arthroscopy. This method is typically recommend- ed due to the ease of obtaining a perpendicular approach compared with perform- ing arthroscopically. Step 2: Decision Making • If the lesion has subchondral bone and can be fxed: • If the lesion is stable (stage I), perform retrograde or antegrade drilling (see Proce- dure 15) or fx the lesion in situ. If this occurs, it can cially after initial treatment is rendered (see Procedures 12 and 13). The small at the time of defnitive cartilage management such as osteochondral allograft place- arthrotomy can be used to perform defnitive ment. Be aware that the patient commonly will have bone loss deep to the lateral femoral condyle (i. If K-wires are used, be sure they do • Bone grafting can be performed when not interfere with the desired screw location unless they are part of the cannulated necessary as previously described. Although bioabsorable screws are used broadly by other authors and offer the convenience of being left in place, we prefer metallic headless compression standard or miniscrews. Using a perpendicular angle, the wire is drilled into the center of the lesion and advanced about 3 cm to 4 cm (Fig. If the guidewire is within 2 mm of the posterior cortex, we recommend using a screw that is at least 2 mm shorter than the measured depth. If resistance is met, the screw should be removed and the hole should be re-drilled further into the bone. A dedicated tapered drill is pushed until the shoulder of the drill contacts the cannula (Fig. The headless tip of the screw is separated by 3 mm from the smooth shaft of the driver (Fig. Twenty-four patients (30 knees) were treated with a total of 61 bio-absorbable screws. Four patients required revision surgery for implant failure with pain and clinical locking symptoms. Seventy-fve percent of lesions were completely healed radiographically at 12 months and 98% were healed at 36 months. At a minimum of 2 years’ follow-up, 88% of the patients were rated as good or excellent. Graft survivorship was 90% at 10 years and, among those with retained grafts, 88% were rated good or excellent. Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A: Two- to 9-year outcome after autologous chondrocyte transplantation of the knee, Clin Ortho Rel Res 374:212–234, 2000. When combined with a tibial tubercle osteotomy, the results improved to 85% good and excellent. A retrospective review of 16 knees with focal articular defects treated with osteochondral auto- grafts. Careful evaluation of the previously menisectomized knee should be performed to interpret new injury versus postmenisectomized appearance. These scans can also help evaluate osseous overgrowth in the setting of a failed prior cartilage restoration procedure. As a guideline, the osteotomy is possibly not necessary in this setting if correcting less than 5°. A radiolucent extension is ap- • Fluoroscan plied to enable fuoroscopic examination. Alternatively, the patient can be placed • Allograft cortical wedges on the ipsilateral edge of the table to enable fuoroscopic access by abducting the leg. Any necessary concomitant procedures are done prior posterior cortex, as this is often an area of incomplete osteotomy. As a fuoroscopic guideline, the pin should traverse the superomedial tibial tuberosity at the junction of the patellar tendon insertion and end at the tip of the fbular head. Step 3: Performing the Osteotomy Cut • The cutting guide is placed over the two pins. An oscillating saw is used to cut the tibia anteriorly, medially, and posteriorly to within 1 cm of the lateral cortex (Fig. Fluoroscopy is used to make sure the oste- otomes do not violate the lateral cortex (Fig. Step 4: Plate Fixation • An anterior-to-posterior sloped plate of the opening size is placed in the space be- tween the two wedges. It is important to use fuoroscopy to make sure the screws do not pen- etrate the articular surface. Step 5: Bone Graft the Osteotomy Site • Allograft or autograft bone is inserted in the osteotomy site on both sides of the plate (Fig. Step 6: Closure • The tourniquet is defated, the knee is irrigated with saline, and hemostasis is achieved. The authors reported improve- ment in dynamic knee joint load and patient-reported measures of pain, function, and quality of life 2 years postoperatively. Nineteen patients were placed in a cast for 3 days and precast and postcast gait analysis was performed. There was a correlation between the reduction of pain and adduction moment (r = 0. Franco V, Cerullo G, Cipolla M, Gianni E, Puddu G: Open wedge tibial osteotomy, Tech Knee Surg 1:43–53, 2002. The authors analyzed the differences in angle accuracy and initial stability between closing and opening wedge high tibial osteotomy using cadaveric specimens. There was a tendency to over- correction with the closing wedge samples, but it was not statistically signifcant. In this study, the authors report on the use of a malalignment procedure while simultaneously per- forming a meniscal transplantation and articular cartilage repair. Patients demonstrated signifcant improvements in several validated patient-reported outcomes scores at a mean of 6. Hernigou P, Medevielle D, Debeyre J, Goutallier D: Proximal tibial osteotomy for osteoarthritis with varus deformity, J Bone Joint Surg Am. The results deteriorated over time and, after 10 years, 45% of the patients had excellent or good results. Seventeen knees with instability rather than osteoarthritis were treated with an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Functional results were evaluated based on the scoring systems by Lysholm and Tegner and using a 5-point analog scale to assess knee stability and satisfaction. Radiographic results showed a correction of the mechanical axis to about 46% toward the lateral side. Alternatively, the patient can be placed on the ipsilateral edge of the table to enable fuoroscopic access by abducting the leg. It is usually defated prior to clo- alignment with the patella facing straight up. The superior aspect of the trochlea can • Once the exposure is complete, the knee is extended and under fuoroscopic guid- be marked under fuoroscopy to avoid pin ance a guidewire is inserted mirroring the trajectory of the osteotomy (Fig. Step 3 Lateral Opening-Wedge Osteotomy • Use osteotome (instead of saw) to fnish the • A small oscillating saw is used to initiate the osteotomy on the lateral cortex (Fig. This notable gain in functional outcomes remained at 10-year follow- up for those with surviving osteotomy. Saithna A, Kundra R, Getgood A, Spalding T: Opening wedge distal femoral varus osteotomy for lateral compartment osteoarthritis in the valgus knee, Knee 21(1):172–175, 2014. The authors reported 25 patients (83%) had a satisfactory result, 2 (7%) had a fair result according to the Hospital for Special Surgery rating system, and 3 (10%) were converted to a total knee arthroplasty. Zarrouk A, Bouzidi R, Karray B, Kammoun S, Mourali S, Kooli M: Distal femoral varus osteotomy outcome: Is associated femoropatellar osteoarthritis consequential? Step 3: Injection of Synthetic Bone Substitute • Turn the fenestrated cannula so that the fenestrations face the articular surface to • After confrmation of proper cannula placement into the existing bone marrow lesion, facilitate injection of the bone substitute. Complications • Failure to fll the entirety of the area of the • No signifcant medical complications or reactions related to the synthetic bone sub- bone marrow lesion with bone substitute may stitute injection have been encountered to date.
As with the other symptom categories purchase venlor online pills, a differential diagnosis table can be constructed by combining the first and second steps in this process (see page 396 generic 75 mg venlor mastercard, Table 53) order venlor 75mg with amex. One can develop inflammation further by thinking of the smallest organism to the largest cheap 75 mg venlor otc. Considering the alveoli or lung would prompt recall of viral pneumonia, mycoplasma, psittacosis, bacterial pneumonia or tuberculosis, fungal pneumonia such as histoplasmosis, and parasitic infestation such as Pneumocystis carinii or Echinococcus. Now, with these diagnostic possibilities in mind, one can proceed with the interview asking meaningful questions that will help pinpoint the diagnosis. Functional Changes Functional changes take place because of an alteration in the physiology or biochemistry of an organ system. Consequently, a differential diagnosis can be best developed by using physiology or biochemistry. For example, a 24-year-old black woman presents with a 2-day history of jaundice and anorexia. Using pathophysiology, one can appreciate that an increased serum bilirubin may result from increased production of bilirubin as occurs in hemolytic anemia or decreased excretion of bilirubin by a diseased liver or obstructed biliary tree. Now, one can translate these categories into a list of possibilities using common causes as follows: 1. Increased production: sickle cell anemia, hereditary spherocytosis, acquired hemolytic anemia 2. Decreased excretion by a diseased liver: viral hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, cirrhosis 3. Decreased excretion due to bile duct obstruction: biliary cirrhosis, common duct stone, neoplasm 67 This list may be abbreviated, but it would provide the clinician with a basis for a meaningful interview of the patient and a logical laboratory workup. Thinking of increased production, one would ask about other symptoms of sickle cell anemia, such as joint pain, cramps, and the fever of sickle cell crisis. Thinking of bile duct obstruction, one would ask about previous attacks of right upper quadrant pain with fever and nausea or vomiting to substantiate a diagnosis of cholecystitis or common duct stone. In the workup, one would not forget to order a serum haptoglobin level to exclude hemolytic anemia or sickle cell preparation. One would also consider a gallbladder sonogram if the hepatitis profile were normal. Now, for a more extensive list of possibilities, a second step can be taken to develop functional changes like jaundice using etiologic categories. I—Inflammation would bring to mind viral hepatitis, amebic abscess, lupoid hepatitis, and acquired hemolytic anemia. N—Neoplasm would suggest hepatoma, carcinoma anywhere along the biliary tree, and metastatic carcinoma. T—Toxins would remind one of chlorpromazine, carbon tetrachloride, alcoholic cirrhosis, and so on. A third step can be taken to develop a table as has been done in the other categories of symptoms or signs previously discussed. Abnormal Laboratory Values As with functional changes, the principal basic sciences used to develop the differential diagnosis of abnormal laboratory values will be physiology and biochemistry. For example, the clinician has just received a complete blood cell count showing a reduction of hemoglobin and hematocrit. Using physiology, he or she can recall that anemia may develop from a decreased intake or absorption of iron, B12, or folic acid, a decreased production of red cells in the bone marrow, or increased destruction of red cells in the spleen or blood circulation. Now, the clinician can prepare a simple list of possibilities using common etiologies as follows: 1. The list of possibilities can be expanded by taking this sign to the second and third steps, as demonstrated above. This allows the student to test his or her ability to apply what has been learned. The methods outlined in this introduction now will be applied to each symptom and sign in the rest of this book. It is the hope of the author that the reader will eventually be able to apply these methods smoothly and efficiently in his or her daily practice of medicine. One other method that has assisted the author immensely in his quest for a diagnosis is prayer. It may be air, in which case the physician would think of air in the peritoneum with rupture of a viscus, particularly a peptic ulcer, or it may be air in the intestinal tract from focal or generalized distention, in which case the physician would recall gastric dilatation, intestinal obstruction related to numerous causes (see page 30), or paralytic ileus. The mass may be fluid, in which case the physician would recall fluid in the abdominal wall (anasarca), the peritoneum (ascites, page 28) and its various causes, and fluid (urine) accumulation in the bladder or intestine or cysts of other abdominal organs. The mass may be blood in the peritoneal wall, the peritoneum, or any of the organ systems of the abdomen. The mass may be a solid inorganic substance, such as the fecal accumulation in celiac disease and Hirschsprung disease. Finally, the mass may be a hypertrophy, swelling, or neoplasm of any one of the organs or tissues in the abdomen. The spleen may become massively enlarged by hypertrophy, hyperplasia in Gaucher disease, infiltration of cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia and myeloid metaplasia, or by inflammation in kala azar. The kidney rarely enlarges to the point at which it causes a generalized abdominal swelling in hydronephrosis, but a Wilms tumor or carcinoma may occasionally become extremely large. The bladder, as mentioned above, may be enlarged sufficiently to present a generalized abdominal swelling when it becomes obstructed, but a neoplasm of the bladder will not present as a huge mass. The uterus presents as a generalized abdominal mass in late stages of pregnancy, but ovarian cysts should be first considered in huge masses arising from the 70 female genital tract. It would be unusual for an aortic aneurysm to grow to a size sufficient to cause a generalized abdominal mass, but it is frequently mentioned in differential diagnosis texts. The above method is one method of developing a differential diagnosis of generalized abdominal swelling or mass. The female genital tract may be the cause of a huge abdominal mass in ovarian cysts, neoplasms, and pregnancy. Apply the same technique to the spleen and abdominal wall to complete the picture. There are, in addition, certain conditions that cause abdominal swelling that is more apparent than real. Approach to the Diagnosis What can be done to work up a diffuse abdominal swelling? It is important to catheterize the bladder if there is any question that this may be the cause. A flat plate of the abdomen and lateral decubitus and upright films will help in diagnosing intestinal obstruction, a ruptured viscus, or peritoneal fluid. Proceeding from the skin, the physician encounters the subcutaneous tissue, fascia, muscle, peritoneum, liver, hepatic flexure of the colon, gallbladder, duodenum, pancreas, kidney, and adrenal gland. The blood vessels and lymphatics to these organs and the bile and pancreatic ducts should be considered. Skin malformations do not usually cause a mass, but inflammation of the skin is manifested by cellulitis and carbuncles, and neoplasms are manifested as carcinomas, both primary and metastatic. A mass of the subcutaneous tissue may be a lipoma, fibroma, metastatic carcinoma, cellulitis, or contusion. The causes of hepatomegaly are reviewed on page 220, but if the mass is in the liver, it is usually hepatitis, amebic or septic abscess, carcinoma (primary or metastatic), contusion, or laceration. The hepatic flexure of the colon may be enlarged by diverticulitis, carcinoma, granulomatous colitis, contusion, or volvulus. The enlargement may be caused by cholecystitis, obstruction of the neck of the cystic duct by a stone causing gallbladder hydrops, 74 Courvoisier–Terrier syndrome caused by obstruction of the bile duct by carcinoma of the head of the pancreas, or cholangiocarcinoma. The pancreas may be enlarged in M—Malformations by congenital or acquired pancreatic cysts, I—Inflammation of an acute or chronic pancreatitis, N—Neoplasm, and T—Traumatic pseudocysts. A duodenal diverticulum is not usually felt as a mass, but a perforated duodenal ulcer may manifest itself by a palpable subphrenic abscess in the right anterior intraperitoneal pouch. Carcinoma or Wilms tumor of the kidney is frequently responsible for a large kidney. Carcinoma of the adrenal gland is not usually palpable until late in the disease process, but a neuroblastoma is palpable early. Aneurysms, emboli, and thromboses of the vessels supplying these organs usually do not produce a mass, but a thrombosis of the hepatic vein (the well-known Budd–Chiari syndrome) causes hepatomegaly, and emboli and thrombi of the mesenteric vessels of the colon may cause focal enlargement from obstruction and infarction. Ultrasonography will help determine if the mass is a gallbladder, liver, or pancreatic cyst. Then, one can determine which specialist to refer the patient to without hesitation. It is important to remember that whereas most masses will require referral to a specialist, fecal impactions and abdominal wall hematomas can be handled by the primary care physician.
Although positive microbial testing order 75mg venlor with visa, and especially skin fora bacteria trusted venlor 75mg, such as S purchase venlor toronto. Cellular Therapy all aspects of collection and processing and determine if procedures were not followed properly at any point in time order 75mg venlor with amex. In this case, since the donor’s temperature did spike toward the end of collection, there is a reasonable chance that the contamination source is a septic donor. Therefore, the laboratory should investigate if blood cultures were performed on the donor at the day of or the day after collection and see if those came positive for any bacteria. Based on this explanation the other choices (Answers A, C, D, and E) are incorrect. Are there any specifc requirements before releasing of products with microbial positive culture? There are no special disposition requirements for products with positive microbial culture B. There are no special disposition requirements for products with positive microbial culture from autologous donor only C. Only the processing laboratory medical director should review and approve the use of the products with positive microbial culture D. The laboratory medical director and the clinical physician should approve the use of the product with positive microbial culture and the recipient should be notifed and provide consent for its use E. As long as the appropriate antibiotic is used prior to transplant, there are no additional requirements to release products with positive microbial culture Concept: Since the processing facility is typically the frst one to receive the microbial culture results, it is the processing facilities’ responsibility to notify the collection facility and the clinical program of any microbial contamination of products. This notifcation should be done as soon as possible and preferably prior to product release for infusion. Freshly infused products usually do not have available microbial testing results prior to infusion, but cryopreserved products should at least have preliminary results. If fnal microbial testing results are not available prior to release, it can still be infused providing documentation of approval for release by both the processing facility and the transplant medical directors. If microbial testing is reported positive after infusion, it is important to have in place a method to alert the transplant physician and treat the patient with antibiotics. Answer: D—Infusion of contaminated products require the approval by both the processing laboratory and the clinical medical director. The clinical program is usually responsible for informing the recipient and document an urgent medical need prior to transplant. Based on this explanation the other choices (Answers A, B, C, and E) are incorrect. Medical procedures, such as splenectomy and plasmapheresis can be considered as well. Both delay and acute hemolysis are not considered as engraftment-related complication (Answers A and B). This results in the translocation of bacteria and endotoxin into the bloodstream, as well as the release of infammatory cytokines. If the patient fails steroid treatment, other medications, such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and antithymocyte globubin, may be attempted. Based on this explanation the other choices (Answers B, C, D, and E) are incorrect. It is due to suppression and dysregulation of the immune system, resulting in increased risk of infection and multi-organ dysfunction. Factors associated with peripheral blood stem cell yield in volunteer donors mobilized with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors: the impact of donor characteristics and procedural settings, Biol. Factors that infuence collection and engraftment of autologous peripheral- blood stem cells, J. Cost-effectiveness of repeated aphereses in poor mobilizers undergoing high- dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation, Leukemia 17 (4) (2003) 811–813. Hendrickson, Transfusion support for hematopietic stem cell transplant recipients, in: M. Anderlini, Peripheral blood stem cell versus bone marrow allotransplantation: does the source of hematopoi- etic stem cells matter? Flowers, National Institutes of Health consen- sus development project on criteria for clinical trials in chronic graft-versus-host disease: I. Flowers, National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: I. These steps start with appropriate donor screening and testing, proceed through tissue recovery, processing, packaging/labeling, storage, distribution, and implantation. Tissue tracking through this se- quence is critical to ensure the ability to respond appropriately to tissue recalls and adverse events. The entities that perform the various steps typically include an organization that recovers tissue from the donor, a tissue bank that processes the tissue, and a tissue service that manages the steps that take place at the implanting facility. This chapter provides a review of important concepts and regulations related to this process, with a focus on elements that are important for hospital-based tissue services. Organ transplants (Answer A) are regulated under the Health Resources and Services Administration in the United States. A hospital based tissue service must register if they perform which of the following functions? Receive corneas from a distributor and dispense for implantation within the same institution B. However, they have allowed some exceptions that are considered to not signifcantly affect the safety of the product for the patient who ultimately 18. These exceptions generally are in circumstances where the exempted function does not signifcantly increase the risk for the introduction, transmission or spread of communicable disease. Storage within an institution solely for implantation, transplantation, infusion, and/or transfer within that same facility is exempt from registration (Answers A and B), as is any processing of tissue for nonclinical research (or educational) purposes (Answer C). Recovery of reproductive cells for immediate transfer into a sexually intimate partner is also exempt (Answer D). Your hospital is considering whether their tissue service should be centralized or decentralized. Less monitored storage units required Concept: Management of transplantable tissues is a complex process. There are two different models that are used in hospitals, centralized and decentralized. Centralized tissue services have one site or section within the organization responsible for most or all of the functions of the tissue service, including vendor qualifcation, ordering, inspection, storage, distribution, and tracking of tissues. In decentralized services, these functions are the responsibility of the surgeon or surgical service. Answer: A—Faster access to the tissues by the operating room/clinic teams is an advantage of a decentralized service. The other choices (Answers B, C, D, and E) represent advantages of a centralized tissue service, which also include the following: • Decreased overall inventory at the facility • Less storage units to manage • Improves chance of obtaining preferred vendor pricing • Easier to track the identity of all patients who have received grafts in the event of a recall 4. Find a location for autologous tissue storage Concept: Tissue vendor qualifcation is the process of evaluating suppliers of tissue for their ability to provide a quality product. Characteristics of a quality product include its safety and effcacy, as well as availability. Qualifcation evaluates documentation provided by the vendor to support these claims, 426 18. Answer: A—Ensuring that the transplanting facility has a reliable, safe, and effcacious tissue supply is a key reason for supplier qualifcation. While the qualifcation may help to clarify the relationship of the vendor to other tissue distributors (Answer C), this is not its purpose. Tracking and storing tissues (Answer D) are not intrinsic parts of vendor qualifcation, but are vital responsibilities of the hospital tissue service. Existence of an order from the surgeon before bringing tissue to the operating room B. Tissue vendor notifcation of the identity of the patient receiving the tissue implant D. Answer: D—Investigation of adverse events has a direct impact on the safety of future tissue implants from that manufacturer. Communication between the surgeon (Answer A) and the tissue service, or vendor and the tissue service, is not mandated by the Standards. Although they do require consent prior to a procedure, the specifc detail of tissue implantation in the content of that consent is not required. Which of the following tissues can most easily be treated by the tissue vendor to reduce the infectious risk enough that the tissue may be considered sterile?