By U. Alima. Clarion University. 2019.
Efficacy and safety of entecavir and/or tenofovir for prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B recurrence post-liver transplant order 160mg tricor free shipping. Prevention of recurrent hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation: hepatitis B immunoglobulin purchase tricor toronto, antiviral drugs purchase tricor australia, or both? A treatment algorithm for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: an update buy tricor with a visa. Associations between hepatitis B virus mutations and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta- analysis. Adefovir Dipivoxil for the Treatment of Hepatitis B e AntigenPositive Chronic Hepatitis B. Sustained response of hepatitis B e antigen negative patients 3 years after treatment with peginterferon alpha 2a. Natural killer cell functional dichotomy in chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C virus infections. Virologic monitoring of hepatitis B virus therapy in clinical trials and practice: Recommendations for a standardized approach. Sleisenger & Fordtrans gastrointestinal and liver disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management 2006: pp. Antiviral therapy for adults with chronic hepatitis B: A systematic Review for the national institute of health consensus development conference. Role of hepatitis B virus genetic barrier in drug-resistance and immune-escape development. Long term efficacy of tenofovir monotherapy for hepatitis B virus monoinfected patients after failure of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Immediate listing for liver transplantation versus standard care for child-Pugh stage B Alcoholic cirrhosis: A Randomized Trial. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States era of vaccination. Tenofovir and entecavir are the most effective antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis B: A systemic review and Bayesian meta-analyses. Cirrhosis is present in most patients with hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: what we knew in 1981 and what we know in 2005. Early Changes in Natural Killer Cell Function Indicate Virologic Response to Interferon Therapy for Hepatitis C. Natural killer cells are polarized toward cytotoxicity in chronic hepatitis C in an interferon-alfa- dependent manner. Hepatitis C virions subvert natural killer cell activation to generate a cytokine environment permissive for infection. Excess mortality in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C treated with long-term peginterferon. Innate immune genes synergize to predict increased risk of chronic disease in hepatitis C virus infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 2011;108:5736-5741. Weight-related effects on disease progression in the hepatitis C antiviral long-term treatment against cirrhosis trial. Meta-analysis Shows Extended Therapy Improves Response of Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection. S-adenosyl methionine improves early viral responses and interferon-stimulated gene induction in hepatitis C nonresponders. The Association between Hepatitis C Infection and Survival after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation. Silymarin use and liver disease progression in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment against Cirrhosis trial. Management and treatment of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension: recommendations from the Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program. Predicting clinical and histologic outcomes based on standard laboratory tests in advanced chronic hepatitis C. Ethnicity and body mass index are associated with hepatitis C presentation and progession. Mallory-Denk Bodies Are Associated With Outcomes and Histologic Features in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C. Altered interferon-alpha- signaling in natural killer cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Production of infectious hepatitis C virus in primary cultures of human adult hepatocytes. Production of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus in Primary Cultures of Human Adult Hepatocytes. Review article: adherence to medication for chronic hepatitis Cbuilding on the model of human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral adherence research. Alcohol-related and viral hepatitis C-related cirrhosis mortality among Hispanic subgroups in the United States, 2000-2004. Interferon-based therapy for chronic Hepatitis C: current and future perspectives. Randomized, Placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone in nondiabetic subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; a proposal for grading and staging the histological lesions. Cytokines in the pathogenesis of Fatty Liver and Disease progression to steatohepatitis: Implications for treatment. Relationship of steatosis grade and zonl location to histological feaures of steatohepatitis in adult patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in morbidly obese patients and the effect of bariatric surgery. Atorvastatin and antioxidants for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The St Francis Heart Study randomised clinical trial. Adipocytes dysfunctions linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. High cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent predictor of the reduction in liver fat during a lifestyle intervention in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Placebo in nonalcoholic steatohepatits : insight into natural history and implications for future clinical trials. Nuclear factor- inhibition and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: inflammation as a target for therapy. Thiazolidinediones for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Promising but Not Ready for Prime Time. Influence of ethnicity on histological differences in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Effect of bariatric surgery on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: systematic review and meta- analysis. A meta-analysis of randomized trials for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an overview of prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment considerations. Meta-analysis: insulin sensitizers for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Therapeutic trials in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: insulin sensitizers and related methodological issues. Sleisenger & Fordtrans gastrointestinal and liver disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management 2006:1793-1802. Comparison of noninvasive markers of fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Pharmacological interventions for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adults and in children: A systematic review. Risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Selected practical issues in their evaluation and management. Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis among a largely middle-aged population utilizing ultrasound and liver biopsy: a prospective study.
It is expected that symptoms will disappear within six months once stressors have ceased discount tricor 160 mg without prescription. Minor depression trusted tricor 160mg, subsyndromal Depressive symptoms fall short of meeting the criteria for depression (e purchase tricor paypal. Parental depression is the most consistently replicated risk factor for depression in the ofspring purchase tricor 160mg without a prescription. Stressful life eventsespecially lossesmay increase the risk for depression; this risk is higher if children process loss events (or other stressful life events) using negative attributions. Data from community surveys suggest that depression comorbid with other disorders is frequent in children and adolescents. This is particularly the case in clinic settings because the likelihood of referral is a function of the combined Depression E. Patients with comorbid disorders show greater impairment than those with a single Masked depression diagnosis. For example, childhood depression comorbid with conduct disorder or substance abuse is Until the second half of the 20th century childhood associated with a higher likelihood of severe or violent ofending by age 24 than depression was largely when depression, conduct disorder or substance misuse occur alone (Copeland et believed not to exist. An epidemiological did not express itself study (Costello et al, 2003) showed that in a three-month period, 28% of the as such but through depressive equivalents. The practical implication is that establishing whether a somatic complaints, child shows symptoms of one condition (e. Sufering from depression was heavily a depressive episode not only increases the risk of further depressive episodes criticized and subsequently (homotypic continuity) but also of anxiety disorders (heterotypic continuity). By the 1970s researchers Depression is frequently comorbid with post-traumatic stress disorder (see began to show that chapter F. In particular, adolescents are vulnerable to depression and suicidality childhood depression did in the year following a traumatic event. Mechanisms include so-called survivor guilt exist and by and large has similar symptoms as in (that others died or were severely injured), complicated bereavement, problems in adults. While depressed carrying out tasks of daily living owing to impaired concentration or intrusive children may initially memories, and distress arising from chronic anxiety symptoms. New Zealands Dunedin Health and Development Study followed a cohort of 1,037 children from 3 to 26 years of age carefully tracking the development of psychiatric disorders, serious life events and other factors such as childhood mistreatment. That is, individuals with the short allele of this gene were more likely to develop depression in response to severe stressors or maltreatment during childhood, compared to those with the long allele exposed to the same experiences (Caspi et al, 2003). This fnding caused much excitement because it seemed to fnally prove a plausible gene-environment interaction in the causation of depression. However, a subsequent meta-analysis concluded that alterations in the serotonin transporter gene alone or in combination with stressful life events were not associated with an elevated risk of depression (Risch et al, 2009). Another meta-analysis published not long after (Karg et al, 2011) reached the opposite conclusion, while an additional prospective studyalso from New Zealandfailed to confrm such an association (Fergusson et al, 2011). Clearly more research is needed to resolve this tantalizing issue, which highlights the importance of replication before fndings are accepted, let alone used in clinical practice (e. Risk factors and their implications for prevention, detection or treatment Implications for prevention, detection or Risk Factor treatment Family history of depression Increase suspicion of depression when there is a positive family history of depression or suicide. Female gender Female adolescents who attend family doctors should be screened for depression. Puberty Depression is much more common in post-pubertal adolescents, particularly females. Chronic medical illness Exclude depression in patient with chronic physical illness or disability. Previous history of depression Relapse-prevention strategies integral part of treatment. Comorbid psychiatric disorder, Detection and treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Negative cognitive styles, low Detection of individuals at risk and targeted preventive self-esteem interventions. Bereavement and losses Detection of individuals at risk and targeted preventive interventions. Abuse, neglect Targeted preventive interventions such as parenting and abuse prevention programs. Negative parenting styles: Targeted preventive interventions such as parenting programs. Child and adolescent Detection of individuals at risk and targeted preventive offenders interventions. Institutionalised or fostered Detection of individuals at risk and targeted preventive children, refugees, homeless, interventions. She complained of having felt sad most of the time over the past 6 months and thinking about death a lot. Her decision to drink the poison had come after learning that she would have to repeat a year at school. She felt guilty because her poor school performance was causing a drain in her fathers fnances. Her family interpreted this as laziness and she often got scolded or beaten for leaving her chores unfnished. She also felt isolated from her classmates because of her poor school performance. Adolescents underlying personality features are amplifed when they are depressed. For example, those who are anxious tend to show higher levels of anxiety, avoidance and somatic symptoms when depressed (anxious depression), those who are externalizers are likely to show more hostility and irritability. Teir fears of abandonment can be accompanied by intense but usually brief episodes of sadness, anger, or irritability, which sometimes culminate in incidents of self-harm. Both a depressive disorder and borderline personality traits or disorder can coexist. On the other hand, a depressive episode can exaggerate personality characteristics suggesting that a personality disorder may exist when that is not the case. In the latter situation, the symptoms of personality disorder would remit once the individual has recovered from the depressive episode. Diagnosis of personality disorder should be provisional in a depressed adolescent and made on the bases of symptoms and functioning outside of the depressive episode. Depression and suicidal behavior Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in adolescents worldwide. For each completed suicide in adolescents, there are about 100 reported suicide attempts. Suicidal thoughts are common among the young; about one in six girls aged 12 to 16 reports having them in the previous six months (one in ten for boys) but rates in clinic samples are much higher. While suicide is the result of complex interactions in which individual and psychosocial factors as well as mental health problems play a role, there is considerable evidence that depression is the strongest individual risk factor (although there are exceptions; in some countries such as China, impulsivity seems to be the strongest risk factor). About 60% of depressed young people report having thought about suicide and 30% actually attempt suicide. The risk increases if: Tere have been suicides in the family The young person has attempted suicide previously Tere are other comorbid psychiatric disorders (e. Suicidal behaviors and risk need to be carefully evaluated in every depressed young person (see chapter E. Young people tend to present initially with behavioral or physical complaints which may obscure the typical depressive Symptoms of symptoms seen in adults. For example, depression Diffculty concentrating, should be considered in the diferential diagnosis in a 14-year-old boy with a six- Appetite disturbance month history of oppositional and conduct symptoms but no previous behavior (decrease or increase) problems. Similarly, depression may account for the recent academic failure of a Sleep problems 15-year-old girl who had previously topped her class. To make a diagnosis of depression in practice requires the presence of: Core symptoms Some associated symptoms (usually four should be present) Pervasiveness (symptoms must be present every day, most of the day) Duration (for at least two weeks) Symptoms must cause impairment in functioning or signifcant subjective distress, and Symptoms are not the manifestation of the efects of a substance or another medical condition. Irritability is the most ambiguous because it can be present in a wide range of psychiatric conditions (e. The outcome of the risk assessment will have an important bearing on management, for example in deciding the best setting (e. Informant To make a diagnosis of depression in practice Parents and teachers tend to under-estimate depressive feelings in requires: children while young persons may overestimate them. Additionally, reports the presence of core and questionnaire data from diferent informants often disagree.
The most common side effect of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor agents is the gastrointestinal agent purchase tricor visa. Incretin therapy action of stimulating insulin secretion and inhibiting glucagon secretion in the long run lowers fasting plasma glucose and fasting postprandial with a very low hypoglycaemic risk and no weight gain generic 160mg tricor free shipping. Both exenatide and liraglutide when used as add on to metformin order tricor 160 mg with amex, sulphonylurea and thiazolidinedione discount tricor 160 mg, result in reduced HbA1c, fasting and prandial glucose as well as body weight. Failure to 23(55) achieve one of these targets means the treatment should be reviewed as it may not be cost-effective. Regardless of how it is used, there was improvement in glycaemia without weight gain or even with a slight reduction in weight with very low risk for negative effects including hypoglycaemia. Thus, it reduces blood glucose level b increasing the outflow of blood sugar (glucose) in urine. The side effects however are: worsened polyuria, dehy- dration, osmotic diuresis, urinary tract infections and Volvo-virginal infections. Pa- tients already using diuretics and elderly patients should use this agent with cau- tion. A potential insulin therapys side effect of hypoglycaemia and weight gain, as well as patients own reluctance to monitor blood glucose and needle phobia, are the common rea- sons why some patients want to or try to avoid insulin therapy. Some patients also believe insulin therapy is a sign that they have failed in their treatment and would rather prefer to live with poor glycaemic control instead of starting insulin injection. Therefore, it is the duty of the health care professional to educate and help pa- tients accept and start insulin therapy in order to succeed. They reduce preprandial glucose level, minimize the level of fasting glucose and weight gain with a low risk of both nocturnal and prebreakfast hypo- glycaemia. This is achieved by basal insulins function of indicating the amount of insulin required to minimize the livers production of glucose and maintain good glucose levels between meals. It is given before meal as a replacement therapy for basal insulin, or as an add- on therapy to the basal insulin. This has a quicker onset effect with a shorter acting time, hence producing a great reduction in the glycaemic levels. The fast /rapid acting prandial insulin should be taken during meals, while the short acting prandial insu- lin should be injected 30 minutes before meal. There is an increased risk of hypo- glycaemia if prandial insulin is not injected at the right time. Types of prandial insu- lin analogues include: insulin aspart (novolog), glulisine (apidra) and lispro (Hu- malog). Premixed Insulin Therapy is a premixed combination of a fixed dose of basal and regular or analog rapid-acting insulin used twice or thrice daily with meals, if great- er control is required. Patients may, however, switch back to the basal-bolus ther- apy if an excellent or desired glucose control is not achieved after two or three premix insulin injections. Premixed insulin also has a high risk of hypoglycaemia if not used at the right time. In addi- tion, authors of this thesis wants to find out how effective this treatment is in Fin- land as compared to the United States and how nurses can assist patients in the management/treatment of diabetes. After the treatment of diabetes in both countries what are the differences in the outcome?. Literature review can also be a simple summary of infor- mation published on a particular subject within a period of time. The discussed published information is coordinated in a pattern that combines both summary of the sources important information and the reconstruction or reorganization of the whole information. Literature review is a five step process, with the first step being identi- fying the subject of the literature review or selecting a topic for review. The second step is to search for the literature of the review topic using journals, books and publications and / or computers as well as appropriate electronic databases with keyword searches or alternative keywords with similar meanings (synonyms) that might evoke further information on the topic. This is done first by an initial overview of the articles, which mostly is done by reading the abstracts or summarises at the be- ginning of the papers. It is followed by a more critical and systematic review of the content of the chosen articles. In order to write a good re- view after reading and analysing the literature, findings must be presented in a clear and logical way while considering the research questions at every decision. This will create a complete background together with the information written about the cur- rent knowledge of the research topic or study reviewed. This search was limited to full text sources only in Finnish and English languages. The keywords used to search for information were diabetes, diabetes type 2, diet therapy and drug therapy. Diabetes: This is a condition or a disease in which the blood sugar, or blood glu- cose levels are too high. Diabetes when not properly controlled or managed can lead to major damage of the body systems. Diabetes type 2 is also known as adult onset diabetes and it is usually occurs as o result of physi- cal inactivity and excess body weight. The diet regulated includes daily amount as well as the kind of food and drink tak- en in by a person (The free dictionary 2015 a). It is the use of drugs in the treatment of disease (The free dictionary 2015 b) 7. The authors of this thesis chose to write about the diet and medication therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The focus was on the diet recommendations for type 2 diabetes patients, as well 30(55) as the different kinds of type 2 diabetes drug/medication therapy, their effect and when to initiate them on patients. This helped to achieve useful and up-to-date information for the thesis and also reduce the number of result articles to a manageable size. The data search was restricted by choosing only full text articles, published literature and the articles had to be peer reviewed. Inclusion Criteria Exclusion Criteria Published literature Non- published literature Language: English and Finnish Language: Other languages Free articles Non- free articles Articles with abstract Articles with no abstract Published in year 2004 or later Published before 2004 Peer reviewed articles Non- peer reviewed articles Full text articles Non- full text articles Scientific articles 31(55) 7. The basic inclusion and exclusion, such as full text articles published from 2004 were marked beforehand. Also, after reading the abstract and the introduction, 29 articles were included from the 88 articles. Furthermore, 30 articles were included after reading the abstracts of those 82 articles. Finally, after thoroughly reading through and reviewing the 30 chosen articles, 19 were excluded and 10 were found to be relevant to the thesis topic and were included in the final thesis. Inductive content, which is recommended if there is not enough former knowledge about a subject or if the knowledge is fragmented (Elo & Kyngs 2008), is the content analysis process used in this thesis. Generally, there are three main phases in either the deductive or inductive content analysis process, namely: preparation phase, organisation phase and reporting of 36(55) results phase. The next phase is the organisation phase, where the data collected are read, un- derstood, interpreted and coded in a valid and reliable way. According to Polit & Beck (2004 as referred to by Elo & Kyngas 2008), in this stage, in order to become totally submerged into the data, it is important to read through the material several times and note the key question when reading the data and material. The reporting of results or found information is the last phase of content analysis (Elo & Kyngas 2008). Data re- lated to diabetes, diabetes type 2, drug therapy and diet therapy were searched and the articles or materials related to the topic were selected and read. The data was then organised by making notes and headings in the text while reading was going on. The chosen articles were read through several times focusing on points needed to provide information for the thesis writing. Questions stated by Polit & Beck (2004 as referred to by Elo & Kyngas 2008)) were noted and some an- swered. As many headings as necessary were written down in the margin to de- scribe all aspects of the content and sub-categories and generic categories were freely generated from these headings. Lifestyle modification General guidelines on the treatment and manage- Oral antidiabetic agents ment of type 2 diabetes. Similarities and differ- ences in the drug therapy between Finland and the Insulin therapy. The results also show the general guidelines necessary for nurses, patients and their caregivers (e. The quality of life is also essential to assess the need for chang- es in therapy and to ensure successful outcomes. Continuous nutrition self- management education and care needs to be available for individuals with diabe- tes.
In the case of intersphincteric abscess tricor 160 mg without prescription, the patient will be too tender for adequate examination order tricor 160mg without prescription, and examination under anesthesia will be necessary generic 160 mg tricor amex. Shaffer 378 Management of the abscess consists of incision and drainage buy tricor visa, and this can usually be accomplished under local anesthesia. For the one-half to two-thirds of patients who go on to develop a fistula in ano, a fistulotomy, or laying-open, with curettage of the track is required. Nonhealing or recurrence of the fistula usually indicates a failure to destroy the gland of origin. In performing fistulotomy, the utmost attention must be paid to the anatomic relationship between the fistula track and the sphincter mechanism. Excessive division of muscle contained within the fistula can lead to partial or complete fecal incontinence. Pilonidal Disease This is an acquired condition related to hair follicles in the natal cleft. Skin openings form in the midline (primary pits), from which abscesses and secondary tracks and openings may form. It commonly presents as an acute abscess, but may also present as a chronic sinus, usually with multiple openings. The abscess stage of pilonidal disease is treated by incision and drainage, usually under local anesthesia. After the abscess has healed, some of these patients will require definitive surgery to deal with the primary and secondary tracks. The optimal treatment is very controversial; a simple and effective method consists of opening the anterior wall of the tracks and suturing the edge of the track to the skin edge. Introduction The term acute hepatitis refers to recent, sudden injury to the liver. Some patients however rapidly progress to fulminant liver failure, or the disease gradually evolves into chronic hepatitis with inflammation persisting beyond six months. Most acute viral hepatitis infections generally produce quite mild and non-specific symptoms. Right upper quadrant abdomen discomfort is common and is due to hepatic swelling causing distension of the hepatic capsule. Marked abdomen pain is not a feature; when present, this warrants consideration of an acute abdominal process that should include surgical evaluation of the intra- abdominal contents, including the hepatobiliary system and the entire gastrointestinal tract. The convalescent stage is usually 7 to 10 days, with the total illness lasting two to 6 weeks. An occasional case will progress to acute liver failure, requiring liver transplantation. It is important to provide post- exposure prophylaxis to close contacts and family members to avoid spreading the viral infection. The key features of the different types of viral hepatitis are summarized in Tables 2 and 3. Prevention and Treatment of Acute Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C General o Need for good sanitation o Vaccine synthesized and hygiene. This enteric viral infection is a common disease worldwide and tends to cause mild self-limited illness. Transmission is via the fecal-oral route: poor public hygiene in many developing countries and in other settings, sexual and household contacts. Recent North American outbreaks have been associated with the ingestion of contaminated strawberries imported from developed countries and of raw clams and oysters from polluted water. The hepatitis A virus is present in the stool of patients during the prodrome or pre-icteric phase until about two weeks after the onset of jaundice. Parenteral transmission is also possible, especially in intravenous drug users, but is much less common. Travelers to endemic areas, children in daycare, health care professionals and homosexual males are at increased risk of contracting Hepatitis A. In developing countries, the infection occurs in childhood so that most children have experienced exposure to the virus. In developed countries with good sanitation, population immunity to hepatitis A infection is low in children and young adults. As increased symptom severity correlates with older age, when hepatitis A infection does occur, these adults tend to be symptomatic. The incubation period is approximately 4 weeks and the acute illness lasts 2 to 3 weeks. There is a brief period of viremia during the acute phase of infection, and thus parenteral transmission can occur in intravenous drug users sharing needles during this phase. Fulminant liver failure causing death or requiring liver transplantation has occurred infrequently: in the elderly and in those with underlying chronic liver disease. The advent of fulminant liver failure necessitates hospital admission for supportive care and preparation for liver transplantation. There is no evidence for a chronic carrier state or the development of chronic liver disease. The presence of an elevated IgM antibody indicates recent infection; this clinical test diagnoses an acute infection. Treatment The illness is usually self-limited and there is no specific anti-viral therapy for acute hepatitis A. Prevention In the community, the prevention of hepatitis A is dependent on good sanitation and hygiene. At the time of outbreak, information regarding hygienic measures and immunoprophylaxis should be provided to family members or persons in close contact with the infected individual. This public health intervention is important to prevent the spread of hepatitis A infection. Two biologic agents can prevent disease: passive immunization with intramuscular polyclonal serum immune globulin and the hepatitis A vaccine. Regular immune globulin preparation is effective in preventing hepatitis A, best used for passive immunoprophylaxis. Hence, it can be used for pre-exposure prophylaxis in travelers to endemic countries requiring short-term, immediate protection, and also in post- exposure prophylaxis of household and sexual contacts of an affected individual. The preparation is safe for short-term prophylaxis in children under the age of two and in pregnant women traveling to endemic areas. Hepatitis A vaccines contain either purified, formalin-inactivated vaccine or live attenuated virus. These vaccines are safe and effectively provide immunity against hepatitis A virus. Administered in two doses, the current vaccines are recommended in patients above the First Principles of Gastroenterology and Hepatology A. Shaffer 385 age of two who are inhabitants of communities with high rates of hepatitis A, are at risk of occupational exposure, or are traveling to endemic countries. Because of the high efficacy of the vaccine, post-treatment testing for the development of antibodies is not routinely required. Although the vaccine is very safe, there are no data regarding the safety of the vaccines in children less than 2 years of age, or in pregnant women. The most common side effect of vaccination is pain at the site of injection (18-39%). The vaccine and immunoglobulins can be given together for post-exposure prophylaxis. Hepatitis B infection from blood transfusion has decreased dramatically since the implementation of routine screening and the use of volunteer blood donors. Percutaneous or mucous membrane exposure to infectious blood or body fluid can lead to acute infection in any person lacking immunity against the virus. The clinical presentation of acute hepatitis B ranges from subclinical to the rare case of fulminant hepatitis (0. Most acute infections clear completely and patients develop immunity against the virus. The rare occurrence of fulminant liver failure requires intensive support and consideration for liver transplantation. The eventual goal is to eliminate hepatitis B infection through a successful global vaccination program. Administration should occur within 12 hours following a clear-cut exposure, such as an inadvertent needle- stick injury or sexual contact. This virus exists as different genotypes; any effect of such viral factors on the natural history of attendant liver disease is uncertain. Transfusion-related cases account for 10%, yet only 1 out of every 3 million units transfused now result in hepatitis C infection.