By E. Osko. Indiana Institute of Technology.
Daily activities can be scored according to estim ated energy expenditure (Table 101 dostinex 0.25 mg with mastercard. High surgical risk com bined w ith interm ediate clinical risk factors or m inor clinical risk factors plus low functional capacity dictate the need for non- invasive testing order generic dostinex online. It is vital to understand that the positive and negative predictive value of non-invasive tests (e dostinex 0.5mg sale. Very low or very high levels of ischaem ic heart disease dim inish the value of these tests 0.25mg dostinex with mastercard, w hich are m ost useful in groups w ith inter- m ediate levels of disease. Preoperative assessm ent of patients w ith know n or suspected coronary artery disease. Association of peri- operative m yocardial ischem ia w ith cardiac m orbidity and m ortality in m en undergoing noncardiac surgery. Preoperative assessm ent of patients w ith know n or suspected coronary artery disease. Developm ent and validation of a Bayesian m odel for perioperative cardiac risk assessm ent in a cohort of 1081 vascular surgical candidates. Throughout the preparation of this report, the creative effort was conducted with great independence. The ideas expressed herein are not necessarily those of, nor endorsed by, the American Dental Association. This document is a vital tool for dentistry as the profession grows and evolves in these beginning years of the 21st century. The information and recommendations in this report provide the tools we need to mold, paint and shape the strong future that all of us want for our profession and certainly for our patients. As we take up this task, we should be mindful of the legacy developed by the actions of those who came before us. Our strong public image came not from outside forces but from dentists–all giving, sacrificing and working for the good of the public and the profession. Together, we can determine the wisest steps to take and then commit ourselves to the actions necessary to strengthen dental education, research, practice, access to care for the underserved, our role in governmental affairs, and other key aspects of this profession. It is equally difficult to discern the problems that will confront our profession. The 2001 Future of Dentistry report attempts to create a vision of challenges that are likely to emerge in the coming years. The report is based upon reasonable evaluation and interpretation of current information and observable trends. This project, while commissioned by the American Dental Association, is not a policy document of the organization. It has been designed to reach out to all parties interested in the betterment of health through- out the world and, more specifically, to those who are able to contribute to improving the delivery of dental care in order to achieve the optimal oral health of the public. The many who contributed to this report––giving enormously of their time and expertise––hope that future generations will look back on it as a landmark document. It represents their commitment to excellence and an understanding that the profession and its partners must set aside parochial agendas to fulfill their social responsibility. The authors want the report to be read and believe firmly that all who do so will develop a bet- ter understanding of the issues facing the dental profession in its pursuit of excellence in serving the public. It is meant to stimulate thoughts and actions that will move the dental profession forward into the new century. In order for it to have the lasting impact, the report must become a living document that can be amended and redesigned as circumstances evolve. It is clear that in this complex and ever- changing world, isolation is not a viable option. Plans for the future must take into account that advances in the diagnosis and treatment of oral disease are being made throughout the world. Sophisticated informational technology will be emerging to benefit both the public and dental professionals. Instead, interaction can occur almost instantly among persons separated by continents. Political will, social responsibility and the willingness to set aside cultural differences are also necessary. The dental profession has a bright and excit- ing future that can be achieved only by a commitment to think creatively, eliminate barriers, and forge new alliances. All people, whatever their status, what- ever their age, wherever they live, should have the right to good oral health. It requires a clear-eyed assessment of the past, of what impeded progress at one point, what propelled it at another. It also requires an appreciation of an axiomatic truth: that tomor- row belongs to those who prepare for it today. With that in mind, the dental profession has begun the process of evaluation that, given the complexity of the world in the 21st century, will ensure the most desirable future for dentistry and the public it serves. Beyond its own borders, the profession must respond to a range of out- side influences, including government and commercial interests. Satisfaction of the oral health needs of the public becomes the ultimate goal of the process. Professional organizations have a wider responsibility than just their own memberships. They also have a responsibility to a trusting public and must be in a position to meet any new developments with confidence. Looking to the future and predicting what will confront the dental profession are formidable tasks. Dentists, as scientists, cannot purport to have visionary capabilities or to be fortunetellers. Thus, the observations and predictions contained in this document are based on measurable trends that can be extended legitimately into the years ahead. Clearly, much must be done to guarantee the most desirable future for the profession and the public. To achieve that goal, all issues that touch dentistry must be identified and addressed. Its authors have been committed to the belief that the duty of the profession and its partners require them to put aside any personal agendas and to focus on the future, in seeking to fulfill their responsibility to protect the viability of a respected profes- sion and effectively serve a deserving public. The 1983 Future of Dentistry Report In 1983, the American Dental Association published a report on the future of dentistry that explored the state of the profession at that time and offered predictions on the challenges dentistry would likely face in the years ahead. That first report also provided a number of broad recommendations and laid the ground- work for a strategic planning process that continues to this day. As the future became the present, many of the forecasts contained in the 1983 document proved accurate; others did not. More important than the document itself was the profession-wide self-examination it kindled. The complex act of preparing the report forced the profession to explore its mission and structure and to address difficult issues and confront them with its best wisdom. The charge was essentially the same this time as last: Look unflinchingly into the future; recommend actions and activities that will help the profession meet its responsibilities in the years ahead. The 1999 House of Delegates approved the plan and com- missioned preparation of a new Future of Dentistry report. Assessing the sheer enormity of the project before it, the committee decided to separate the task into log- ical parts. Panelists were to pinpoint trends; to separate what is known from pure speculation; and to offer reasonable, logical predictions for the future, defined as the next 5 to 15 years, depending on the area of interest. Finally, each panel was to forge recommendations aimed at helping the profession meet future challenges. The report was written by several authors and reflects the style of those authors. During the editing process, some standardization of format was developed, but no attempt was made to develop a uniform style. This final report, almost two years in the making, is meant to serve the entire dental community and the public. Thus, the insights and recommendations are directed to assist any individual or organization which seeks to ensure and protect the oral health of the public. Throughout the preparation of this report, the creative effort was conducted with great inde- pendence. The demand that the report be honest, objective and unresponsive to exter- nal pressures was scrupulously observed.
From his Preface on Doctors published with The Doctor Macduff was from his mother’s womb Dilemma () Untimely ripp’d purchase dostinex 0.5mg mastercard. No man can be a pure specialist without being in From his Preface on Doctors published with The Doctor’s the strict sense an idiot discount 0.5 mg dostinex with amex. Dilemma () Attributed To give a surgeon a pecuniary interest in cutting An asylum for the sane would be empty in off your leg purchase dostinex 0.25 mg on-line, is enough to make one despair of America cheapest dostinex. Attributed From his Preface on Doctors published with The Doctor’s Youth is a wonderful thing. He may be hungry, weary, sleepy, run down by Attributed several successive nights disturbed by that Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem instrument of torture, the night bell; but who ever without creating ten more. We think no more of the condition of a doctor attending a case than the condition of a ﬁreman at a ﬁre. From his Preface on Doctors published with The Doctor’s Percy Bysshe Shelley – Dilemma () English poet If I refuse to allow my leg to be amputated, its There is no disease, bodily or mental, which mortiﬁcation and my death may prove that I was adoption of vegetable diet and pure water has not wrong; but if I let the leg go, nobody can ever infallibly mitigated, wherever the experiment has prove that it would not have mortiﬁed had I been been fairly tried. Operation is therefore the safe side for Queen Mab Notes the surgeon as well as the lucrative side. From his Preface on Doctors published with The Doctor’s Dilemma () William Shenstone – It does happen exceptionally that a practising English poet doctor makes a contribution to science... John Shepherd – From his Preface on Doctors published with The Doctor’s Dilemma () British surgeon A serious illness or a death advertises the doctor Every surgeon should be something of a physician. From his Preface on Doctors published with The Doctor’s Dilemma () Richard Brinsley Sheridan – When men die of disease they are said to die from natural causes. When they recover (and they mostly Irish-born British dramatist do) the doctor gets the credit of curing them. I had rather follow you to your grave than see you From his Preface on Doctors published with The Doctor’s owe your life to any but a regular-bred physician. Sir Bloomﬁeld Bonnington’s cry in The Doctor’s Dilemma () Charles Scott Sherrington – There is no love sincerer than the love of food. The then we are supposing the brain to be much more sound body is a product of the sound mind. The man with toothache thinks everyone happy Man on his nature whose teeth are sound. Cancer, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prognosis, Ackerman and Misalliance Preface, ‘Parents and Children’ del Regato Mosby () · . Our doctor would never really operate unless it American Journals of Obstetrics and Gynecology : () was necessary. They must want it and Attributed be prepared to do their share and to cooperate fully in whatever health program a country develops. Medical and Surgical Practitioner’s Memorandum Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society : () Disease creates poverty and poverty disease. These are highly social not only to the mothers and ancestors but also to functions and we must look at medicine as the obstetricians and midwives. Phoenix Books, New York Oxford () () We must also keep in mind that discoveries are At all times disease isolated its victims socially usually not made by one man alone, but that because their lives are different from those of many brains and many hands are needed before a healthy people. Oxford University Press, Most dangerous to society was an unskilled Oxford () surgeon. In pre-Hitler Oxford () Germany it was estimated that the country lost No doctors live on in the memory save the more women from septic abortion than from exceptional beings who enriched the healing art tuberculosis. Phoenix Books, New York Quoted in Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied () Sciences : () Illness, in general, is not a good literary subject. The Death of Humane Medicine () Men leave arms and legs behind, severed by the frost, and the cruel cold cuts off the limbs already The pursuit of health is a symptom of unhealth. In: Cured to Death, Arabella Pure water is the world’s ﬁrst and foremost Melville and Colin Johnson. London () Adam Smith – Scottish economist Viscount Simon – Science is the great antidote to the poison of Lord Chancellor of England enthusiasm and superstition. Medicolegal judgment () Alexander Smith – Scottish poet To have to die is a distinction of which no man is James Young Simpson – proud. Allen and Unwin, London () Italians used to ﬁnd their mate at a distance, on average, of 600 yards. British anaesthetist Quoted in The Human Pedigree George Allen and Unwin, London () My hands are then henceforth, washed of chloroform and devoted to ether. Sunday Times July (), commenting on the case of Whilst a disease can be described and diagnosed, Dr Harold Shipman, mass murderer we can dare not to suspect to cure it by any manner of means. Homer William Smith – Quoted in: Dictionary of Medical Eponyms (nd edn), p. The Death of Humane Medicine () All Trivia ‘Last Words’ · Sydney Smith – A Frenchman will sooner part with his religion British churchman and essayist and wit than with his hair, which indeed, no consideration will induce him to forego. Travels through France and Italy, ‘Letter from Paris, October , Letters to Arthur Kinglake ’ There is only one rule of professional conduct. To know what kind of a person has a disease is as A Memoir of the Revd Sydney Smith (quoted by Lady Holland) essential as to know what kind of disease a person has. Death must be distinguished from dying, with Journal of Medical Education : () which it is often confounded. Crito (quoted by Plato) Letter to Dr Holland, June () Base men live to eat and drink, and good men eat One evil in old age is, that as your time is come, and drink to live. Apoplexy is an affection of the Everyone who is born holds dual citizenship in the head; paralysis is nervousness; gangrene is pain kingdom of the well and in the kingdom of the sick. Illness as Metaphor Letter to Mrs Holland, January () What is childhood but a series of happy delusions? Storr) Great discoveries which give a new direction to currents of thought and research are not, as a Merrill C. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal : () One look is worth a thousand listens. Since appeared all the uncouth gravity and supercilious illness is man’s reaction to disease, it is a time self-conceit of a physician hot from his studies. Bartlett’s Unfamiliar Quotations (Leonard Louis Levinson) Spanish Proverbs David Spodick Bleed him and purge him; if he dies, bury him. We alter physiology, arrest inﬂammation, and remove Science is madness if good sense does not cure it. For the past years, British doctors have had Hospital Doctor November () privileged arrangements for accounting for themselves; privileged not only among other health care workers but also among all other Sir James Calvert Spence – occupations. Quoted in The Great Doctors—A Biographical History of Principles of Biology Pt I, Ch. Few seem exercise will sooner or later have to ﬁnd time for conscious that there is such a thing as physical illness. The Conduct of Life, Address at Liverpool College, Attributed December () · Issac Starr –? A corporate sector in health care is also likely to aggravate inequalities in access to health care. Too much emphasis on standards is a cause of Proﬁt-making enterprises are not interested in decay; often it is a psychological defense treating those who cannot pay. The voluntary mechanism set up by persons no longer hospital may not treat the poor the same as the rich, productive. Journal of Clinical Investigation : () The Social Transformation of American Medicine Introduction, p. Basic Books, New York () Paul Starr – Sir Richard Steele – Professor of Sociology, Harvard University Irish-born English essayist and dramatist Modern medicine is one of those extraordinary There are so few who can grow old with a good works of reason: an elaborate system of grace. The Social Transformation of American Medicine Introduction, Gertrude Stein – p. Basic Books, New York The medical profession is unconsciously irritated () by lay knowledge. Irish-born English writer and churchman The Social Transformation of American Medicine Introduction, p. Basic Books, New York There are worse occupations in the world than () feeling a woman’s pulse. In America, no one group has held so dominant a A Sentimental Journey position in this new world of rationality and I live in a constant endeavour to fence against the power as has the medical profession. Basic Books, New York Tristam Shandy Dedication () Imagine to yourself a little, squat, uncourtly ﬁgure If the medical profession were merely a of a Doctor Slop, of about four feet and a half monopolistic guild, its position would be much less perpendicular height, with a breadth of back and secure than it is. The basis of its high income and a sesquipedality of belly, which might have done status, as I have argued all along, is its authority, honour to a serjeant in the horse-guards.
Chest radiography shows an What abnormality is demonstrated in the pulmonary enlarged heart and normal lung parenchyma buy dostinex 0.5mg visa. Magnetic resonance imaging of the renal arteries lisinopril 40 mg qd purchase dostinex with visa, clonidine 0 purchase dostinex cheap. She has old patient was diagnosed with “heart failure” in another good peripheral pulses and has no edema order 0.5 mg dostinex with amex. A 24-year-old man is referred to cardiology after an episode of syncope while playing basketball. Which of the following congenital heart defects recollection of the event, but he was told that he collapsed causes ﬁxed splitting of the second heart sound? He believes his father’s cause of death was sud- den cardiac death and recalls being told his father had an V-83. His elec- hypertrophy occurs over time and maintains cardiac out- trocardiogram shows evidence of left ventricular hyper- put in the face of increased preload. You suspect hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as the are adverse effects of left ventricular hypertrophy except cause of the patient’s heart disease. C and D with a rumbling quality, with an opening snap heard best at the left-ventricular apex. A patient is noted to have a crescendo-decrescendo the patient to be in sinus rhythm with evidence of left mid-systolic murmur on examination. Finally, the patient is whether or not to correct this patient’s valvular heart dis- asked to perform a Valsalva maneuver and the murmur ease, which of the following tests is indicated? You are asked to give medical clearance for a 75-year- trolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (HbA1C of 8. He also has diet-control diabetes mel- is 154/87 mmHg and fasting plasma glucose is 130 mg/ litus. He denies any current or prior cardiac pril, hydrochlorothiazide, and atorvastatin. Based on our Physical examination is unrevealing with the exception of current understanding of the metabolic syndrome, treat- a right carotid bruit. An electrocardiogram is unremark- ing which of the following underlying conditions is the able with the exception of premature ventricular contrac- primary approach to treating this disorder? Which of the following statements about cardiovas- cular disease in the United States is correct? Which of the following disorders is not associated with ventricular tachycardia as a cause of syncope? Death secondary to cardiovascular disease remains higher in men compared to women. While age-adjusted cardiovascular deaths are declin- ing in the United States, hospital admissions for car- V-90. A 20-year-old female is seen in the emergency de- diovascular disease and congestive heart failure partment with symptoms of severe periodic headaches, continue to rise. Women are more likely than men to present with of feeling light-headed with standing. Her blood pressure symptoms of chest pain with nausea, vomiting, and on presentation is 240/136, with a heart rate of 92. A 40-year-old male with diabetes and schizophrenia patient has mild blurring of the optic discs without hem- is started on antibiotic therapy for chronic osteomyelitis orrhage. His osteomyelitis has developed just un- the best medication for the management of this patient’s derlying an ulcer where he has been injecting heroin. Which of the following patients with aortic dissec- tion can be managed without surgical or endovascular in- A. Potassium and extends to below the left renal artery and with a baseline creatinine of 1. A 41-year-old male with an ascending aortic dissec- sents to the hospital with 30 min of chest pain. He reports tion that extends past the left common carotid ar- that over the past 2 weeks, he has developed his typical an- tery after an automobile accident ginal symptoms of chest pressure radiating to his jaw and C. A 42-year-old male with Marfan’s syndrome with a left arm with progressively less exertion. He has been using distal aortic dissection beginning just below the left sublingual nitroglycerin more frequently. His other medi- subclavian artery and an aortic root of 53 mm cation includes a beta blocker, aspirin, and lovastatin. A 56-year-old male with a descending aortic dissec- for a blood pressure of 140/88 mmHg; a heart rate of 110/ tion that encompasses the origin of the renal and il- min, and a respiratory rate of 25/min. He has bilateral iac arteries with rest claudication crackles halfway up both lung ﬁelds and has a 3/6 systolic murmur that radiates to his axilla. The pulmonary, abdominal, ex- drome and narrow complex tachycardia tremity, and neurologic examinations are normal. A 28-year-old male with known preexcitation syn- echocardiogram demonstrates a normal ejection frac- drome and wide complex tachycardia tion without an effusion. What is the prior history of heart disease most appropriate treatment for this patient? His care provider is measurements concerned about pneumonia, so a chest radiograph is B. On the chest radiograph, the aorta appears tor- and stent tuous with a widened mediastinum. Consult interventional radiology for placement of ing hit in the chest with a ball while playing lacrosse. A 44-year-old woman presents to the emergency The murmur is best heard at the lower left sternal bor- room complaining of acute onset of chest pain. The murmur does not radiate describes the chest pain as 10/10 in intensity, with a to the neck. With passive elevation of the legs, the mur- lying ﬂat and better when sitting upright. Tricuspid regurgitation decrease in macrovascular complications (coronary ar- tery disease, stroke) in patients with diabetes and dyslipi- V-104. Insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycemia are im- demia except portant when creating a treatment program for the meta- A. Metformin is more effective than the combination of weight reduction, dietary fat restriction, and in- V-108. Pulsus paradoxus can be described by which of the creased physical activity for the prevention of diabe- following statements? Metformin is superior to other drug classes for in- asthma exacerbations in which the negative intra- creasing insulin sensitivity. Thiazolidinediones, but not metformin, improve in- with a resultant increase in systolic pressure during sulin-mediated glucose uptake in muscle. Pulsus paradoxus has not been described in patients ducing the incidence of diabetes mellitus. Pulsus paradoxus describes the ﬁnding of dimin- myopathy is offered a heart transplant from a 20-year-old ished pulses during inspiration, when the peripheral female with brain death after a skiing accident. A drop in systolic pressure during inspiration of vised about if he decides to accept the heart? Risk of rejection of transplanted organ when there is an exaggeration of the normal decrease C. A 35-year-old woman is admitted to the hospital with malaise, weight gain, increasing abdominal girth, V-106. The swelling in her legs has gotten baseline, his exercise tolerance is normal, but he has lim- increasingly worse such that she now feels her thighs are ited his activity in the past few days due to fear of exacer- swollen as well. She was treated at that time with normal blood pressure, heart rate is 104 beats per chemotherapy and mediastinal irradiation. On physical minute, respiratory rate 22 breaths per minute; oxygen examination, she has temporal wasting and appears saturation 91% on room air. The sound is short and abrupt and is heard lar hypertrophy, and T-wave inversions in V2 and V3. A strong parental history of sudden cardiac death as room complaining of shortness of breath, chest pain, and a presenting history of coronary artery disease in- dizziness. An estimated 50% of all cardiac deaths are sudden aspirin and lay down, but the symptoms worsened.
These reports are used for informing and developing coverage decisions dostinex 0.5mg on-line, quality measures generic 0.5 mg dostinex visa, educational mate- rials and tools best order for dostinex, guidelines buy dostinex 0.5mg low price, and research agendas. Comparative Effectiveness Research Due to numerous advances in biomedical science, clinicians and patients often have a plethora of choices when making decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and pre- vention, but it is frequently unclear which therapeutic choice works best for whom, when, and in what circumstances. The purpose of this research is to improve health outcomes by developing and disseminating evidence-based information to patients, clinicians, and other decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under speciﬁc circum- stances. Deﬁned interventions compared may include medications, proce- dures, medical and assistive devices and technologies, diagnostic testing, behavioral change, and delivery system strategies. This research necessitates the development, expansion, and use of a variety of data sources and methods to assess comparative effectiveness and actively disseminate the results. It also can inform the health choices of those Americans who cannot or choose not to access the health care system. Clinicians and patients need to know not only that a treatment works on average but also which interventions work best for speciﬁc types of patients (e. Policy makers and public health professionals need to know what approaches work to address the prevention needs of those Americans who do not access health care. This information is essential to translating new discoveries into better health outcomes for Americans, accelerating the application of beneﬁcial innovations, and delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Patients increasingly and appropriately want to take responsibility for their care. Therefore healthcare providers have a responsibility to provide comparative infor- mation to enable informed decision-making. This patient-centered, pragmatic, “real world” research is a fundamental requirement for improving care for all Americans. Comparative effectiveness differs from efﬁcacy research because it is ultimately applicable to real-world needs and decisions faced by patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. The results of such studies are therefore not necessarily gener- alizable to any given patient or situation. But what patients and clinicians often need to know in practice is which treatment is the best choice for a particular patient. Comparative effectiveness has even been called patient-centered health research or patient- centered outcomes research to illustrate its focus on patient needs. The project aims to evaluate genetic tests and other genomic applications currently in transition from research to clinical use. Of the three recommendations, the one investigating gene expression proﬁling in breast cancer is the furthest along. There is limited evidence of analytic validity, limited evidence of clinical validity but no direct evidence, i. In spite of these concerns, there is a positive balance with potential beneﬁts versus potential harms. Although there was no evidence to sug- gest that genomic tests for ovarian cancer have adverse effects beyond those com- mon to other ovarian cancer tests, i. This work will help accelerate the achievement of the 2010 predictions of routine genetic testing, personalized medicine and improved quality of patient care. New initiatives covered under the updated Roadmap involve metagenomics, epi- genetics, protein capture, proteome tools, and phenotypic tools. Coordination groups will consider drafting new efforts in pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics. Major new roadmap initiatives that have been approved for funding include a Human Microbiome Project to characterize microbial content in the human body; an epigenetics and epigenomics study that measures changes in gene expression and gene function; and a pilot study for a genetic connectivity map that could help dem- onstrate linkages between diseases, drug candidates, and genetic manipulation. Participation in this network – based on universal standards for information security and ethical use – means that all stakeholders must adhere to strict security measures for accessing, utilizing and transmitting patient data. Working with academic experts, companies, doctors, patients, and the public, they intend to help make personalized medicine a reality. An example of this collabora- tion is an effort to identify new investigational agents to which certain tumors, iden- tiﬁed by their genetic signatures, are responsive (Hamburg and Collins 2010 ). The institutions receiving funding include Duke University, the University of Florida, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and the University of Pennsylvania. It contains both raw and curated information and presents data and information accumulated in the ﬁeld and contributed by researchers both within and beyond the network. Other points of emphasis over the next 5 years will include encouraging develop- ment of databases designed to handle genomics and other biomedical research information. This program will enable new and renewal applications for an earlier pro- gram called the Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base. The goal is to support a program that will present complete, comprehensive, and current knowledge in pharmacogenomics, backed by critical datasets, and the most compel- ling literature. It should support and extend modern research approaches that could help to achieve the goal of using pharmacogenomics to help guide physicians’ treat- ment and therapy decisions. Research topics could include a variety of efforts including comprehensive listings of known genes and gene variants that predict drug responses; deﬁnitions of drug responses; current knowledge of genotype- phenotype relationships; accessible views of drug pathways of metabolism, disposi- tion, and sites of action; drug structures, structure-function relationships, and alterations in variants; data-sharing capabilities for addressing questions that can be solved through harmonizing new and existing data sets; possible sources for reagents and models; and other efforts. The new funding will support 14 scien- tiﬁc research projects and 7 network resources, and it will fund development of research methods to study and use pharmacogenetics in rural and underserved pop- ulations. Researchers could describe needs for advances in genomics and proteomics that could be used to help doctors develop personalized drug treatments and dosages. White papers covering personalized medicine could include descriptions of the challenges of cost-effective tools and techniques for genomics and proteomics research, technologies used in identifying biomarkers, drug and vaccine delivery systems, and better methods of integrating and analyzing biological data when it is combined with environmental and patient history information. The new program, called Clinical Proteomics Program, starts with laboratory analyses of cells from tissue samples taken from cancer patients. Normal cells, pre-cancerous cells and tumor cells from a single patient are then isolated using tools that maintain the original protein pattern of the cells. The protein patterns of tumor cells taken from a patient after treatment is analyzed to determine how a particular therapy affects the protein pattern of a cell. Additionally, the partners hope the program will allow for earlier diagnosis and improved understanding of tumors at the protein level. The project’s goal is to establish and evaluate a systematic, evidence-based process for assessing genetic tests and other applications of genomic technology in transition from research to clinical and public health practice (see later in this section). It is a global collaboration of individuals and organizations committed to the assessment of the human genome variation’s impact on population health and how genetic information can be used to improve health and prevent disease. There are some collaborative programs between the academia and the industry that are relevant to personalized medicine. It is beyond the scope of this book to provide an up-to-date directory of all the academic institutes that are involved in personalized medicine. This technology combines the results of genetic testing for a speciﬁc patient with scientiﬁc knowledge on how genetic variations impact drug metabolism. First, the patient visits the physician’s ofﬁce and has his or her blood drawn and a cheek swab analysis. Once a patient has been tested and an initial report issued, the physician can easily query Signature Genetics regarding any additional drugs under consideration for that patient. Through this process, the physician receives informa- tion speciﬁc to both the drug and the patient before actually prescribing the new drug. By combining a functioning biobank facility with modern microarray technology, Coriell has created the ideal environment for this innovative project. The project also aims to understand why people often respond differently to treatments and to discover presently unknown genes that elevate a person’s risk of cancer and other complex diseases. Participants who wish to will be able to view poten- tially medically actionable information about their genomic proﬁles through a secure web-browser-based system. A variety of educational material on genomics and medicine will also be provided through streaming video and downloads. This initiative will take an evidence-based approach to determine what genome informa- tion is clinically useful while ensuring that patient privacy is vigorously protected. The study seeks to enroll 10,000 participants with an ultimate goal of 100,000 indi- viduals. This high-capacity facility consists of state-of-the-art equipment and receives samples from laborato- ries around the world requesting genotyping, microarray and gene expression anal- ysis. Biobanking repositories provided support to the Human Genome Project, a world- wide program to map the entire human genome, and to the International HapMap Universal Free E-Book Store 616 20 Development of Personalized Medicine Project, a project providing an efﬁcient tool to identify disease causing genes. The collaborators intend to enroll 2,000 Cooper employees and their families in the project. The activities included focused research in genomic predictors of diseases; the design of future clinical practice models including personalized health planning; and strategies to tackle ethical and legal issues. This genomic-based medicine col- laboration had several goals including creation of a futuristic personalized health plan and medical record including genomic information to predict health risks and outcomes from therapy.