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For example purchase coreg 25mg on-line, if there is occipital node enlargement generic 25mg coreg, one would look for ringworm generic coreg 12.5mg without prescription, dermatitis of the scalp order coreg 12.5mg overnight delivery, furunculosis, pediculosis, and cellulitis. However, infectious mononucleosis and rubella may begin with enlargement of these nodes. The presence of fever should make one think of infectious mononucleosis, brucellosis, dengue fever, toxoplasmosis, and Still’s disease, among other diseases. In these cases, consider infectious mononucleosis, strep throat, and Kawasaki disease. A chest x-ray and flat plate of the abdomen may be helpful in diagnosing generalized lymphadenopathy. An x-ray of the long bones or a bone scan may identify metastatic carcinoma, and an x-ray of the hands may identify sarcoidosis. If an infectious process has been ruled out, biopsy of the local node may turn up metastatic carcinoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and sarcoidosis. A tuberculin skin test should be done; a Brucellergen skin test and Kveim test may also need to be done. Imaging studies of the abdomen and pelvis and the mediastinum are occasionally necessary. Before ordering these, consultation with a hematologist or an infectious disease specialist would be prudent. False melena may be induced by iron ingestion, bismuth ingestion, charcoal ingestion, red wine ingestion, and many other substances. The presence of hematemesis should prompt a search for esophageal varices, peptic ulcer, gastritis, and many other conditions. For a more thorough discussion of this topic, one is referred to the section on hematemesis (page 236). The presence of abdominal pain and heartburn should make one think of duodenal ulcer, esophagitis, gastritis, gastric ulcer, mesenteric embolism or thrombosis, and Meckel’s diverticulum. However, the absence of abdominal pain would be more consistent with a blood dyscrasia or hereditary telangiectasia. Recently, a more sensitive test for blood in the stool called the fecal immunochemical test has been introduced. If all of these tests are negative or still inconclusive, referral to a gastroenterologist should be made. The gastroenterologist will probably perform panendoscopy and resolve the diagnostic dilemma. A radioactive scan following intravenous chromium or technetium-99 may show the site of bleeding in obscure cases. When bleeding continues despite therapy, mesenteric angiography, or splenic venography may assist in the diagnosis. Looking over the list of drugs he is on, you fail to find anything that will likely cause delirium or memory loss. However, he has had frequent loose stools post-operatively and examination of his extremities discloses a maculopapular eruption. You suspect pellagra and begin him on a course of vitamin B complex which clears his symptoms. A history of trauma would suggest concussion, intracranial hematoma, and posttraumatic epilepsy, among other conditions. Chronic alcoholism is associated with Korsakoff’s syndrome and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Pellagra, beriberi, myxedema, lupus erythematosus, uremia, and liver failure may be associated with memory loss. Extrapyramidal symptoms may be found in Wilson’s disease, Huntington’s chorea, and Parkinson’s disease. Long tract signs may be found in multiple sclerosis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, general paresis, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. When there is memory loss without focal neurologic signs, Alzheimer’s disease and Pick’s disease should be considered, as well as malingering. Ultimately, a spinal tap may need to be done to look for multiple sclerosis and central nervous system lues. A lumbar isotope cisternography may need to be done to rule out normal pressure hydrocephalus. The clinician should remember that iron deficiency anemia, hypothyroidism, lupus erythematosus, and cirrhosis of the liver are just a few of the systemic conditions that may present with menorrhagia. A gynecologist will often be able to resolve the diagnostic dilemma with a good pelvic examination. Laparoscopy, culdocentesis, endometrial biopsy, and dilation and curettage are just a few of the diagnostic tools at his/her disposal. These findings would suggest Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, and Laurence–Moon–Bardet–Biedl syndrome. Findings of deformities or enlargement of the skull should suggest rickets, microcephaly, hypertelorism, oxycephaly, and hydrocephalus, among other things. The findings of hepatosplenomegaly suggest galactosemia, Hurler’s disease, and Gaucher’s disease, among other diagnostic possibilities. Sturge–Weber syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, and cretinism may present with skin changes. Tay–Sachs disease, congenital syphilis, Arnold–Chiari malformation, and cerebral diplegia are just a few of the causes of mental retardation that may present with other neurologic signs. Chromosomal analysis may detect Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, mongolism, and other disorders. These findings should suggest intestinal obstruction, and in that case one would look for strangulated hernia, adhesions, volvulus, mesenteric embolism or thrombosis, and other disorders. Blood in the stool along with hyperactive bowel sounds would suggest a mesenteric embolism or thrombosis or intussusception. The clinician should keep in mind that systemic diseases may present with meteorism. These include diabetes mellitus, lobar pneumonia, typhoid fever, acute pancreatitis, and steatorrhea. Spinal cord trauma and transverse myelitis are among the many disorders that may present with meteorism. On examination, you note a slight amount of vaginal bleeding but no other abnormalities. When you bring this to her attention, she admits she’s had irregular periods and spotting between periods for some time now. An enlarged uterus suggests pregnancy, fibroids, retained secundina, hydatiform mole, choriocarcinoma, endometrial carcinoma, or endometrial polyp. An adnexal mass suggests a granulosa cell tumor, salpingitis, or ectopic pregnancy. Cervical lesions that cause metrorrhagia are cervicitis, carcinoma of the cervix, and cervical polyp. If the patient has been taking estrogen or progesterone, withdrawal or breakthrough bleeding should be considered. Most types of anemia, but particularly iron deficiency anemia, are associated with metrorrhagia. Look for an adrenal or ovarian neoplasm and polycystic ovary syndrome in these cases. If all of these questions fail to turn up any positive answers, then dysfunctional uterine bleeding, collagen disease, or a coagulation disorder should be strongly considered. A Pap smear and vaginal smear and culture for gonorrhea and chlamydia should also be done. Alternatively, a trial of cyclical estrogen and progesterone hormones may be done, if dysfunctional bleeding is suspected before a referral is made. A gynecologist may be able to resolve the diagnostic dilemma with a good pelvic examination or, if that is unsuccessful, may perform laparoscopy or culdocentesis. A dilation and curettage or office endometrial biopsy are among the additional procedures at the gynecologist’s disposal. An endocrinologist may be of help in deciding whether pituitary or ovarian dysfunction is responsible.
Identify the distal ileum and the segment selected for ileostomy by applying a single marking Pitfalls and Danger Points suture to that segment of the ileum that will form the proximal limb of the loop ileostomy buy generic coreg on line. This procedure can also be performed If the ileum is not transected at the proper point to make the laparoscopically (see Chap buy cheap coreg 6.25mg line. Separate the rectus ﬁbers with a large hemostat and make a similar vertical incision in the perito- Operative Strategy neum (see Figs effective coreg 12.5 mg. Properly performed generic 12.5 mg coreg amex, this technique is a good method for After this step has been accomplished, insert a Babcock achieving temporary but complete diversion of the intestinal clamp through the aperture into the abdominal cavity. Because the entire mesentery is preserved, the the ileum so the proximal segment emerges on the cephalad blood supply to the stoma is optimized. Then grasp the ileum with the Babcock accomplished by a local plastic procedure or by local resec- clamp and deliver it through the abdominal wall with the aid tion and anastomosis. Position the ileum so the afferent or proximal limb of ileum enters the stoma from its cepha- C. The end result should be a domi- nant proximal stoma that compresses the distal stoma See Chap. The use of temporary laparo- wall and then pass a small catheter around the ileum and scopic loop ileostomy in lumbosacral burns. An improved technique for temporary Division of the ileum and suturing of the ileostomy may be diverting ileostomy. Comparison of loop versus end ileostomy for fecal diversion after restorative proctocolectomy for closed. Chassin† Indications tube cecostomy is that when the cecostomy is no longer needed, removing the tube frequently results in spontaneous Cecostomy is an alternative to resection when there is closure. The skin-sutured cecostomy described here provides impending perforation of the cecum secondary to a colonic more certain decompression but requires formal closure. Colonoscopic decompression is a better the attempt to avoid fecal contamination of the abdominal alternative for cases of pseudo-obstruction. Cecostomy is cavity during this operation, the cecum is sutured to the used only when other methods have failed. Preoperative Preparation Documentation Basics Perioperative antibiotics Indications and ﬁndings Nasogastric suction Fluid resuscitation Operative Technique Pitfalls and Danger Points Skin-Sutured Cecostomy Cecostomy may fail to produce adequate decompression. Incision Limited exploration through a small incision may miss an Make a transverse incision about 4–5 cm long over area of perforation elsewhere. McBurney’s point and carry it in the same line through the Fecal matter may spill into the peritoneal cavity. A simple tube cecostomy Rule out patches of necrosis in areas beyond the line of inci- is constructed in a manner analogous to a Stamm gastros- sion by carefully exploring the cecum. Even a large tube is easily plugged by without the danger of rupturing the cecum, insert a 16-gauge fecal debris, and this kind of cecostomy primarily allows needle attached to an empty 50 cc syringe, which releases decompression of gas and liquid. Mucocutaneous Suture Make a transverse incision in the anterior wall of the cecum 4 cm long (Fig. Place a properly ﬁtted ileostomy bag over the cecostomy at the conclusion of the operation. Insert a second purse-string suture outside the ﬁrst, using the same suture material. Then make a stab wound in the middle of the purse- string suture; insert a 36 F soft rubber tube into the suture and for about 5–6 cm into the ascending colon. Tie the ﬁrst purse-string suture around the rubber tube; then tie the sec- ond purse-string suture so as to invert the ﬁrst. It is helpful if several large side holes have been cut ﬁrst in the distal 3–4 cm of the rubber tube. Bring out the rubber tube through this stab wound and suture the cecum to the peritoneum around the stab Fig. Do not close the skin wound; insert several 4-0 nylon prevent any fecal spillage from reaching the peritoneal cavity interrupted skin sutures, which will be tied 3–5 days after (Fig. Nevertheless, peristomal sepsis is much less common than one would anticipate with an operation of Manage the skin-sutured cecostomy in the operating room this type. The tube cecostomy requires repeated irrigation with saline to prevent it from being plugged by Further Reading fecal particles. Percutaneous cecostomy in the management of organic fecal incontinence in children. Diagnostic laparoscopy and laparoscopic cecos- Complications tomy for colonic pseudo-obstruction. Laparoscopic The major postoperative complication of this procedure is assisted percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy in children with defe- peristomal sepsis, as the possibility of bacterial contami- cation disorders (with video). Chassin† Indications With advanced colonic obstruction, be aware of the possibil- ity of impending cecal rupture for which transverse colos- Relief of obstruction due to lesions of the left colon tomy is an inadequate operation unless the cecum is seen Diversion of fecal stream to be viable. Complementary to left colon anastomosis (largely super- ceded by loop ileostomy for this purpose) Operative Strategy Preoperative Preparation Choice of Procedure Before performing a colostomy for colonic obstruction, con- Loop ileostomy is a better alternative for many patients. The application of laparoscopic techniques the position of the transverse colon relative to a ﬁxed may be limited if signiﬁcant bowel distension or hemody- point, such as a coin placed over the umbilicus. Impending Rupture of Cecum Pitfalls and Danger Points For routine cases of left colon obstruction, with the diagnosis conﬁrmed by barium enema radiography, the colon may be Performing colostomy in error for diagnoses such as fecal approached through a small transverse incision in the right impaction or pseudo-obstruction (which might respond to rectus muscle. Exceptions to this policy should be made for transverse colon, not in the redundant sigmoid colon, patients with a sigmoid volvulus, those suspected to have jejunum, or even the gastric antrum. When impending rupture is suspected, direct visual inspection of the cecum is mandatory. Make the transverse incision sufﬁciently long to accomplish accurate identiﬁcation of the Contrary to widespread medical opinion, it is not necessary transverse colon. The incision will be partially closed, leav- to construct a double-barreled colostomy with complete ing a 5-cm gap to accommodate the colostomy. A long (5 cm) longitudinal incision on the antimes- laparotomy for removal of colon pathology, begin the trans- enteric wall of the transverse colon, followed by immediate verse incision 2 cm to the right of the midline and extend it maturation, allows fecal diversion due to prolapse of the pos- laterally. This results in functionally separate distal and surgeon from using a long midline incision for the second proximal stomas. Incise the rectus muscle transversely over the hemostat with coagulating electrocautery Documentation Basics for a distance of 6 cm. Then enter the abdomen in the usual manner by incising the posterior rectus sheath and peritoneum. Identiﬁcation of Transverse Colon Operative Technique Even though the transverse colon is covered by omentum, in the average patient the omentum is thin enough that the colon can be Incision seen through it. If Make a transverse incision over the middle and lateral thirds colon is not clearly visible, extend the length of the incision. Ideally the length Exteriorize the omentum and draw it in a cephalad direc- of the skin incision equals the length of the longitudinal inci- tion; its undersurface leads to its junction with the transverse sion to be made in the colon (5–6 cm). At this point, make a window in the overlying is necessary to identify the level at which the transverse omentum so the transverse colon may protrude through the colon crosses the path of the right rectus muscle. To solve this problem, apply two Babcock clamps 2 cm apart to the anterior wall of the transverse colon. Insert a 16-gauge needle attached to a low-pressure suction line into the colon between the Babcock clamps (Fig. After gas has been allowed to escape through the needle, the colon can be exteriorized easily. Make a 5- to 6-cm longitudinal incision along the anterior wall of the colon, preferably in the taenia (Fig. Make a stab wound through the skin at a point about 4 cm caudal to the midpoint of the proposed colostomy. By blunt dissection pass a glass or plastic rod between the subcutaneous fat and the anterior rectus fascia, proceeding in a cephalad direction. This technique permits the subcutaneous fat to be protected from postoperative contamination by stool and greatly simpliﬁes application of the colostomy bag. An alternative to the solid rod is a thick Silastic tube, 6 mm in diameter, such as a nonperforated segment of a closed-suction drain tube. However, because this tube is soft, it must be ﬁxed to the skin of the two stab wounds with nylon sutures. Stapled Distal Segment In some cases where absolute certainty about fecal diversion Fig.
The lesion may cause significant expansion of the mandible and even erode through the cortex discount 25 mg coreg with visa, with extension into the surrounding oral mucosa purchase coreg now. Erosion of the roots of adjacent teeth is pathognomonic and indicates aggressive behavior of the tumor buy cheap coreg 25mg. An encapsulated order coreg paypal, well-circumscribed lesion, it can appear radiolucent, radiopaque, or with mixed opacity depending on the degree of calcification. Solid malignant lesions Ameloblastic carcinoma Although rare, malignant transformation of an ameloblastoma does occur. Most carcinomatous involvement of the mandible is secondary to invasion from the surrounding mucosa. Multiloculated cystic lesion (arrow) with- trates a cystic lesion (arrows) within the body of the in the left mandible. Although most are radiolucent with ill-defined borders, blastic lesions may occur in carcinoma of the prostate. The most common primary sites for mandibular metastasis are kidney, lung, and breast. A circular, partially calcified lesion within the right mandibular body (arrows) that causes significant (arrow) within the mandible. Osteomyelitis Rare in healthy individuals due to the early administration of antibiotics. Chronic lesions demonstrate a variety of bone reactions, including focal radiolucent and radiopaque areas. Low-grade infections can cause sclerosing osteomyelitis, in which bone is deposited along the osseous cortex and trabeculae. Vascular and neurogenic lesions Central giant cell Most often found in the anterior mandible of girls or young women, this lesion is believed to be within granuloma the spectrum of altered vascular and reactive responses within bone. It initially appears as a small, (Giant cell reparative cyst) unilocular radiolucent lesion that can mimic an ontogenic cyst. There may be expansion of the lesion, root resorption, and erosion or modeling of the cortex, and the lesion may cross the midline. Arteriovenous Although uncommon in the jaw, it may occur in the ramus and posterior body of the mandible. Others Central hemangioma, neurofibroma, and schwannoma appear as well-defined soft-tissue structures with well-corticated margins. Note the abnormal soft- the right mandibular body, which represents a metastasis tissue ossification (arrowhead). Fibrous dyplasia and Paget’s disease appear the same in the mandible as they do in other parts of the body. Osteonecrosis from radiation therapy can demonstrate both sclerotic and lytic components with poorly defined borders and enlarged trabecular spaces. Expansile lesion containing numerous unorganized bone trabeculae (arrow) within the left mandibular body. Reprinted with permission from “Unusual Lesions of the Cerebello- (1980;137:397–407), Copyright ©1980, Radiological Society of pontine Angle: A Segmental Approach” by F Bonneville et al, North America Inc. Reprinted with permission from “Paragangliomas of the Jugular Rao (Eds) with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company, ©1983. Imaging the logy (1989;153:583–587), Copyright ©1989, American Roentgen complications of bone marrow transplantation in children. Reprinted with permission from “Imaging Decisions in the ©1990, Grune & Stratton Inc. Reprinted with permission from “Intraventricular Mass Lesions of ©1990, Grune & Stratton Inc. Reprinted with permission from “Intraventricular Neurocytoma: Williams & Wilkins Company. Reprinted with permission from “Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Society of North America Inc. May be associated with pain and tender- chyma and oriented along the path of the ducts. May be multilocular or multiple and associated with other findings of fibrocystic disease. When multiple masses are present, it is essential that each be evaluated individually so that a well-defined carcinoma is not missed. Often contains calcification usually appears in adolescents and young women varying from punctate peripheral deposits to before age 30. After menopause, the tumors undergo mucoid degeneration, hyalinize, and become calcified. Occasionally, myxoid dege- neration in the mass can cause retraction of sur- rounding tissue and irregular, poorly circumscribed margins that simulate malignancy. Structures such as veins, trabeculae, and the like cannot be seen “through” the lesion. Medium-density lesions have density similar to that of surrounding parenchymal structures (veins, trabeculae, and so forth), which can be seen “through” the lesion. Because they are well demar- cated and have a soft consistency, they can be mistaken for benign tumors both radiographically and clinically. They are typically located either deep in the breast or in the areolar or subcutaneous areas. Irregular margins can suggest underlying malignancy, although the border can be sharp, and there can even be a halo sign. Mucinous (mucoid; Low-density mass because of the presence of Represents approximately 3% of all breast maligna- colloid) mucin. Enlargement from a mediolateral view in an elderly woman with a palpable mass shows a large, lobulated mass of low density partially surrounded by a halo. Solitary papillomas usually develop in the retroareolar ducts; multiple papillomas gener- ally occur in the peripheral ducts. Most papillomas are not detectable on mammography; intraductal papillomas may be shown on galactography. Overlying skin edema although hematomas may develop in patients who is usually present in the acute stage if the are anticoagulated or have clotting abnormalities. The combination of hemorrhage and edema more commonly results in an ill-defined mass or a diffuse area of increased density. Although the mammo- graphic findings simulate carcinoma, a history of trauma suggests a conservative approach. Follow- up examinations show gradual decrease in size or even disappearance of the lesion. Large, low-density, obtained during galactography shows contrast material outlining a lobulated mass lobulated mass with distinct margins. More easily detected in a dense, fibroglandular breast than in the fatty replaced breast. Lipomas can be mimicked by fatty lobules, which are partially surrounded by trabeculae and Cooper’s ligaments. Loss of normal architecture with lack of orientation of glandular elements toward the nipple results in an appearance resembling a slice of sausage. Well-delineated, 3-cm area of lucency with a arose at a recent biopsy site shows a dense lesion associated surrounding capsule (arrow). An indistinct portion of the margin of the tumor may indicate invasion into adjacent fibroglandular tissue. Coarse calcification in the mass suggests that it probably represents a large fibroadenoma. The mass contains fat as well as ovoid soft-tissue masses and is surrounded by a thin capsule (arrow). May present as noma is far more common than a contralateral multiple masses or as diffuse involvement of the metastasis. Skin lesions/ Medium-density lesion that is extremely well Epidermoid inclusion cyst, subcutaneous cyst, normal variants defined (as a result of air trapped around the neurofibroma, mole, keratoses, retracted nipple. Often bilateral and multiple, although if it does not have a definable lucent and almost always located in the superolateral hilum and measures 1 cm or more a biopsy may be quadrant. Benign condi- tions associated with intramammary (as well as axillary) nodes include rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, psoriatic arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Me- diolateral oblique projection shows two circumscribed tumors near the chest wall.